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The Britifli Empire 

I N 



The HISTORY of the Difcovery, Settle- 1 
ment, Progrefs and prefent State of all the 


' O N T H E 

Continent and Iflands o{ America. 


Being an Account of the Country, Soil, Cli- 
mate, Produd and Trade of them, Viz. 

Vol. I. 



New- England J 








Vol. 11. 

St. Lucia, 
St. Vincents, 



St. Chrifiophers, 




T'he Bahama 

I Bermudas 


With Curious Maps of the feveral Places^ done from 
I the neweft Surveys. By Herman Moll, Geographer, 

" " ■ 

LONDON^ Printed for John Nkhoifoji at the King's Arms in 
Little Brjtajtjy Benjanwi Tooke at the Middle-TempkG.ite^ 
Fleetftreety and Richard Piirker and Ralph Smith under the 
^hzz3L o^ the Royal Exchange. 1708. ,^^ 

^ . . -^^^ \ 

This J?^^;^ belongs to 
jT^^ New-En GLAND-iL;>^r^ry 

Begun to be collcdled by Thomas Prince j 
upon his entring Harvard-College^ July 6. 
1703 J and was given h^ ^ xid d^-yMct c^i 

La /cjL^t ir{// Ocl.f. ^M>'PU rerrict^t. 

1 J i k' 4f ■«>>' •S^* / 






Camhridgejhire^ Eiq; 


Othing had been more prepofterous^ 
than to have addrefs'd the Hiftory 
of the Britijh V/eft-lndks to a Gentle- 
man who has no Intereft there. Such 
a one would have look'd upon this Defign wdth 
that Contempt or Neglcd which is ever the 
Eflfedof ' .^?nce and Prejudice. 

But you^ wif^ who are fq confiderable a Pro- 
prietor, both in England and Barbados^ are 
the beft Judge how far this Tr.eatife may be 


ufefiil and entertaining to the Englijh Reader 
in tliis Ifland and that. Your Authority will be 
fufficient to proted it, as well in Jtmerka as in 
Uttrope. For none in England will imagine 
I durft offer Falficies (or^9i<^ to you, who from 
your own Knowledge could eafilv deteft them > 
and none in the Plantations will be fevere in 
their Cenfures upon a Work which comes forth 
under the Patronage of one of their grcateft 
Names. Whatever Hardfhips oxxr American Co- 
lonies, efpecially the Iflands, have met with 
at home, nothing has ever been able to fliake 
their Loyalty to the Crown of England^ or their 
Affet^ion for the People. They have ever been 
zealous for the Service of the Prince, and as 
hearty for that of the PublicL 

'Tis thefe Principles that procured you the 
general Voice of the County where you refide^ 
to reprefent them in the Parliament of Greats 
Britciin, 'Tis thefe Principles that will always 
render you ufeful to the Common-wealth, the 
Glory of your Native Country, and the De- 
light of ours. 

Among the Scandal which the Enemies of 
the Plantations malicioufiy throw upon them^ 
one is. The vulgar Defcent of the Inhabitants, 
which is as ridiculous as unjuft; for if by their 
Prudence and Induftry they have rais'd 
Fortunes, that might ehnobie them, if they 
have Senfe to acquire Eftates, and Souls to en- 
joy- them j is not that really true Nobility, 
snd that which is deriv'd from a long Roll of 
^incefiryy and eiijoy'd without any other Rea- 
fonand Merit, falie and chimerical ? I fay this 
with the more Freedom to you. Sir, for that 
with the Advantages of Fortune you have the 
Happinefs to be defcended from one of the 
molt ancient and honourable Families in Eng- 
Imd^ which has furnilh'd the Law with fo 



many Ornaments^ the Courts with ^o many 
Judges^ the Chancery with a Lord-Keeper^ 
which lately reprefented two Counties in 
Parliament ,• and was always full of He- 
roes^ and Patriots. It cannot therefore be 
thought^ that I have vindicated the Characters 
of the Gentlemen of the Wefi-Indies^ to make 
my Court to you ; but to do Juftice to. that 
Worth, which is always noble in the. Eyes of 
Men of Reafon and Modefty : And tho there is 
no Herald-Office^ no Court of Arms in Bar^ 
hadosy it may be faid^ without Flattery or Va- 
nity, there is no Trading County in England 
of that Extent, where there are fo many Gen- 
tlemen of fo good Eftates, and fo good Fami- 

What other Prejudices have 'been rais'd by the 
Enemies of the Plantations againft their Intereft 
and Reputation, will/tis hop'd, in the Opinion 
of the Impartial, be remov'd by the httroduBi-- 
on ^ but the Hiftorian would not here trour 
ble you with fuch an unreafonable Controverfy, 
which rather deferves your Contempt thaa 


The Parliament, of which you were a Mem- 
ber, have lately done feveral things for theirEaft 
and Advantage ,• and if there were more Gen- 
tlemen, concerned to promote their Welfare_j 
who would, with the fame publick Spirit, main- 
tain it in that Affembly; there's no doubt, but 
fo juft a Body would foon redrefs all their Grie- 
vances, and they would again flourifli as before 
they were opprefs'd by the late ImpofitionSj, 
which have reduced them to their prefent lowE«i 

Addrefles of this Nature have fo long lain 
ui]der the Reproach pf Infmcerity and Adula- 

A ^ . ' " ■ tion^ 


tioHj, that the Charader of a Man of Worth 
and Honour fufFers by appearing in this Man- 
ner ^ but there are certain Quaiities fo confpi- 
cuous in themfelves^ fo univerfally known and 
adrnir'd^ and yet fo rarely to be met with^ that 
when they are tound^ 'tis an Injuftice to Mankind 
to pafs 'em by in Silence : For if the feliifli Spi- 
rit that prevails in Courts City^ and Country, 
v/ere without Exception, the Race of Men 
would be the moft fordid and worthlefs of the 
Creation. The rare and amiable Qualities 
we are fpeaking of^ are fuch as your Love for 
your Country^ your AiFedion for your Friends, 
and your Humanity to all , your free ufe of the 
Goods of Fortune, which is worthy of the Gene- 
rous Stock from whence you Iprung ,• and what- 
ever might be added to fuch a Charader as this, 
would meet with Credit for the fake of fuch 
Goodnefs,' but tho there may be much faid 
of Yours without offending the Truth of Hi- 
ftory^ yet I forbear, knowing it might be fuf- 
peded in this Place. I therefore conclude with 
defiring your Protection for the following Hi- 
ftory, and Permiffion to fubfcribe my felf with 
all due Refped, 

. 5JK, 

moji Obedient Servanfy 

J. Oldmixon. 




THE Author is apprehenfive that this Un- 
dertaking TV ill meet with many Cen^ 
furesy raised by the Frejudice of fome 
Readers^ and the Ignorance of others : 
The Candid and Impartial wiU^ ^tis hofd^ find fuf- 
ficient Memoirs to entertain them with Pleafure * and 
fuch Faults as may have been committed through Mis" 
information^ they will excufe^ when they tonfider what 
a difficult Task the Hifiory of the Britifll Weft- 
Indies mufi be to an Hiforian^ that never was in 

Whatever particular Account has been^ or might be, 
given of any one of our Colonies^ "'tis imfojfible^ un-- 
lefs Men of hiterefi and Capacity would write it 
on the Spoty for an exaB Hifiory of all the Britifh 
Empire in ri?e Weft-Indies to be fram'd by one Man 
in America or Europe^ but he mufi inevitably be 
guilty of Errors^ which will find Matter enough for 
the Criticks to exercife their ill Nature upon. It will 
therefore be faid^ fuch a Defign as this jhould be un^ 
de' taken in the Plantations | and fince it is fo rea- 
fonable and fo ufeful^ why has it not been done ? 
There's none can tell better than the Writer of this 
Hifiory^ who mufi in Jufiice to him f elf own^ that 
tho he believes all who look over his Workj and know 
any thing of the SuhjeB of it^ will rather wonder 
they meet with fo much^ than fo llitle in it • yet he 
'fhasfomd his Indufiry to inform himfilf fully of ail 

'A A Facfs 

viii The PREFACE. 

yaBs relating to the Colonies more unfuccefsful than 
he expcBed : Feofle were jhy^ aitd either did not think 
lifhat they knew was worth tellings or would not hi 
at the Trouble to tell it. Enough will take this Charge 
to themfelveSy who will frefently remember how much 
they were [olUcited by the Author for Memoir5_, and 
how negligent they were in furnijliing hi?77y net to gi^ve 
their Negligence a harder Nap-jeywhich it woud very 
well bear. 

In colleBing thefe Materials^ when he fometimes 
met with Ferjons of a communicative Temfer^ hs 
durfi not defend entirely on their Sincerity y for Inte^ 
reft always preruails over it. Every Province was 
the befty the moft advantagiomy the woft inviting ^ 
and if he did not give that Account of ity the Hiftory 
^vould be worth nothing. All thefe Perjons feem^d ia 
take no Notice of the Hiftorical Events j thofe they 
ran over as ftightlyy as if they had been of lefs Mo^ 
went than they are. Some 7Vould have had the}^ 
^uite left outy and a Political Account only given of 
cur Tlantaticns, Others y who were for keeping in a 
feWy ftill enlargd en the Advantages of their refpe- . 
^ive Settlements to England^ the Fruitfulnefs and 
Charms oftht Ccu7itry theyliv^d iny the Riches to be 
gotten therey and the Prefer enee that ought to be given 
to each over the other * and this the Author declares 
he met with in almoft all his Informations. What 
then had he todo^ Could it be expeBed that he jJwuld 
pleafe every one ^ Would not the impartial Reader have 
been furpriz/d to have found Hudfon'j B2iy prefer'd 
to Carolina^ and Providence to Barbados ? For 
the Comparifons are alike mtecjual, , '7«ir true^ 
when the Climate and the Soil would not hear a Pa^ 
. rallely they turnd the Advantage on the fide of Com-- 
mercey and always took Care to make their own the 
mo (I profitable. One who had known nothing of the 
Weft-IiKiia Trade_, would have been imposed on by 
fuch Partiality ^ but tho the Writer of this Hifto- 
ry never was mt of Britain^ yet there's no fart of- 


that Trade^ with which he has not been acquainted >\ 

above twenty Tears • and he by that means knew if 
any thing was refrefented to him too favourably • and 
when he was ever fo little in the dark^ he took all 
the Care he could to be enlightned. 

Some Gentlemen he had the Happinefs to know^ 
who were free and impartial^ and if they had had 
any Expeclation offuch an Hiftory^ would have made 
Trovifions for it when they were in America. The 
Hifiorian mufi beg the Liberty of paying his public k 
Acknowledgments to fome of themy that the World 
may fee he does not publijli any thing which is not 
warranted by good Authority. 

To begin therefore with the Hifiory 0/ Newfound- 
land. All the Account of its Trade and prefent State ^ 
was communicated to him by Mr, Newman^j lately 
a Servant to his Grace the Duke of Somerfet^ who 
dwelt there as a Merchant fever al Tears, 

New-Scotland has fo little to be f aid of it ^ that 
he was not at much Trouble about it : There has hap- 
pened nothing memorable concerning ity which js not 
related here ; and the Hifiory of New-England, 
publijlj'd by Mr. Cot. Mather, furnijh^d him with 
what Events he has mention d relating to that Colony, 

That Author being an Inhabitant of New-Eng- 
landj very particular and voluminous^ one would 
have thought his Hifiory might have fupplfd ano- 
ther with Memoirs for as many Sheet s^ as all this j 
Work contains ^ yet there's no confiderable Aclion con- . 1 
cerning the Governours or Government y which is in I 
Mr. Mather'/^ but this Hifiorian has included in 
his Hifiory y leaving his Puns, Anagrams, Ko:o.''^.D''cotion\y\cc-' 
fticks^ Miracles, Prodigies, Witches, Speeches^ ^'^^f umvv^e, 
Epiftles, and other Incumber ancesy to the Original' ^^^^Jn-j^i^^^li 
Author y and his Admirers ^ among whomy as an Ui\hook. 
Hifiorian y this Writer is not fo happy as to be 

When he wrote of New- York, he correBed the 
Mifiakes which others had led him intQ.^ by better 



Information from Cap. Congreve^ 'who has had a 
Command in the Regular Forcss there federal Tears. 

iVfr. Dockwra and Dr. Cox 'were both- fo kind 
as to inform him fully of the }Qx^Q.ySy and Mr. Pen 
did him the fame Fa-jour for Penfylvania ^ thofe 
three Gentleman doing him the Honour to admit him 
into their Friendfiip. 

It will ^ feen in the Hifiory of Maryland^ that 
he had not the fame Helfs for that Vrovince ^ hut hii 
Authorities are good ^ as far as they go. 

The Hifiory of Virginia is written with a great 
deal of Sprit and Judgment by a Gentleman of the 
Trovince, to whom this Hiitorian confeffes he is 've^ 
ry much indebted ; but in fome Places he was fired 
to leave him, to follow other Guides ; and whoever 
compares the one Hifiory with the other, ^fjff 
enough Dijferejice to give^ that which is now publijh d 
the Title of Now.' Several old Writers and modern 
Tapers fell into this Authors Hands, which that 
Gentleman never faw : However he had feen and 
knew fo much, that by his Affifiance, the Account of 
Virginia is one of the mofi ferfeci of thefe Hifiones 
of our Vlantations, 

For Carolina, Mr, Archdale and Mr. Boone^ 
of whom Mention is made in the Hifiory of that Co" 
lony, obliged himfo far, as to communicate feveral 
important FaBs to him, and let him into the Rife 
and Caufes of the Differences among the People of that 
Province : They have alfo printed Jome Tracts on the 
. fame Subjecl, which were very ufeful to him. 

The Hifiory of Hudfon'j ^^cy may be depended 
upon, for the Author took it from Original Papers^ 
he having in his Poffeffton the' Journal of a Secre- 
^tary of the FaBory^ the Commijfions and InfiruBions 
^of fome of the Governours, and other Memoirs, out 
■■of all 7vhichhe could gather no more, and does not 
believe that even, by the Company s Books much more 
is to he gather d. The Reader will perceive he is not 
abe^t looking into a fpurious Performance, nor that 


he 'ivill venture much in giving Credit, to what he 
readsy fince there is no-Dijfute to he made of the 
Goodnejs of fuch Information ^ from which the Hi^ 
fiorian has deviated as feldom as was confifient with 

Thus with much Tains and Care he went over the 
Britifli Empire on the Cont^nent^ which is 14. or 
1^00 Miles in Lengthy from the Northern Bounds 
cf New-Scotlandj to the Sduthern of Carolina^ 
hefides the TraU known hy the Name of Hudfon'^ 
Bay, and another bordering on the River Miffifippi^ 
to which the Kings of England pretend^ hut there 
is no Notice taken of it in this Work^ hecaufe there 
never was any Settlement there^ tho it has heen at-' 

This Country lies in Florida, Southward of Ca- 
rolina, and was granted hy King Charles I. to the 
E. (?/ Arundel, which Grant fome Tears ago was af^ 
Jignd to Dr, Daniel Cox, and he is the Proprieta^ 
ry. He gave it the NameofCj2iXQi\2itX2i ^ and in King 
William' J Keign fent two Ships thither^ with 200 
Teople^ to make a Settlement^ intending to profecute 
that Enterprise ^hy dlfpatchmg away moye Ships with 
more Feople^ over whom Sir William Waller was 
to hazfe heen Go'vernour ; hut the French diflurhing 
the firfi Adventurers^ hinder d their fettling there^ 
and this Tart of the Englifli Territories in America 
is negleBed j tho hy the Situation it fnufi he very 
pleafanty and hy the Defcription that the Author had 
given of it^ ^tis one of the mofl amiahle Flaces in 
the World, 

This Account was too little to he incerted particu- 
larly in the Hifiory^ and hefides the Writer heard of 
it too late ^ as he did alfo cf the Governments of 
Connediicut and Rhode Ijland^ the latter of which 
it jeems is fill feparate from that of New-England; 
About the Tear 1630. King Ch^irlcs I. made a 
Grant to Robert Earl of Warwick, of that Part 
^/New-England^ which lies and extends it felf 
-■ " * from 


from a River there, call'd Narragantfef^ for the 
(pace of 40 Leagues, upon a ftrait Line near • 
the Sea-{hore, towards the South- Weft, and 
fey South or Weft, as the Coaft lies towards 
I Virginia^ accounting three EngUjfa Miles to the 
League^ and alfo all and fingular the Lands 
and Hereditaments lying and being within the 
Lands aforefaid. North and South, in Latitude 
and Breadth, and in Length and Longitude of, 
and within all the Breadth aforefaid, through- 
out the Main Lands there, from the Weftern 
Ocean to the South-fea, and all Lands, &c. 
Which Grant the Earl of Warwick made o'uer t& 
William Vifcount Say and Seale, Robert Lord 
Brooks, Robert Lord Rich, Charles Fiennes, 
Efq-y Sir Nathaniel Rich, Sir Richard Salton- 
ftai, Richard Knightly, Ef^; John Pym, Efq; 
John Hampden, EJ'^; John Humphry, Ef<^; and 
Herbert Pelham, Ef^; As af fears by a Copy of 
theVattenty hearing Date y Kxmo 16^1 y which was 
(luwn the Hifiorian fince this Hijlory o/'New-Eng- 
land was printed • and he deftres the Reader to add 
it to that of Connecticut Colony in particular. He 
mentions it here the rather ^ hecaufe it confirms what 
has been reported by fe^veral HifiorianSy that Mr» 
Pym, Mr, Hampden, Mr, Pelham, and other 
great Men in the long Tarliamenty were about to 
remo've to New^England before the Alterations that 
happen d at home kept them here. This Colony of 
Conne<5i:icut furrenderd their Charter f » 1 68 8. and 
ha've holden no Courts fince. 

That 0/ Rhode I/land^ where ftands the Town of 
Warwick, is a Proprietary or feparate Go'vernmenp 
to this Day, To the Hifiory of l^tw^nghnd may 
be further added^ that Mr. Bradftreet mention d 
in the following 'Pages y claimed the Country of ^2.r- 
ragantfet, c^//W & King's Province. ButWii- 
liam Stoughton, Efp and Peter Bulkley., Efq; 
Agents for lyL^^SiQlmi^S^ difclaimd k. The S'^t 
' ' ■ sti^rn 

The PREFACE. »ii 

chettt of that Country formally furrender'd it in 1 644. * 
md after-wards in 1664. to King Charles II. which 
entiti'd the Crown <?/ England to the Propriety, Ma^ 
joT Atherfton is faid to ha'ue purchas'd it^ but that 
Tur chafe was declard 'void. The Magijtrates of 
Rhode IJland were Jufiices of the Feace in Narra- 
gantfet^ and there was a Settlement belonging to it^ 
called Providence Plantation. For a Letter was . • 
jhewn the Hidiormnfrom K, Charles, direBed, To the. 
Governour of Rhode IQ^nA and Providence Planta- 

Mount 'Hope, which is often mentioned in the 
Article of New-England^ ivas beggd by Mr^ 
John Crown^ who is famous for two excellent Co- 
tnedies written by him, called Sir Courtly Nice and 
the City Politicks. When hjs Petition was fre^ 
fented to King Charles II. his Majefly knew no- 
thing of the Country's being taken from the Sachem^ 
Philip^ ^s he declares in the Letter^ and wonders 
he jhould have no better Information, This Mr, 
Crown'j Father was a Proprietary of Part of New- 
Scotland^ and he begg'd Mount Hope as a Satisfa-^ 
Bion for his Lofs there ^ but he had never any Recom^ 
fence for it^ and indeed 'tis no hard Matter to cal^ 
culate what a Country jhould be valued at that was 
never thought worth keeping or planting. 

This DigreJJion is to render the Account of thofs 
Northern Parts of our American Continent as com^ 
fleatas could he^ and if the Gentlemen of the fever al 
' Provinces will befoju/l- to themfelves and this Defign^ 
as to communicate any farther Memoirs to the Author^ 
theyjhallbe inferted in their due Place, if this Treat ife 
is printed again^ and all the ErrYoTs the Hifiorian 
has committed^ be corre^ed. He hopes there will not 
he many material Ones f and recommends fo the AmQ" 
rican Readers^ not to condemn him prefently^ if they 
meet with things out of their Knowledge, hit to 
fufpeEl their own Judgment and Information, as well 
^s his • for he treats of the Plantations hijhrieally^ 


xlv' The PREFACE. 

and was therefore to relate. Things pafi as well as 
frcfenty 'and hwlll he unjufi for any one to conclude^ 
they never were^ hecauf^ they ne'ver heard of them, 
as too many "will incline to do. 

His Author for that part of the Hifiory which 
may he call'd- the Antiquities^ 7vas Mr, Delaet, 
whofe CharaBer for Judgment and Care is allow d 
hy the Learned and Exftriencd* ^Tis true^ the Afji^ 
fiance he had from him was not njery confiderahle ^ 
nor was what he found in Hackluit, Purchafe, or 
ether CcUeBions of Voyages^ much more to the Fur-- 
fofe. Smith of Virginia and New-England gives 
a hotter Account of that Part of the Continent than 
any older Writer ^ and thofe of foreign Countries knew 
fo little of cur Colonies ^ that there are not hifiorical 
Events in them relating to thofe Tarts 0/ America 
fujfcieni to fill a Sheet ^^ unlefs he enter d into 
^^e Indian Stories^ amo?jg which is much Fahle and 
much Impertinence. 

There are fever al Tamphlets in our Tongue in the 
Temple Lihrary which he looked over • as alfo f?- 
thers whieh he procurd elfewhere^ and fever al Ac* 
counts tranfmitted to the Royal Soeiety^ thatfur^^ 
fiijh'd him with hetter Materials than any of the 
Voyagers have puhlifi^d ; for in HackiuitV Time 
little was known of our Trovifices, What is in his 
ColleBion is in this^ and the whole has heen perfeSled 
hy Inojuiries of Terfons who have heen on the Spot, 
Some of them have heen nam dy and the refi^ tho they ^ 
were not Verfons of the fame Note^ were of as 
good Credit, 

The Author declares once for all^ that there is no 
part of this Hifiory which has not heen jhewn to 
Verfons who have livd in thofe Tarts of the World, 
and heen approvd of hy them^ yet he is not fo vain 
as to imagine there are not fever al Faults,^' for it was 
impofjihle to perform fuch a Work without it: All he 
hopes ^ is^ there are fewer than will he expe^ed, to-' . 
gether with much more Matter, 


The PREFACE. x^ 

jis to our I flan is .* Barbados, the chief of them^ 
makes the chitf Part of his Htflory^ and the Inhabit 
tants of that fruitf/l and f leaf ant IJland may take his 
own Word m moft Cafes ^ he having hem for above i o 
Tea^s converfaytt with their Affairs^ andheptacon^ 
ftavt Correffbndence with them. They will fee that he 
ffeahs things r>f his own Knowledge : And as to the 
Memoirs of Events which happen d before his Ttme^^ . 
he hadrecourfe iothe Papers of an eminent Merchant^ 
Sir John Biwdon, his Vncle^ with whom he liv^d^ 
and might have mack it much larger^ if it would not 
have run out the Hiftory of Barbados to a Siz,e very 
difproportionahle to that of the othtr Hiftories, Li- 
gon is old^ md his Geographical^ and even Natural 
Account of the Iflandy differs very much from the 
prefent. His Defcripiion of Ingenious ^ of working 
Sugar ^ of clothing Negroes ^: and fever al other Things^ 
feems ftrange to an Inhabitant of the prefent Bctvb^L* 
do5 ; neither does his Account of their way: of Li' 
ving^ of the VroduB of the Iflandy as the Trees ^ 
Plants^ Sec, agree better with the modern ones. All 
the FaB in his Hiftory will he found in this^ and every 
thing which remains in the fame State as it was when 
he wrote. All the reft is new^ and taken from Origi- 
nal yI^^«j</cW]?fT.- The Hiftorian has been par ticular^ 
ly diligent in his CoUe&ions and Inquiries concerning 
this Ijland^ for he takes it to be the moft benefici- 
al of any of our Colonies to England, Jamaica per» 
haps not exctpted. He has confulted fever d Perfons 
who have liv'^d there ^ and communicated what he has 
done to them that the Gentlemen of Barbados, foms 
of whom have done him the Favour to place him tn the 
Number of their Friends^ may meet with nothing here ' 
which may in any wife injure his Reputation with them. 
All may not be pleas' d ; but if he has always been a 
fever e Obferver ofTruth^ let his free fpeaking be ex- 
cus'd\ for fometime she could not be fo without it. He 
has not defignedly run into an Error ^ nor told a FaU 
ftty^ to gain the good Will of any Man. Such a 


tvi ThePREFACE. 

P^iew i»ou^d have been as vain as it washafe; for 
where thert arefo many to he diff leas' d for the plea" 
fing of one ^ the Man tnuft have but afmall Portion of 
Senfe^ as well as Integrity^ that would facrifice the 
Chara&er of a faithful Hiflorian to that of a wretched 
Flatterer, He had many Opportunities to havefhewn 
a vitious Complacency to other Mens Interefts^ as has 
been already hinted^ if he could have been guilty of fo 
^ much Bafenefs •, an Jnftance of which he wtU relate^ to 
give the World an Idea of Mens Difpofitions in this 
j^ffair. When he was once tn Converfation with a 
Gentleman^ a Proprietary w America, on the Sub- 
jeU of his Country there ^ he fumm^d up all he had 
to teU him in this Rapture i Our Seas flow with 
^mbergreafe j our Rivers are almoft choak'd with 
Goldi and the worft Mineral wshave^ which we 
do not think worth taking up'^is Copper ; for 'tis fo 
near the Surface, that we may almoft [ftoop and 
have it. This he introduced with a moft romantick Ac^ 
touvitiifthe Situation of his Country^ the Groves ofO^ 
ranges ^Forrefts ofCedar^ the Fields of Spices^ thefpati- 
ous Plains^ noble Harbours^ and Jo many other Advan- 
tages^ that one could hardly believe he fpoke true^ 
when the Writer asVd him^ how many Inhabitants 
there were^ and he anfwer^d^ None ? Some Gentle- 
men have not only recommended the Praife of their 
Province^ but even of their part of it ^ which was gene-^ 
rally done with fo much Warmth^ that they wire im" 
mediately fufpc^ed^ and nothing of that Nature rf- 
ported^ which was not confirmed by Perfons of Inge^ 
nuity and Diflnterejl. 

As for the Leward Hands and Jamaica, the Hi- 
florian is not altogether unacquainted with their Con- 
cernSy and hn had fever al Manujcript Papers to refer 
to, Bermudas he has faid little of\ hut as much of 
Providence a% th^ Subjed- would bear^ having been 
very much affifled in it by CoL Trot, who was once 
GovernouY there. 

The PREFACE. xvii 

To thefe ^Authorities he may add^ Pere du 
T^Ttvc's Uiftory of the Chavlbb^Q - Jflands^ Da- 
visV 0/ Kidwelly, &c, hut there was little to 
his Purpofe^ except their Defcription of the jM^ 

The Maps are newly engraved ; and tho fame of 
the Surveys are older than the Defcription given by 
the Hiftorian, yet there has been due Care taken 
in that Performance^ and the newejl Surveys that 
could he procured were made ufe of. Some Coun^ 
ties and Parijhes may have been added in feveral 
Places^ which are not mentioned in the Maps^ 
though they are in the Book^ which was occafion^d 
by the Nicenefs of the Engraver^ not to add any 
thing by a verbal Defcription^ for which he had 
not a regular Survey to authoriz^e his Corre^ions^, 
^Twas for this Reafon the Six New Counties in 
Virginia are omitted , for though ^tis known 
where about they lye^ yet unlefs they were furvey^d 
to have incerted them^ would have made the refk 
of the Map imperfcB, As the Hiflorian dejtres 
the Gentlemen of the Weft-Indies to do for the 
Memoirs, the Geograplier does the fame for the 
Maps • and if they will tranfmit any Obfer* 
vations^ Amendments^ or Additions to he made 
to them^ and will let him under fi and how he 
may fafely do it^ he will be careful to give them 

The Author having thus far given the Reader a 
View of his Workj recommends it to his Candour^ 
and defires him to weigh well the Difficulties of this 
Vndertakirig, before he gives hvs Judgment. There 
is no jfiiflofy of any Part of the Welt-Indies 
in any Language fo fuU and fo particular ; and 
there^s no Mifiake^ which he knows to be fuch^ and 
has not already provided againfl it^ either in the 
Body of the Booh^ or the Preface. 

i Befon 

xvili The. PREE;AiC% 

Bjefarehe enters upon the Hift.pxy^oethh'iks JnmfeJfoh* 
lig'd to remove fmiegemral QbjeBionstocur Colonies * 
for while they are left of any Weight in..the_M\nds of 
Men^ the Authcr cannot expeBthat thk JVork 
will be received with the Favour he might hop for^ 
after the Fains, he ka^^ taken, Ao jnform and pkafe his 





The common Arguments dgainjl cur Pla^^ 
tMians in America, anliver^d ; and the 
Ad'vantages of them to England, ^- 


H E main pbje<5^ion made by the E- 
nemies of our Cokmes againlt them, 
is^ That by draining England of her 
People^ they weaken us at Home, 
and confequentiy are more hurtful than benefi- 
cial to the Kingdom. On this Argument are 
founded all their Reafons to excufe the ill:Ufage 
the I^lantations have met with ; of which parti- 
cular Mention is made in the particular Hifto- 
ries of the Provinces 5 we fliall therefore in this 
Place keep to the General Intereft, and fee how 
far the, Objedion will hold good. 

'Tisfgid^ PeQple are the Wealth of a Nati-^ 
on^ and to. take away their People is to impp- 
yeriih. them ^ thofe that fay it^ mean only labo- 
rious and indiiilrious People_, and not fuch as 
have no Employ^ or;, which is worfe^, are em- 

a 2 pioy'^ 


ploy'd only in difturbing and robbing fuch as 
have any. If this is granted^ as it always has 
been in this Controverfy^ thofe who improve 
their Tallents to moll Advantage^ are of moft 
Value to a Nation. A Man, whofe Skill a- 
mounts to no more than to earn ; d, a Day by 
his continual Labour, cannot add to the Wealth 
of fuch a Kingdom as England ^ becaufeit will 
not fupply his neceflary Confumption ; How- 
ever even fuch a one is iefs a Burthen to it^ 
than one totally idle. He who earns 6d.9. Day^ 
and confumes juft fo much, is neither burthen-' 
fome nor advantagious : But he who by his In- 
duftry and Labour, not only maintains himfelf 
and Family, but enriches them, is, to the Pro- 
portion of his Wealth, fo much Addition to the 
National Stock of the Kingdom. On the con- 
trary, he who labours not at all, or fo much as 
not to encreafe the National Stock of his Coun- 
try, is, to ufe an eminent Merchant's own 
Sir Dalby Words, ji^Ji- good for nothing : He adds. To 
Thomas i l^^^qjs this Tr^th "plain beyond Difpute^ I 'htg 
^fiiL Dic ike Doubter but to conftder. that if all the laborious 

Of Xfjd Etji T r 1 1 1 r 1 

C^ Groroth ^^(^pl^ -j ^'^^ Kingdom left workings and were to live 

of the W. on the Natural Traduce of it'^ to be diftributed by 

India Co- Tjf^^^ in e^jtial Vroprtlonf^ hy way of Charity ^ as 

''^' Tarifii-Voor hnd^ Beggars are now Jupported^ how 

long it would be before the Nation became necejjitous^ 

naked and ftarvingy and confe^uently the Land and 

Houfes worth nothing. 

Many Reafons may be urg'd to prove, that 
the Increafe of People, wilfully or accidentally 
idle, is fo far from being National Riches, that 
it is the fureft and fpeedieft way to inevitable 
Poverty, and muft decay the Value of the Real 
and Imaginary Wealth of a Nation, proporti- 
onably to the Decay of Induftry : But this will 
be fo readily confented to, it would be im- 


pertinent to enlarge upon it here. Who then 
will deny, That thofe Men who acid moft, by 
their Labour, to the intrinfick Wealth of the 
Nation, either Real or Imaginary, and con- 
fume leaft, are beft employed ? On the contra- 
ry, that thofe who confume moft, and add leaft, 
are the worft employ 'd ? 'Tis true, all who are 
not mifchievoufly employ'd,or totally idle,are of 
fome Benefit to the Common Wealth,*and fhould 
find due Encouragement ,• and thofe ought to 
be moil protected, and leaft difcourag'd by the 
Laws, who are moft ufefully bufy'd for the in= 
creafing the Value of the Real and Imaginary 
Wealth of the Nation. By Real Wealth is ge- 
nerally underftood Money, Lands, Houfes, &c. 
by Imaginary, the Art and Labour of the 

Now as we in England are Inhabitants of an 
Ifland, we have no ways of conveying our Pro- 
dud and Manufactures abroad, but by Naviga- 
tion, the beft and eafieft of all ways ; we have 
no ways of making our felves confiderable in 
the World, but by our Fleets ; and of fupport- 
ing them, but by our Trade, which breeds Sea- 
men, and brings in Wealth to maintain them ; 
fuch Hands therefore as are employ 'd for any 
of thefe pfeful Ends, whether it be the Mer- 
chant, the Mariner or the Plariter, are moft to 
be encourag'd ; for on them .depends our 
Strength, and on that pur Safety. It we had 
none, or but little foreign Traffic^^, could we 
long equip thofe mighty Fleets, that render the 
Englijh Name forroidabie to the utcnoft Bounds 
of the Earth ? Would oae Man's jeoijfuming 
what another raised, and handing Cotiimodities 
from one to t' other, do our Bufinefs, without 
the Addition of foreign^Wealth ? No Commo- 
dity is truly an Increafe of the National Stock, 

a ; 


but that which is exported^ and all other Trades 
receive their Vigour and Life from the Mer- 
chant^ Commodities rifmg in Efteem or Value 
as they are rightly diftributed from Place to 
Place. By him the Mariner is fubfifted^ the 
Planter fupply'd^ and they all mutually affift 
each other, in promoting the Advantage of all 
other Tradefmen in particular^ and of Trade 
in general. By Planter in the Weft-Indies^ we 
mean the Country Gentleman^ who mind$ 
wholly the cultivating the Growths of the Place, 
and exporting them to England j from whencei ' 
he yearly draws fo many Manufadures^ as main- 
tain feveral Families in that Kingdom. 'Tis not 
eafy ta decide how much more fuch a Man is 
ufeful than an EngUjli mQQT Country Gentle- 
man 5 when a Labourer in our American Colo- 
nies is by the before -cited Author faid to be of 
wore Ad'vantage to England^ the out of it^ than any 
I JO of the like khid can he in it. His Explanation* 
of this Affertion refers in the firft Place to the 
Sugar Plantations ^ and the Reader fhall have it 
abftraded from him^ to judge of it as he thinks 







^'^ I. The greateft Confumption of Sugar 
is made by the rich and opulent People of 
the Nation. 2. The Quantity yearly pro- 
duced is not lefs than 4^000 Tuns. ■ ;. The 
Moiety of this is conium'd in England^ and 
amounts to about 800000 /. in Value. The 
other Moiety is exported, and after it has em- 
ployed Seamen, is fold for as much, and con- 
iequently brings back to the Nation in Mo- 
ney, or ufeful Goods, 80000b /. Add to 
this. That before Sugars were producM 
in our Colonies, it bore four times the Price 
it does, nov^ J and by the fame Confumption 

^^ at 


^^ at the fame Price/ except wemadeit our 


f^lvesj we fllould 'be 'forc'd to give in Money 
or Mony's worthy as Native Commodities 
arid Labour^, 2400000 /. for the Sugar we 

'Tis certain we bought as much Sugar of ?«'" 
tugala.s amounted to 400000 /. yearly^ which 
is fav'd by our making it. To continue Sir 
Dalhfs Expianation : 

^^ We muft confider too the Spirits arifing from 
MelaJJes^ which is fent from the Sugar Colonies 
to the other ColdnieSyind to England j which if 
ail were fold inE?2g-/^7/^jand turn'd intoSpiritay 
it would amount annually to above 5" 00000 L 
at half the Price the like Quantity of Brandy 
^^ from France would coft. The Indigo coming 
^^ from thence amounts to 5*0060 /.yearly. 
^^ Logwood^ for which we formerly paid the 
^^ Spaniards 100 L a Tun^ now comes un- 
^^ der i^ /. and amounts to 1000 Tuns a Year, 
Ginger amounts to 400 Tuns a Year^ and is 
not the 6th part of the Price of what the 
Nation paid formerly fpr that Commodity j 







^^ not to rpeak of Drugs^ Woods^ Qocoa^ Fie- 
^^ mmto^ Smes. Gold and Silver from the Spa 


nifl) JVe/l-Indiesy for our Negroes arid Manu» 
fadures : By all which the Nation faves and 
gains by the People employ'd in thofe Colo- 
^^ nies 4000000 /. per Ann, Now if it be confi- 
^^ der'd again, that in all thofe Sugar Colonies 
^^ there is not 60000 White Men, Women^, 
^*^ and Children, it necefiarily rauft follow, that 
^^ one with another, above what they confume^ 
^^ each of them earns for the Pubiick above 60 1. 
^^ per Annum. The Rents of Houfes and Lands 
^- m England^ by Sir F/iIliam Tenfs Com^im- 
If a 4 . '! tiori. 


^^ tiorij amount to looooooo /. the Confump- 
*^ tion to 5*0000000 /. then by reducing Labour 
^^ and Confumption to a proper Ballance with 
^^ the Produce of Rents^ and fuppofing the 
imaginary Wealth of the whole Kingdom 
to increafe in time of Peace the tenth part 
^^ annually_, that*^will be but four Millions, 
^^ which does not amount to 12 /. a Head clear 
^^ Increafe of Wealthy one with another^- above 
^^ neceflary and conftant Expences ^ from which 
*^ it follows^ beyond Controverfy^ that Hands 
^^ employed in the Sugar Plantations are^ one 
with another^ of 150 times more Value 
to the Common Wealth than thofe that ftay 
^^ at home. To this forae may obje6t^ That 
^"^ thofe there confume nothing of Native Com- 
^^ moditiesj which if they did^ as thefe do who 
^^ itay at home^ their Confumption would a- 
^^ mount to 5 f 0000 /. annually ^at 6 L 10s. aHead, 
^^ the Allowance made by Sir Will. Veny^ and 
^^ others • and would coniequently encreafe the 
" Rents at leaffc a fourth Part of that. But^ as 
/^ has been faid^ whatever is confum'd by idle 
^^ Men, can never encreafe either the Real or 
^^ Imaginary Wealth of the Nation, and no- 
^^ thing but the Overplus can be reckon'd ad- 
^'^ ditional, which, according to a reafonable 
^^ Computation, cannot be above 2/. a Headj 
^"^ fo that if we would grant, that thofe in the 
^' Colonies did confume nothing of our home 
^' Produce, the Lofs by the want of them here 
^^ could amount only to 12000Q0 /. annually^ 
^^ or 60000 /? 

Thus far we have taken from the Knight, 
and have only to obje<5t againft his Number of 
Souls in the Sugar Colonies, which, at the time 
he wrote that Trad, was as many more as he 



mentions, there being then 40 or joooo TFhltef^ 
Men, Women, and Children at Barbados oit- 
ly. However, fuppofing that we fhould con- 
fume not above 800000 /. in Sugar, did we 
;make none, a third Part of what he propofes, 
jand that there was not above if 00000 /. gained 
land fav'dby 120000 Men, Women, and Chil- 
dren, double the Number he makes it, every 
I'Soul then earns for the Publick hear 20 /. and 
confequently every Hand employed in the Su- 
gar Plantations is fourty times as good as one 
that flays at home, which i$ all the Alteration 
ithat feems neceffary in his Argument. 
I As to what he lays, may be objected. That 
they confume nothing of Native Commodities - 
That Objection is beft anfwer'd by the Bills of 
Entry at the Cuflom-houfe. A Man muft be 
fo ignorant of Trade, that one may defpair of 
convincing him, who does not know that the 
Planters in our Sugar-Iflands have for them- 
felves. Servants and Slaves, all manner of Ne- 
cefTaries, for the Houfe or the Field, for Cloath- 
ing or Food, from England, Sir Dalhy allows 
five Blacks at leafi for one Whih in the Sugar Co- 
lonies, but we cannot agree with him j for 
when there were foooo Whites, Men, Wo- 
men and Children, in Barbados ^ as there were 
when he wrote, can any one fuppofe there were 
2foooo Blacks? There might be then 80000, 
and nevermore, which with pooo Whitss^ made 
150000 Souls in ail ^ and allowing but as 
many more for the other Iflands, who can ima- 
gine that 260000 Souls can fubfift there, where 
nothing is to be had but Sugar, Cotton, Ginger, 
and the Commodities before-mention'd, with- 
out confuming prodigious Quantities of all forts 
of Goods from England^ befides the Provifions 
they have from the Northern Colonies, 
. , In 

I ■ 

xxvi INTRO DVCT 10 N. 

In treatifig t)f tlie Trade of each GblOnyj 
this Matter will be more particularly handledj 
with Reference to their particular Exports and 
Imports; but Barbados being the Chief of oilr 
Sugar iilands^ comes firft naturally to be men- 
tion'd on all Occafions. If the Plantations tate 
away one Man to maintain about three at home : 
If they take up almoft half of our foreign Com- 
merce^ and are a perpetual Nurfery of able 
Seamen : If they yearly encreafe the National 
Stock 800000 /. only^ as by the following Ki- 
ftory will appear^ they are of as much Advaii- 
tage to this Nation in Trade^ as near half of aH* 
their People elfe where ; for the annual Encreafe; 
of the National Stocky according to Dr. Da^e- 
n-ant^ is not above 2000000 /. 

How they encreafe it^ is by our Exports ^ 
and lead the Reader may not have a clear Idea 
of it^ let him fee what Judge Littleton of Bar- 
hados wrote on this Head : 

GroiHi of ^*^ There is one main Advantage by the Plan- 
ihe PUn- ^^ tations^ which has not been fufficiently ex- 
mions, ^^ plain'd^ and that is^ that the Englijh have now 
^^ feveral good Commodities of their own^ 
^^ which before they had not^ which does very 
^^ much conduce to the enriching thfeni ,• for 
^^ it is agreed by all who pretend to underftand 
^^ Trade^ that a Country does then gtow rich/ 
^^ and then only^ when the Commodities ex- 
^^ ported out of it are of more Value than thofe, 
that are imported into it. This Proportion 
between the Importation and Exportation^ is 1 
call'd theBallance of Trade; and there is no ' 
way in the World for a Country to grow rich 
by Trade^ hut by fettisag this Baliance right,| 
and in fending but more than it takes in.;, 
Some other Tricks and Shifts there arp^ which i 

' ' • ^^ make? 


I NT R DVC T ION. xiivii 

" * make a fliew of doitig great Matters, but they 
prore idle and frivolous^ and fignify nothing. 
A Country is^ in this Refpea, in the fame 
Condition with a private Man, that lives 
^^ upon his Land : If this Man fells more than 
^' he buys, he lays up Money ^ if he buys more 
^^ than he fells, he muft run in Debt, or at 
^/ leaft fpend out of the quick Stock ,• and 
*^ where the Bought and the Sold are e- 
^^ qual, he has barely brought both Ends toge- 
'^ ther. 

This Gentlemati was a Man of excellent 
Senfe, and this Treatife of his hits the Cafe of 
the Vlantations better than any. He reprefents 
their Grievances in the moft lively Colours, 
fpeaks like a Man, who felt what he wrote, 
and who complain'd with no dilTembled Sor- 

After he has touch'd on our Argument of the 
Increafe of the National Stock by Barbados^ and 
it will hold for the other Sugar lilands-, he goes 
on : 

<^<^ Why fiiould England grudge at the Profpe- 
^^ rity and Wealth of the Plantations, finceall 
^^ that is ours flie may account her own, not 
only becaufe we are a part of England^ (what-- 
ever we may be accounted) as it is taken 
largely, but alfo becaufe all comes to this 
Kingdom of England^ properly fo call'd, 
thefe two and fifty Shires. By a kind of 
Magnetick Force, England draws to it all 
^^ that is good in the Plantations. It is the 
^- Centre, to which all things tend : Nothing 
^^ but England can we reliih or fancy : Our 
^^ Hearts are here where-ever our Bodies be : 
t^ If we get a little Money, we remit it to 









England, They that arc able, bfeed up their 
Children in England. When we arc a little 
eafy^ we defirp to live and fpend what we 
have in England, and all that we can rap 
and rend is brought to England. 

It may be pretended^ that the other Colo- 
nies^ where there is no fuch Confumption of 
EngUfh Commodities^ as there is not in the Pro- 
vinces on the Continent^ have not that Pretence 
to be an Advantage to England, But fure this 
will not be faid of Virginia and Maryland, of 
which Colonies, their Trade and Profit to 
England, we have fpoken in the Hiftories of 
thofe Provinces. To which we fhall add what 
Sir Dalby Thomas wrote on this Subjed, in the 
before-mention'd Treatife. 

The Price of every Pound Weight of To- 
bacco imported into the Nation before we 
planted it, was from about 4/. to 16/. a 
Pound 5* and now the beft Firginia is not a- 
bove ij d> to the Merchant, of which the 
King has 9 d. Two Thirds of the Tobacco 
brought from thefe Colonies » is expor- 
ted to foreign Markets j which at about 
:; Pound a Hogfliead (the leaft the Nation 
gets by it) amounts to above 200000 Pounds 
befides the great Quantity of Shipping it 
employs. It is not fo little as a Million 
the Kingdom faves yearly by our planting 
Tobacco ; fo that reckoning the White Peo- 
ple in our Tobacco Colonies to be 1 00000 
^^ Men^ Women, and Children_, they, one with 
^[ another, areeachof them i2 7. a Year Profit 
5' to the iSjatjon There are in thofe Colo- 
*^ nies, by a probable Computation, 600000 
^^ Negroes and Indians^, Men, Women, and 
' ' ' ^ ' "■ " Chi^ 









INTRO DVC T 10 N. xxix 

^^ Children^ and would be more, could they 
readily get Negroes from Guinea ^ every one 
of which confumes yearly two Hilling-Hoes^ 
two Weeding-Hoes^ two Grubbin^-Hoes^ 
befides Axes^ Saws, Wimbles, Nails, and 
other Iron-Tools and Materials, confum'd 
in Building and other Ufes, to the Value of 
atleaft 120000 /. in only Iron-Work. The 
^^ Clothes, Guns, Cordage, Anchors, Sails, 
and Materials for Shippings befides Beds and 
*^ other Houftiold-Goods, confum'd and us'd 
^^ by them, are infinite : Nor is the Benefit of 
^^ them to the Kingdom fufficiently to be ex- 
^^ plain'd, tlierefore let it fuffice, in one Word, 
^^ to fay, that the Produce and Confumption, 
^'^ with the Shipping they give Employment 
^^ to, is of an infinite deal more Benefit to the 
^^ Wealth, Honour, and Strength of the Nation_, 
^^ than four times the fame Number of Hands, 
^^ the beft employed at home that can be. 

To this we can only objed. That the Num- 
ber of /»i/>^j and Negroes, Men, Women, and 
Children, is not above one half as many as he 
makes them ; but that of the Whites exad, 
which Miftake does not prejudice the Argu- 
ment much, for • the Indians make the leaft 
Conliimption of our Goods, and there lies 
moft his Error, 

As for the other Colonies, Venfyl'vania is now 
falling into the Tohacco-TndQy Carolina into the 
Silk ztidi Rice y New-England into thzt of Na^uah 
Stores : And indeed fince we can fo eafiiy, fo 
cheaply, and fo fafely be furnifh'd with thefe 
Commodities from thence, it is a Refiedion on 
our Politicks, that we will be oblig'd to the 
Northern Nations, and fend for our Stores to 
the BalficL Nov-Tork has the fame Advantages 


. q{ Naval Stores^ and fo have all the other Colo- 
nies in a lefs degree. But if New-England^ Nei^ 
Tork^ the Jerfejs^ Tenjj'lvania ^ndCarolinay fur- 
nifli the Sugar Illands with Provifions and Cat- \ 
tle^ and they could not fubfift without them^ 
as they can tell by v/oful Experience^ 'tis e?* 
nough that they are of fuch Advantage to Engr • 
land ; for not to fay any thing of the great Exr • 
portation of our Commodities to thofe Provin- 
fceSj allowing that there are in all ^ ^oooo Whites^ 
M-QTiy Women and Children^ in our American 
"Colonies^ which is the largeft Computation^ j 
and they encreafe annually^ the National ^' 
Stock 800C00/. and the whole Encreafe is but 
2000000 /.yearly^ there is but 1200000 Encreafe^ 
for the reft of the Subjeds of the Brltijlo Empire^ 
computed at 800000O3 which is little more than 
half of the whole Encreafe. Thus it appears_, 
that one Hand in the Plantations is. as good as 
twenty employ 'd at home^ as has been prov'd 
already^ by another way of working it. 

Let us turther confider the many Mouths that 
are fed at home by this Trade^ the manyEami- 
iies that are enrich'd^ the vaft Sums it brings 
into the Exchequer, to which Barbados only 
pays 50000 /. yearly^ tho not twice as big as 
l^utland^ and is after the rate of 10 /. for.ever^ 
cultivated Acre in the liland. 

Thus we fee that the Colonies are far from 
being a Difadvantage to us by the Men who • 
live there. But then 'tis faid^ they are certain- ; 
ly To by the Men who die^ that they have been 
Graves for feveral YearS;, and kill more Sea- 
men than they breed : Were this true in Fa<^_, , 
as it is falfe, it fliould never be objected to them 
by an European, 

From whence did that fatal Sicknefs come 
which infected Barbados and the other Iflands ? 


LN TR J?V CTION. xxxi 

\^a$.itnot from Europe ^ brought by the Soldi- 
Ts.ftnt in; an ill time for their Defence^ being 
ind^r thp leading of Captains that not qnly b^- 
^gyi*d thofe they brought with them, but thofei 
j^hp jain'd them- We may fee how it was 
|;i^h them^ before the unhappy Arrival of thofe v 
ick}y,Spldiers and Seamen. 

^^ We employ ((kys ]udgQ Littleton) feven or* 
^ eight hundred Ships in a fafe. and healthy 
' Nayigation. TJiey find lefs Danger in a 
^ Yoyage to our Parts, than in a Voyage to 
' Newcafik; and as^the Ships come fafe^ fo the 
^ Men come found. Whereas of thofe that go 
' to, the Eafi Jwi/>j, half the Ships Company 
' (t^ke one Ship with another) perifli in the 
' yoyagd. 

B^efides the great Inereafe of Wealth by our 
^olonies> added to the National Stock, theTrea- 
uxe, fav'd has been prov'd to be of almoft as great 
Vdv^ntage. Nations enough: would immedi- 
itely Jail into the Sugar and Tohcco .Trades, and ' 
upply us at their own Rates for our Money. 
Ne fiiould foon mifs our. Plantatio77s if we had 
lone, and theii^ Enemies then would have their 
3bjea:ipnsanfwer'd in a Stile which they mi.^ht 
remble to hear, for Envy has made them too 
ree of their Reflexions, efpccially confidef - 
ng^they have fo little Appearance of ReaCbn on ^ 
heir fide. 

Is not the Situation of the Iflands for annoy- 
ngthe Spaniards or French in America^ z iutiici- 
5nt; Argument for us to be as careful of their 
Defence, as if they were our Frontiers ? And 
:hi&,. relates -more particularly to Barbados. 
should we in England be to negligent of our 
reives and them, asto expofethem toaFmrri'' 


■< / 


Conqueft, of which they have been in Danger 
more than once. What would be the Confe- 
quence ? All the Leeward Ijlands muft inevitably 
follow ^ nor could Jamaica hold out long. The 
French being to Windward^ can fend their Men 
down to Petit Gua^ves with a Cnall Charge, and 
would force the Inhabitants of Jamaica to fur- 
jrender in a few Months. The Lofs of the Su- 
gar lilands would foon afFed the Northern Co- 
lonies;, who are of great Ufe to England^ for. 
their Tobacco, Mafts, Timber, breeding of 
Seamen, and Navigation. All which, except . 
Virginia and MarjUnd^ have their chief Depen- 
dance on the Leeward Ijlands and Jamaica^ for . 
their Lumber and Fifliery. The Colonies of 
New^England^ New-York^ the Jerfeys^ Penfylva- 
nia^ and Carolina^ have very little Ufe for any 
Navigation diredly for England^ but have a ' 
great Trade with the Sugar-IJlands^ which is ; 
very much for the Intereft of England ; and if 
thefe Trades were loft, one third at leaft of the 
Navigation of this Kingdom would follow it. 
What Effed this would have on the Merchants, 
Manufacturers, Mechanicks and Mariners, let 
every reafonable Man judge. 

'Tis certain, our American Plantations takeJ 
off more of the Manufadures of England than 
any other foreign Trade whatfoever; and is not 
this Confideration enough to filence all the 
Clamours of the unthinking Teafantry • for furs 
no Man who has convers'd in the World, and 
been tolerably educated, can give into fuch an 
Error, or imagine 'tis not well worth our while 
to fpare Hands for the Culture of our Land in 

Should we negled out Iflands, what Port 
wou'd be left us to enter the Sfanifij JVeft-lndies ? 
What Damage might we not do the French and 



Spaniards from Jamaica ? Is not that Ifland a 
Key that lets us into Hifpaniola and the Continent ? ^ 
^Twiil foon be anfwer'd. What have we got by 
it in this War ? Which Queftion let others re- 
ply to ; I take the Liberty to aflert^ that there 
is nothing fo plainly to be made out, as that we 
might have got^ and ftill may get by it. Per- 
haps too, whether it has turn'd much to our 
immediate Profit or not, the French and Spani* 
ards could give a very good Account for us of 
their Loffes by it, and the Expence it has put 
them to. As little as we have made of the 
Advantage of its Situation, had we had no Ports 
(b fituated, the Plate*-Fleets from Spain would not 
have come home withfo much Uncertainty and 
{6 many Delays. Jamaica is an Awe upon 
them, and has had a Share of their Silver. 
Why it was not greater, let the Concern'd tell 
us ; for it might have been, we all know. The 
French have not quite fo much Reafon as we, 
to be zealous for the promoting Navigation; 
yet they know their Intereft fo well, that 'tis a 
long while ago that they began to put in for a 
Share of the American Continent and Illands ; and 
whatever they have got, they are careful to de- 
fend. They have always a great regular Force 
at Canada^ for the Prefervation of that cold, 
barren Province, and their Care for the Defence 
of their richer Plantations is anfwerable. The 
French King fets fuch a Value upon his Planta- 
tions^ and is fo far from thinking his People loft 
who go to them, that he pays a good part of 
the Freight of all fuch as go thither to fettle, 
and gives them other Encouragements : There's 
no Man will doubt his underftanding his Inte- 
reft. And if thofe People weaken'd or impove- 
rifti'd him by tranfporting themfelves to Amerl-^ 
ca^ he would fooner fend them to the Gallies. 
' b The 


The Duuh, we know, have Colonies in the 
Eafi-Indiesy do thefe exhauft and depopulate 
HDlland; or are they^at leaft, a Burthen and In* 
convenience ? The Hollanders are fo far from 
thinking foj, that they juftly efteem them the 
chief Foundation of their Wealth and Traffick ; 
Their Eafi-lndia Trade depends on their Eafi^ 
India. Colonies, and the Greatnefs and Glory 
of their State depend on their Eafi-India Trade. 
Tho their Colonies drain and deftroy their Men 
as fail as ours ; as their Trade and Wealth en- 
creafe, their People encreafe aifo ; and 'tis or 
'twill be the fame with us, when the Planta- 
tions are fo far eas'd of their Burthens, that 
they may flourifli, and pour in Treafure upon 
us, vv/hich in fuch Cafe they would again do as 
they have formerly done. As to the Dutch Wefi- 
India Colonies ^ how do they cherifli Surinam, 
tho one of the bafeft Countries in the World ? 
Are they not as follicitous for the Prefervation 
of Curajjoy (as 'tis commonly pronouncd,) and 
the Settlement of Tohago ? Did they not fpare 
their Admiral De Ruyter with a Fleet, in their 
War with France above ;o Years ago, to fall upon 
the French Sugar Iflands , and would they have 
done it, had they not thought them highly va- 
luable ? 

What a Figure have the Tortugusfe made in 
Eurcpey fmce the Dutch drove them in a great 
Meafure out of their Eafi-Jndia Trade, in com- 
parifon to their Strength and Riches^ while they 
were in Poffeffion of it ? The Tortugmfe have {o 
true a Notion of the Advantage of fach Colo- 
nies, that to encourage them, they admit the 
Citizens of Goa to fend Deputies to fit in the 
Affembly of the Cortez. : And if it were ask'd^ 
' Why our Colonies have not their Reprefenta- 
tives ? who could prefently give a fatisfadory 



Anfwer ? There are fome Perfons who pretend 
the Spaniards have ruin'd themfelves^ by ex- 
haufting their Country^ for the fake of their 
Amevican Acquifitions. To which may be an- 
fwer'dj their banifhing the Convert-Moors^ 
the Jews^ and the fetting up of the Inquifition^ 
with the Tyranny of their Government^ have 
more exhaufted Sfain than all their Settlements 
in the Weft-Indies, Had moderate Counfels 
prevaii^dj there would have been no Scarcity of 
Men in that Kingdom^ and their Pride and 
Sloth haye impoverifh'd them much more than 
their Want of Hands. Befides^ grant that eve- 
ry Nation beft underftand their true Intereft^ 
do not the Spaniards Politicks even now juftify 
our Aflertion^ That the Wefi-India Colonies 
are highly advantagious to their Mother Coun- 
tries ? What do they fight for at this time ? 
Why do they fufFer themfelves to be torn to 
Pieces on all fides ? What is this Difpute for ? 
Would they give up the Wefi Indies to the right 
Owner^ ILJ^harksllh Matters would foon ho, 
accommodated ; and without doing it_, this War 
can never be well ended. 

We hope the Reader is by this time fatiify'd^ 
that our American Plantations are an Advantage^ 
and a very great one^ to this Kingdom ^ and 
the Arguments brought from Antiquity will bq 
of no ufe to the Enemies of Colonies. 

'Tis faid^ Ariflotk fpeaking of the Wpn^ 
ders of the Worid^ writes^ ^^ That certain :> 
*^ Carthaginian Pilots having difcover'd a yaff; 
*^ liland^ very fruitful, beyond Hercules Pillar^ i 
[Which mull be Am^ric^^ lor Britain was 
known to them, {o were Africa and the Eafij 
^^ feveral Families of that Republick' lefi: 
^^ their Country, to tranfport themfelves thi- 
^^ ther, and fettle there ^ but the M'^giftrates 

b 2 ''of 


^' of Carthage forbad any^ on fevere Penalties^ 
^^ to make that Voyage. 

By which means 'twas fo negleded^ that the 
Country became^ unknown again^ till 'twas dif- 

cover'd by Columbus 1700 Years] afterwards. 
This is told us by feme Inquirers into the Hi- 
ftory of ArMnca ; of which more will be faid, 
when this Author treats of thole Pares of it that 
belong to the Spmiards^ Vortuguife^ Dutch y Dams 
and French y as he intends to do-, according as 
this Treatife is encouraged. Tho the Canha'- 
glnians might have had fuch an ill Opinion of 
Colonies, that is no Argument of their being 
hurtful I for the Judgment of greater Nations^ 
and the Succefs of it make againft them. Did 
the Athenians and other Greeks lofe by the Co- 
lonies they fent into Afta ? Or rather^ was not 
Icnia the Barrier of Greece^ which defended it 
againft the Perfian Ufurpation ? Did thefe Co- 
lonies difpeople Greece^ Is there any Com- 
plaint of ic in all the Greek Story ? No cer- 
tainly 1 On the contrary_, the Grecian States 
thrived after it; their Navigation encreas'd^, 
and by their Navigation they became Mafters 
of Afia ; for had they not deftroy'd the Naval 
power of the Terfians^ they could not have 
injur'd their Dominion by Land. But after 
the-y were entirely Mafters at Sea^ they never 
ceas'd till they were fo at Land alfo. Was it 
ever pretended that the Roman Colonies dif- 
peoprd Rome ? Whenever that wife and re- 
nown d State thought it convenient to fend 
forth a Colony, Thoufands of People were 
lent away at a time^, at the publick Charge^ and 
that as far as the Tjgrts on the one hand^ and 
the Tii^eed on the other. Thefe Colonies were 
the Security of their Conquefts ; and the 
sreateft Politicians have been of Opinion^ 


^^ That as the Roman Empire was thq grcateft 
^' that ever the World favv^ fo it chiefly ow'd 
^^ its Grandeur to its free Emiflion of Golo- 
*^ nies. 

It would not be very difficult to prove^ that 
in the prefgnt Circumftauces of Affairs^ the 
Britijh Colonies are, or may be much more 
advantagious to the Britains than the Roman 
Colonies^ of which they were fo Jree^ were 
to|the Romans^ by how much more the Si-fety 
of a Nation is of greater Confequence than its 
Extent of Empire ^ but that would draw thi$ 
Trad out to too great a Length. If we have 
not been too tedious already, 'tis well ^ and 
we fliall leave the Decifion of this Argument 
now to the Reader, having faid as much for 
it as we could, and as we believe isneceflary to 
convince the Impartial and Difmterefted, 
That our Colonies in America are fo far from 
being a Lofs to us, that there are no Hands 
in the Bntifij Empire more ufefully employed 
for the Profit and Glory of the Common- 

Of all our American Commerce that of Sugar 
is moft valuable, becaufe moft neceffary. Sir 
Jofiahchild^ in his Difcourfe of Trade, fpeak- 
ingofthis, fays. 

f c 

It is in his Ma jelly's Power, and the Parlia- 
ment's, if they pleafe, by taking oflf all Char- 
ges from Sugar, to make it more entirely 
** an E;^^///^ Commodity, than White Herrings 
*^ are a D^tch Commodity * and to draw more 
*' Profit to the Kingdom thereby, than the 
*' Dutch do by that. And chac in Confequence 
y thereof all Plantations of other Nations^ 
" muft in a few Years fink to little or nothing. 





This Authority will confirm all that has been 
faid before, and it might be made out, which 
way fo great Good may be done to the Publick ; 
but that would be to enter into the detail of 
theHardftiips the Colonies have lain under for 
many Years, the Means of eafmgthem, and 
other Articles, fomeof which are treated of in 
the particular Hiftories of the Plantations,- and 
others that remain, we muft forbear mention- 
ing till a more convenient Time and Place of- 
fer I for we have already kept the Reader too 
long from th© Story. 




AL L Gentlemen^ Merchants^ or others y wBi 
live in our American Colonies ^ and will 
\ communicate any thing to tie Author^ to he added or 
■: amended in the next "Edition of this Hifiory^ are de-^ 
' fird to direB it to either of the Bookfellers whofi 
Names are in the Title-Vage of this Book^ and Cars 
Jhallbe taken to have it inferPed. 


There are fome few ERR ATA^s of the 
PRESS; as, 

VOL. I. Page 405. 1. 6, del. Innu^ read Raddijon. p. 
544. I. I. read hy the King, p« 349. 1. 29- del. Go- 
vernouv 0/ Providence. Vol. i, p. no. Baronets created th§ 
fame Day Ihould be oiily Sr John Colliton and &r James 
Modiford. p. 112. for ijoooo, read 130000, in the Num- 
bered Souls. The reft are moftly Litterals, and the Rea- 
der -wiU eafdy corrcft them. 


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Sable Ifl 





* Containing 

An Account of its Difcovery^ 
Settlement^ Encreafe^ Pre- 
fent State^ Inhabitants^ Cli- 
mate^ Soilj TroduB^ Trade^ 

HIS large Ifland wasclifcover*d by Sehafllan ^^ d^ 
Cabot ji who was fent to the Wefi-Indies 14^7* 
h^ Henry VII, in the Year 14P7. to make w/-vO 
Difcoveries. 'Tis of a Triangular Figure, The Figure 
I as big as Ireland^ about 300 Leagues in Circumfe-of the I- 
rence*, feparated from North Canada on thi CowXi- jlmL 
nent to the North, and NeW'5co/^te^ to the South-, 
^bout as far as the neareft part of England is from 
France : 'Tis no more than eroo Leagues diftant from 
jthe Lands End ^ and the Great Bank is hardly half 
fway to Virginia : It lies between \6 and 53 Degrees 1%% j^^^^ 
|of North Lat. and has many commodious Bayes along tuk, 
|the Coaft ^ fbme of them running into the Land tO; 
ward sone another more than 20 Leagues, 

B But 

^ s The Hifiory of Newfoundland. 

But before we enter upon a further Description, of 
the Country, we fhall proceed with the Hiftory of it 
from its Difcovery to its Settlement by the Englifl), 
Difcoverj, In the Reign of Henry VI IT, Mr. Thorn and Mr, 
Elliot^ two Englifh Adventurers, made a Voyage 
thither :, and one Mr. Hore^ another Adventurer of 
our Nation, attempted a Settlement, but was reduced 
to fuch Streights, that many of his Company were 
kiird and eaten by their Fellows: Thofe who 
furviv*d, were fo chang'd, that Sir William Butts^ a 
Norfolk Knight, did not know his Son at his Return, 
and cou'd not be convinc'd 'twas the fame Perfon, till 
heihew'd him a Mark in his Body which his Father 
remembred. The ETiglifh after this negle6ling the 
Place, the Frotch and Fortuguefe reforted to it, and 
carry'd on a very profitable Trade ir^Fifh and other 

'^$79* Commodities. In the year 157^. Captain Richardl 
Whitburn of Exmotith in Devonflnre^ was employed by 
Mx^Cotten^ a Merchant of Southampton^ to fifh at the 
Great Ban\'^ but his Companions not being able to • 
endure the Cold, he put into Trinity-Yi2xho\xXj where ■ 
they kiirdftoreofFirti, Deer, Bears, Beavers, Seals,, 
Otters, Sea-Fowl, &c, and having made a toljerable; 

15%$, Voyage, returned to England. In 1585. Mr. Crook^ 
a Merchant of the fame Port, fitted him out for the 
fame Voyage*, and while he was at Newfoundlandy 
Sir Humphry Gilbert^ a Devonjhire Knight, and a fa- 
mous Adventurer, related to Sir Walter Rawleighy 
came thither with two flout Ships and a Pinnace, and 
brought with him a Commiflion from Queen Eliz.a- 
beth to take pofTefiion of the Place in her Name, 
which he did in St. John's Harbour, Mr. Whitburn 
my Author being prefent. Sir Humphry failing thence 
towards Virginia^ loft his biggeft Ship *, and he him- 
felf going aboard the Pinnace, w^as caft away in his 
Return to England : His other Ship, Captain Hays 
Commander, arriv'd and brought the News of that 
worthy Gentleman's hard Fortune. 

1585. Two Years afterwards. Sir Bernard Drake of De- 
von j was fent thither with a Squadron of Men oi 
War, and took feveral Portuguefe Ships laden with 
Fiih and Oil, which he brought into England as Pri- 
zes: For tho the French and Portuguefe went thitheri 
10 filTi, the Englifh look'd on theniielves as the true? 


The Hijicry of Newfoundland. j 

Lords and Proprietors of the Country, as appears by Haec Infu- 
feveral Grants from the Crown before the French la ab An- 
feated themfelves there, arid the Confeffion of Fo-S^'s, uti 
reigners themfelves: tho *tis pretended John F^-^PP^^^^^ 
raz.z,an^ a Florentine, fent by Francis I. the French fn^^^j^J.^ 
King, pofTefs'd himfelf of the Ifland in the Name of ^J^^^^^ * 
ithat Prince, calling it Jerre Neuve^ or Newfound- 
iandy yet that does not leiTen the Right of the Englifh 
Ito this Country *, for it was done leveral years after Se- 
paflianCabop had been there a fecond time *, and brought 
ithence 3 of the Natives, whom he prefented to Henry 
iVin. as a Token of his having taken pofTeffion of the 
|Place in his Name : And Sir Humphry Gilbert when he 
[was there, forbad all other Nations to fifh on the Coaft. 
' Tis true, the Englifli were not for a longtime 
l^ery fond of fettling on fuch an unfriendly Shoar, 
;|vhere there vs^ere few or no Conveniencies f^r Life, 
put Intereft at laft prevail'd ^ and in the Y'^ar 1 609. 
Mr. John Guy a Merchant, and afterwards Mayor 
ipf Brlftolj who wrote a Treatife to encourage Per- 
sons to undertake a Settlement, by writing and 
foiliciting the Bufinefs fucceeded fo welJ, that in the 
following Year King James made a Grant, dated 
\/4pnl the it>f^, id^io. of all that part of the Ifland j/;^ Firfi 
Tom Cape Bonavifl in the North, to Cape Sl Mary's in New- 
he South, to the Earl of Northampton Lord Keeper, foundland 
)ir Lawrence Tanfield Lord Chief Baron, Sir John Company. 
Dodderidge King's Sergeant, Sir Francis Bacon Solli- 
:itor General, Sir Daniel Donn^ Sir Walter Cope^ Sir 
^iercival Willoughbyy Sir John Conflable^ John Weld 
I Lfquire, Mr. Ellis Crifp^ Mr. Richard Bowdler, Mr. 
Anthony Haviland^ Mr. William Lewis^ Mr. Humphry 
Hook^ Mr. John Guy J Mx. Phillip Guy ^ Mr, William 
Meredith^ Mr. John Doughtie and others ^ who fent 
)ver a Colony thither under the Direction of Mr. 
; hhn Guy : This Gentleman arrived there in 20 days, ig^io. 
inded at Conception-WdLthom *, and he and his Com- 
)anions built Houfes, or rather Hutts, for their Ha- 
' )itations, during their flay. Mr. Guy behav'd himfelf 
; courteoufly to the Natives, that he entirely gain'd 
'heir Friendfhip, and the Englifh were not at all di- 
jturb'd by them in carrying on their Settlement, as 
^hey werein other Places. In the next Year 1611. j^^^ 
paptain Whitburn went thither again, and the Arch 

B 2 Pirate 

4 The Hijiory of Newfoundland 

Pirate Teter Eaflon came here with i o Sail of (lout rich 
Ships J he defir'd Mr. Whitburn to procure a Pardon 
for him, and would have returned to England; In 
expe6latioa of it, he waited on the Coaft oiBarhaity •, 
but the Court tiring out his patience, he enter'd the 
Streights with his Treafures, and the Duke of Savoy 
took him into his Service. There was^ery little 
Froft this Year in Newfoundland all Winter long, 

1 51 2. which, if true, is next to a Miracle. In the Year en- 
iuing, the Englifn found fome of the Indian Habita- 
tions, which were Hutts made of Poles fet round, and 
meeting on the Top, about lo Foot broad, cover'd 
with Deer Skins,. and the Fire in the middle. In the 

1513. next Year, 54 Men, 6" Women, and 2 Children win- 
ter'd there, and the Seafon prov'd moderate. The 
Englifh fow'd Wheat and Rie, and planted Turnips 
and Colew^orts, which 'tis faid grew as w^eli as in En- 
gland •, and this is the more rare, becaufe Wheat and 
other Grain cannot now be brought to thrive there. 
The new Planters got plenty of Fowl and Fifh for 
Food ^ and Bears and Otters for Skins : But w^e have 
reafon to believe that things did not anfw^er their Ex- 
pe.51ation, for 'tis certain that Mr. 6'z/j/and his Colony 
returned to England. The Difeafe that troubled them 
nioft, was the Scurvy, which they cur'd with theit 

1514. Turnips. In the Year i <^i 4. Sir Henry Manwaring waj 
fent thither witha Squadron of 5 Men of War to fecure 
the Fifhery. ; And in thefollowing Year Captain Whit- 
burn made another Voyage, carrying with him a Com- 

1 6-15. mifiion from the Admiralty, to Impannel Juries^ ana 
make Inquiry upon Oath^ of divers Ahufes and Diforder. 
committed amongft Fiffjermen yearly on that Coafi. 

Dr. W. F'aiighan of Carmarthenfiire^ purchas'd t 
Grant from the Pattenteesfor part of the Country, 
to make a Settlement, which however he nevei 

I6-16-* effefted. In k^i^. Captain Whitburn was taker 
in his way from Newfoundland to Lisbon with ; 

1 61 8. Cargo of Fi(h •, and in the Year 15-18. he went thithei 
as Dr. Fatfghan's Deputy *, tho whom he was to go 
vern, w^e don't find any where mentioned by himfel 
or other- Writers, or that there was any Settlement o* 
EngliOi till 2 or 3 years afterwards, when Sir Geor^^ 
Calvert^ Principal Secretary of State to King James 
<40t a Grant of the beft part of the Ifiand, This Gem 
' , tlemafi 


The Hijlory of Newfoundland. 5 

tlenian being of the Romifh Religion, was imeafyat 1^20. 
home, and Jiad the fame Reafon to leave the King- 
dom, asthofe Gentlemen had who went to New-Eng- 
land^ to enjoy the Liberty of his Confcience : He 
therefore refolv'd to retire to America^ and finding 
, the Newfoundland Company made no uPj of their 
i Grant, he thought of this Place for his Retreat', to 
which end he procur'd a Patent for that part of the 
Ifland that lies between the Bay of Bulls in the Eafl:, 
and Cape St. Mary's in the South, which was eredled 
into a Province, diXid caWd Avalon^ the Name it goes 
by to this Day. 

How this Grant cou'd be made without the Con- Lord B^l^ 
I fent of the former Proprietors, we cannot compre- timore'^ 
I hend *, for he feated himfelf within the Limits ofssulemem, 
their Territories : And he either agreed with them 
I for it, or King J^/w^j invaded the Company's Proper- 
I ty. Sir George^ afterwards Lord Baltimore^ fent over 
iPerfons to plant and prepare things for his Reception ^ 
I and in 1621, Capt. Edward Wynn went thither with kszi^ 
la fmall Colony at Sir 6'^or^<?'s Charge, who feated 
j himfelf at Ferryland^ built Houles, planted a little 
Garden, and fet up a Salt- Work in 1^22. and the 1522^ 
fame Year, Himfelf, Capt. P^trf/, 21 Men, 7 Wo- 
jjiien^ and 2 Boys Wintered there. In the follow 
I in g Year the Lord Faulkland^ Deputy of Jr dandy igz^. 
ifent a Colony thither under Sir Francis Tanfilj who 
j returned without making a Settlement. 

When Capt. Wynn had giv'n Sir George a fatisfa£lo- 
ry Account of his Proceedings, he removed thither 
lv!irith his Family, built a Fine Houfe and ftrong Fort 
jat Ferrylandy Northward of Cape de Raz^ and dwelt 
j there lome time-, but having a better Settlement 
(in view in F'lrgma^ he return'd to England to 
get the Grant of the Country which is fiiice 
|caird Maryland: However he ftill retain'd the Pro- 
jpriety of Avalon m Newfoundland^ and governed the 
! little Colony 2XFerryland by Deputies till his Death. 
I His Son Ctzcilius Lord Baltimore did "^i.^ lame, till \}^^ 
|diftraftionsin£;/^te<^ during the Civil War,render'd 
jhis Poifeflion precarious ;, and about the Year \6^\, \ry^\^. ^ 
I Sir David Kirkj2i Gentleman whofe Fortune ohM^dsh Davi>l 
jbim to change the Climate more than his Conftitu- Kirkii'fi- 
I tion, went thither, and by Warrant of the Govern- f^^^'i^^w^- 
I B . 5 nient 

6 The Hijiory of Newfoundland. 

ment then in being, poffefs^d hinifelf of the Lord j5^/- 
timore's Plantation, which he afterwards treated 
with that Lord to purchafe ^ but the Family of C^/- 
'vert^ wou'd never formally give up their Pretences, 
notwithftanding which Sir David liv'd there all his 
time, gave his Name to a Sound on the Weftern Shoar ', 
and his Children and Grand Children dwelt there i 
after him, the latter being reduc'd to the mean Con- 
dition of the Ordinary Inhabitants. Sir David un- ; 
dertook an Expedition againft the French at Canada^ 
and deftroy'd their Settlements, which the French'^ 
not only recover'd in the Reign of Charleslh but j 
they were fuffer'd in his time firft to fettle on the ^, 
Southern Sho2ito^Newfomdland^ to fortify themfelves , 
at Placema, St. Peters, and other Places. Thus they 
who are Intruders,by their Induftry, and the Conveni- 
ence of their Neighbourhood with Canada, the Glo- : 
ry, iuch as it is, of the French Dominions in Ame-J 
rica, have got the better Part of this Ifland, and ] 
have a more numerous Colony and better For tifica- ; 
tions than the Englifh, who have all along contented 
themfelves with fome fcattefd Settlements on the ; 
Coafts, which they do not call by the Name of Towns j ; 
but by that of Harbours, Before we go on further , 
with our Hiftory of the Country, we ihall give an Ac- 
count of the Places where the Englifh have fettled, the 
number of Families, by the lateft Surveys taken from ; 
a Merchant who liv'd fbme time in the Ifland, in ^ 
what way they live, for their Conftitution does not | 
^elerve to be call'd a Government, Of the Indians, \ 
the Qimate, the Soil, Animals, Trade, and other \ 
things worthy the Reader's Knowledge. | 

The ' Under the Name of Newfoundland thofe Ides are 
comprehended which lie on the Weft Side of it in the i 
Gulph of St. Lawrence^ and the River of Canada or ■• 
New France to the North and Weft. Thefe Ifles are 15 : 
in number, of which the moft confidei'able are, the • 
Ides of the Sand or Bank of Cape Breton^ St,Johrfs 
Ifle about 30 Leagues long, i<? over, and 90 in Cir- ■ 
cuif, 'tis properly nothing elfe but a great Fo- 
reftof Fir-trees, and is furrounded with fteep Rocks. , 
^ohh. Cape Breton I lie in the South of the Gulph of St, Law- \ 
^sog* rence, is 50 Leagues long, 10 or 12 broad, and 140^ 
in Circuit 3 'tis almoft cut in two Parts by that Gulph, j 


.- -ti 


The Hiflory of Newfoundland. 7 

The Ifle o( Ajfumption is alfocall'd AntkoU^ 'tis a- 
bout the bignefs of Cape Breton Ijfland, fituated at 
the Mouth of the Great River of Canada-^ Bears 
Tort is the beft Haven in it. Between Antkofii and tlie 
flatlHand, the old Writers tell us was the beft Cod 
Fiihing, and that 'twas common to take ipo in an 
Hour there. Tis certain fo many have been caught 
in an hour •, but 'tis as far from being a common 
thing, as that Place frotii being the beft on the Coaft 
for Fifhing, neither the Englifli nor French ever fifh- 
ing between thofe Wands. 

The Engli'li had Settlements formerly as far as Cape ^^iJ'^I^ 
St,Mary\ on the Southern Shoar ^ but now they begin ^*^^^' 
dXFerryland Head, and are fcatter'd along the Coaft at^^*^^' 
S or 1 o Miles diftance from one Harbour to another, as 
far as Greenpond : And pafting Cape de Raz.^ the moft 
Eafterly Point of Land in the Ifland, we come to 

Ferryland^ where are about 

30 HoufesandFamiliei 

Cape Broil^ ' - 

« ® 


Bay of Bullsy * " 

s a 


Brigas Bay, ^ " 

a <b 


Bell Im^ ' ' " 


*Toads Cove^ • • 



Mummahles Bay, 



Petty Harbour^ " 

t9 (S 


St, John's Town, . 



The latter is call'daTown, and is fituated within ^i. john'^ 
the Neck of the Harbour in the Bay, formed by a Tomt, 
River that falls into the Sea there i^ the Mouth of that 
Harbour is about half a Mile over : On th^ North Side 
of it at the Entrance is a Battery, and another on the 
South-Eaft, where there's a cover'd Fortification, and 
8 or I o Guns, which with the oppofite Battery com- 
mand the Harbour, and render it almoft impoftible 
for an Enemy to come at St^Johns Town, there being 
befides this a Chain of 1 5 Tunn weight, which they 
can let down a-crofs it from one Fortification to ano- 
ther. There was a Church before the late Invafion of 
the French. The Houfes were built on the Nortlierr^ 
Shoar, and every Family had a fort of a Wharfe 
before their Houfes to dry their Fifh on. The Church 
then ftood about the Middle of the Town^ but fmce 

H 4 for 

8 The Hifiory of Newfoundland. 

for the better Security of the Settlement, the Eng^ 
lifh have remov'd their Dwellings. The Fort there 
is mounted with about 50 Guns, including the Out' 
works added by Col. Richards^ when he commanded 
there, A Garifon confifting of an independant Company 
of Foot, whofe Captain at prefent is Major Tho" 
rmts Lloyd^ always do Duty there, and in the late 
Troubles were of great Service to the Country. 
Within the Fort on the Right Hand and on the Left 
are Barracks for the Soldiers, and oppofite to the 
Gate the Captain's Houfe, built a la Modern^ with 
Safh Windows, and is a very fair Edifice. Next to 
St, Johns Town is, 

Kittavittyy ' ' 20 Houfes and Families, 

Jorhay^ • • • ^ Families. 

Holyrood^ ' ' "1 

Salmon Cove J • * >i2 Families. 

Havre de Grace ^ 3 

Carhoneer^ ' ' 30 Families. 

BayVirds^ • • 10 Families. 

Old ParUkwy ' • 6 Families, 

New Parlikin deferted. 

Silly Cove, 

Trinity Harbour ^ 1 2 Families. 

Bonavifiy • • - 25 Families. 

(jreenpond lUmdy 3 Families^ 

In all 2S7 Families, fome of which are very large '^ 
and all together, before the French deftroy'd the 
Settlements from Cape de Raz. to St, John\ Town, con- 
tained 4000 Englilh Inhabitants, Men, Women and 
Children^ tho in the year i5i?8, there were 3ut 
1500 Souls, the Number encreafing after the rate 
of about 500 every Year, till they came to be up- 
wards of 4000. Moil of the People fled to St, John's 
Town jand were fafe there ^ but fuch a§ cou'd not crowd 
into the Fort were abandoned to the Mercy of the 
Enemy, who burnt all the Houfes in the Weft 
End of . the Town *, and the few they left, were, 
as they faid, only fpar'd that they might be a Recep- 
tacle for theziilelves when they came there again, 
which they threatned to do, but have not yet been 
as good as their Words, They ftaid in the Town 


The Hifiory of Newfoundland. 9 

5 Weeks, and continually harraft the Soldiers in the 
Fort by Falfe Allarms : At laft, they were tir'd with 
attacking, before the Englifh were with defending 
the place, and left it, carrying away with them fome 
hundreds of the Inhabitants. 

The Englifh had no Settlement for many Years far- 
ther than Bomviji *, but i o Years ago they fat down at 
Greenpond\^2j\di^ and thus take up theN.E. and E. Part 
of the Country, as the French do the S. and S. W. the 
Natives living in the North. Thei^ are ieveral fine 
Bays within the limits of the Englifh Territory, as, 
Bonavifi^ Trinity^ Conception^ which ftretch them- 
felves tow^ards the South Wefl -^ Tor bay and Capelm 
Bay, St, John's Harbour, the Bay of Bulls^ Frejh Wa- 
ter Bay, and others : For there*s no Shore in the World 
fo well accommodated with Excellent Harbours. On 
the French fide are the Bays Trepafey, St. Mary's^ Bor- 
rell and Blacentia^ which extend their Arms towards 
the North. The Great Bay of St. Peter lies on ths 
South Wefl fide of the Ifland 20 Leagues diflant from 
the River of Gz;^^^^. The Bottom of all the Bays meet 
within the Compafs of a fmall Circuit, by which 
means the Communication from Bay to Bay is eafy. 
There are abundance of other Bays round about the 
Weflern Shore, as far as the Great Bay^ and many 
more between that and Trinity Bay, which lies ia 
about 4P Deg. N. L. and is very commodioufly fitu- 
ated to receive Shipping in bad Weather. It has 
3 Arms or Rivers, long and large enough for many 
hundred Sail of Ships to moar faff at Anchor, above a 
Mile from the Harbours Mouth. The Bay of Flow- 
ers near Greenpond is Dangerous for fhelves. The 
Bay of Trepafey^ which is the prefent Bounds of the 
Englifh, Southward, lies in about 46" Deg. N. L. is a 
bold and fafe Coafl, and convenient for Ships in di- 
ftrefs to touch at, pafling to or from Virginiay New 
England or the Bermudas Ifles. 

The Climate is very hot in Summer and Cold in Win- The Cli^ 
ter •, the Snow lies on the Ground 4 or 5 Months *, and rriiLte. . 
the Englifh in the Northern Parts are forc'd to remove 
from the Harbours into the Woods, during that Seafon, 
!for the convenience of Firing. There they build them- 
Jfelves Cabbins, and burn up all that Part of the Woods iV^y of Li- 
Where they fit down. The next Winter they do the fame t^/>^. 


lo The Hiflory of Newfoundland. 

by another, and lb clear 'em as they go. The Peo- 
. pie at 5^ Johf^'sTcmn who do not remove, are put to 
great Streights for want of Firing. Wood, *tis true, 
is very plentiful, but the Difficulty is to come at it, 
the Accefs to the Forefts for Rocks and Snow being 
very troublefome, and fometinies impaflable ^ and 
'tis no fmall part of the Profits of the Under-Offi- 
cers of the Garifon to let out their Men to fetch 
Wood. There's hardly any ftirring out of the Houfe 
for 5 Months inethe Year. The Inhabitants have no 
Corn nor any other fort of Provifion or NecefTaries, 
(except Wild Fowl, Fifh, and Venifon) but what is 
fent them from Europe. The Ifland is full of Moun- 
tains and impraEiicahle Forefts ♦, its Meadows are like 
Heaths, and are covered with a fort of Mofs inftead 
The Soil of Grafs. The Soil is good for nothing, being a 
Mixture of Gravel, Sand and Stones. Thus fays the 
La Hon- Baron La Hontan^ and feveral Gentlemen, whom I 
tan. have confulted upon the matter, particularly Capt. 
Francis^ a Man of Worth and Honour, who com- 
manded there in the Year 1702. And yet Mr. Guy^ 
JEfiate ^^P^* ^^^^^^^ i ^"^^ fr<^t^^ them Mr. Delaet fet it 
ffonte fua *^"t as a Paradife, as fruitful as the Banks of the Nile, 
non modo ^^it^out the Labour of Mens Hands^ fays Capt Whit- 
L&tiffu hurn^ the Earth produces great Plenty of Green Feafe^ 
wagra- Fitches and Haumes^ and great Store of Hay may be 
viina fed made with little Labour. Strawberries, Rafpberries, 
^varias Bilberries, Pears, Cherries, Filberds, &c. are there 
fruges - in abundance^ as alfo Flowers: And for Corny the 
frogene- Ground is as apt to hear as the Englifl) Soil I thought 
laet ^^ might not be improper to fhew th& difference 

Whit- ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^" ^^^ account of the Soil giv'n by dif- 
burn.* ferent Perfons. Mr. Guy and Capt. Whitburn were, as 
p. 47. ^'^^ i'^^ay perceive, willing the Ifland fhould be in- 
habited by the fair Defcription they gave of it, where- 
as *tis in truth one of the moft uncomfortable Places 
in the Univerfe for 6 Months in the Year, and not 
one of the moft delightful for ih.^ other 6, We may 
fee by this, that even Men of the beft Judgment, 
as Delaet is thought to be, may err when they treat! 
of things which they muft take upon truft, and that 
we ftiou'd be cautious how we give Credit to thole 
Authors who write of Plantations wherein they are 
themfelves concern'd. As this Place is fcarce tolerably 

■'■'■'■' to 

The WfioYy of Newfoundland. 1 1 

^totheEngliih for the Seafons, fo*tis no lefs wretched 
in its Government, which is altogether as barbarous as 
that of their Fellow-Inhabitants the Indians. 

They have no fettled Governour : But in time o^The Go- 
Peace the firft Mafter of a Ship that arrives there, vemmem. 
tho he commands a Bark but of 3 o or 40 Tuns, is 
Chief Governour for that Fifhing Sealbn, by the Stile 
of, Lord of the Harbour. In time of War the Go- 
vernment is more noble, for then 'tis lodg'd in the 
Commadore, or Commander of the Squadron who is 
fent thither to defend the Fifhery. If there come 
but two or three Men of War, the eldeft Captain is 
Governour of the Country as well as Admiral at Sea ^ 
if but a fingle Ship, the Commander has that honoura- 
ble Office, and in the Abfence of the Captains of the 
Men of War, and the Lord of the Harbour, the 
Captain of the Land Forces in the Fort of ^t. John's 
Town, is Governour by his Place ^ and both the one 
and the other are Lord Chancellors, and decide ar= 
bitrarily in all Cafes. There's no need of much Law, 
for the Inhabitants have not much Land, and no Mo- 
ney. They truck with one another for what they 
want and have -, and Breaches of the Peace, or 
taking away a Man's Goods without giving 
Truck, fiealing of Nets or Fifhing-Tackle, are the 
main Gaufes that come before the Governour for the 
time being, who fummons the Criminal before him, 
and his Sentence is definitive. If 'tis the Land-Officer, 
he keeps 'em in awe by threatning 'em with a File 
of Musketeers *, and as much as they are without Law 
and Lawyers, the want of them, for what I can hear, 
is one of their leaft Inconveniencies. If a Man com- 
mits murder, he is fent in Chains to England, andun- 
lefs Witnefles are fent with him, which is expenfive 
and not always poilible, he takes his Trial at the 
Old Baifyy is acquitted, and goes home again ^ as was 
the Cafe of a Perfon who was accus'd of Sodomy 
3 or 4 years ago. As fevere as the Climate is, it a- 
grees very well with Englifh Conftitutions, and our 
Countrymen have generally been healthy there, except 
when th«y brought Difeafes with them. 

As for the Produd of the Country, Fir and Spruce Trses,. 
Trees are the moft remarkable, being reckon'd as fit for 
Marts, as thofe oiNgrway, Pine and Birch-Trees are as 


ti The Hifiory of Newfoundlancf. 

big there as any where, and almoft all forts of Tim- 
ber-Trees abound m the Ifland. As for Quadrupedes, 
Dear, Hares-, Foxes, Squirrels, Wolves, Bears, Bea- 
vors and Otters, afford them Plenty of Food, Plea- ^ 
fure and Traffick •, and may we believe Capt. Wioit- 

tp, burn^ the vvild Beaft.^ as well as the Natives, were fo 
civil to the firft Difcoverers, that they never gave 
'em the leaft moleftation, or put 'em to much trou- 
ble to catch 'em. 

But fuch Stories as thefe, are of equal Credit with 
that of the Mermaid he pretended to fee *, and we fhall 
not endeavour to impofe either of 'em as Truth on 
our Readers: Whats certain, is, That the Sea on 
this Coaft is almoft full of Fiih *, as Cod, the ftaple 

h. Commodity of the Country, Salmon, Herrings, 
Mackerel, Flounders, and an infinite Number or 
Trouts in the Rivers, which are not very broad or 
long, but there's plenty of them, and of Springs of 
good Water : Fowl for Food, and Game is to be met 
with every where of all fdrrs, and is the greateft 
Convenience in the Country*, the Trade of which 
confifts in the Fifhery, one of the mofl beneficial in 
the World, and yet it has been miferably negle£led. 
Does it not look fomething like a Paradox, that we 
who are Mafters of the Sea, fhould not be Mafters of 

lie. Trade, and especially of that Trade which is by 
Right our own ^ and that the French, the meaneft 
Nation in the World with refpeft to Commerce, con- 
lidering their Advantages, fhou'd rival us in fo confix 
derable a Branch of our TrafRck ? 'Tis pity, we 
who have driv'n 'em out of the Britiflj and the Me- 
diterranean Seas, fhould not clear the Atlantick of 
'em, and be entirely Mafters of our own Fifhery, 
which wou'd be fo advantagious to the Publick in ge- 
neral, and private Men in particular : For befides the 
Encouragement it gives to Navigation, the Seamen 
that it breeds, and the Trades that itmain tains, it en- 
creafes the National Stock wonderfully *, for let a Ship 
of 150 Tuns, Mann'd with 20 Hands make the Voy- 
age with nothing but Viftuals and Filhing-Tackle, 
ftie ftxall bring 3000 /. worth of Fifh to Market in a 
good Year *, and that's a certain Gain to the King- 
dom, as well as to private Men. The Englifh and 
French feldom load lefs thaii joo Ships a year, to 


The Hiftory of Newfoundlatld. 15 

France^ Portugal^ Spain zxiAItdy^ with Cod and JP^or- 7'/;e frj^^irjr 
John : And if the former did rightly confiderthe vafl 
Advantages of this Trade, they would fpare no Coft 
to eftablifh it on fo firm a Foundation, that all the Na- 
tions oi Europe cou'd not hurt them v^ it. They would 
think no Expenfe too great in building Forts, and 
fortifying the Harbours, io that they may command 
the Fifhery in them : They would gladly be at the 
charge of a Squadron of Men of War to prote£^our 
own Fifhers, and hinder others from fifhing ^ and if 
they always lay there, we might eafily in a few years 
engrofs the Trade to our felves, drive the French out 
of the Ifland, and the Neighbouring Continent^ 
which, tho it may feem to be more eafily proje^led 
than 'tis to be efFeded, is a very fealibic i3e(ign, and 
what I doubt not the Wifdom of the Nation will take 
into Confideration. Whenever this is brought to 
pafs, the Banks of Newfoundland will be more valua- 
ble to the Englifh, than the Mmes of Mexico and Peru 
to the Spaniards. Tho our Filhers feldom fiih on the 
Banks, but off their Harbours in Sloops, yet the 
Great Bank and the others are fo much talked of, 
that 'twill be expelled we fhould fay fomething of *em. 

All thefe Banks are vaft Heaps or Shoals of Sand, Ths Banksl 
that lie along- in the Ocean at feveral diftances from 
the Shore : The Great Bank is about 20 Leagues from 
Cape de Raz,^ the neareft Point of Land to it *, 'tis 300 
Miles long, and 75 broad*, the Sea that runs over it is, 
when 'tis Flood, feveral Fathom deep, and the largeft 
Ships may venture upon it without fear of ftriking, ex- 
cept at a place call'd the Virgins^ where 'tis thought 
feveral Ships have been caft away, and the Men all 
perilh'd ^ for many paffing that way have never been 
heard of. The next Bank is /^^r^-Bank, about 80 
Miles long, and 40 over where 'tis broadeft : Then 
Banquero-^d^nk lying in the Ihape of a Shoe, about 
the bignefs of the other \ then the Shoals of Sand- 
Ifland, Whalehatjk'^ the Shoals o{ Acadia^ Miz.ana-- 
Bank, and the Bank of the Iflands in St. Peter's Bay : 
Off thefe Banks, now almoft wholly frequented by 
tlie French, and on the Coafts, there have been 6 or 
700 Sail of Ships fifhing at a time. Round the Great 
Bank, which is cover'd when the Sea is high, and dry 
in feme places at Ebb, there are 200 Fathom Wa- 

x4 The Hiftory of NewfoundkncJ: 

ter on all fides of it *, and about it lie feveral fniall 
Iflands caird Los Buchaloos^ or the Ides of Cod-fifli, 
from the prodigious quantity of Cod there. The 
Fifhing-feafon is from Spring to September : The 20th of 
Augufl: fome years ago us'd to be the laft day of the Sea- 
fon, and kept as a Holiday ^ but lately the Fifhers ftay 
longer •, and whereas they us'd to fail before for Vortu- 
gal and the Streights in September^ they now feldom fail 
till OEhober *, they fifh always in the day-time, the 
Cod not biting by Night : Train Oil is drawn off 
the Livers of the Fifli, which are thrown up in Heaps 
when the Cod is cur'd, and thence there drains off 
Low- the Oil which comes kom Newfoundland. The Sea 
thorp'5 off' thefe Banks are fometimes render'd unfafe by 
Mof, floating Iflands of Ice, which have been often met 
V 1 TTI ^^^^ hereabouts by Voyagers, particularly in May^ 
T% <02 ' 1 586-. a Gentleman homeward bound from Virginia to 
* England^ wrote, that he fawoffof the Banks of New- 
foundlandy feveral prodigious floating Iflands of Ice ^ 
the Mafler of the Ship, at the Gentleman's Requefl, 
fail'd as near one of 'em as he durfl fecurely, and 'twas 
5udg'd to be a full League in length, higher above 
Water than the Main-mafl Top, and the Snow drove 
to and fro upon it, as on a large Plain ^ a great Flock 
of fmall blacK Diver s^ about the bignefs of a Feldyfare, 
came about the Ship a little before, but all of 'em left 
it, and betook themfelves to the Ifland ', this Gentle- 
man perceiv'd about 3 o of thefe Iflands of Ice ^ and to 
the Northward they are larger and more numerous. 
Jh Indi' ^^^ Natives of this Ifland don't correfpond much 
ans, ■ with the Englifh, but the French have had fome Deal- 
ings with them from Canada, They fay they are a tra- 
dable People *, and the Englifh who have dealt with 
them fay the fame : They paint themfelves, and are 
cloa-th'd with Stags-skins, all their Cloathing being 
an Apron of it round their Wafles^ they are of fmall 
Stature, broad Face and breafled, without Beards, 
their Joints well knit, and their Limbs ftrong ^ they 
are crafty, great Pilferers, dextrous at making Ket- 
tles and Canoes*, they believe in a God, which they 
fay created all things, and Men and Women, by ta- 
king a number of Arrows and flicking them in the 
Ground, from whence they fprung up. One of their 
Segamores being askt what he thought of our Religion 


The Hijtory of Ncwhundhnd. i^ 

and the Trinity, anfwer'cJ, there was one God, one 
Son^ one Mother, and the Sun, which were four, 
yet God was above alJ. Some of 'em converfe vifibly 
with the Devil, if we may give credit to the Super- 
flitiori and Credulity of our Voyagers, and from the 
Devil receive Advice concerning their Wars and other 
Matters. Their young Women at Fifteen lie withes 
many Lovers as they pleafe for s or 6 years, then 
each of 'em choofes one for her Husband, and is after- 
wards Very conftant to him. They fet their Dead in 
the Ground upright, with their Goods and Provifions ' 

as for a long Journey. They are great Dancers and 
Singers, and in th^ir Dances the Women often throw 
away the little CoVering they have, and frisk about 
flark naked. We might enlarge our Difcourfe on the 
Indians of Newfoundland^ but they differ fo little from 
thofe of the Continent, whom we ihall frequently 
fpeak of, that 'tis needlefs to fay more of 'em here ; 
befides, by converfing with Merchants and others 
who have dwelt on the fpot, and confulting them a- 
bout the Charafter of the Natives given by fuch as 
have written before us, we find there is little to be 
depended on in their Relations concerning them *, the 
Indians are either quite different now from what 
they were, when the firft Difcoverers came thi- 
ther, or thofe Adventurers impos'd upon the belief 
of their Readers in the Defcription they save of 
them. r jr & 

We left the Englifh in Poffeflion of the Eaftern mr he^ 
Shore of Newfoundland^ and carrying on their Trade trosen the 
of Fifhery peacefully and profitably, which continued ^f^glijhand 
all King Charles and King J^;;2^j's Reigns, but the^''^^^^- 
French all that while grew upon them ^ and when the 
War broke out between England and Irance on the 
Revolution, the Englifh and French in Newfoundland 
began to commit Afts of Hoftility againft one ano- 
ther : Both Nations- were diflurb'd in their Fifhing, 
and their Settlements alternatively deftroy'd, but the 
French were more careful of preferving their own 
than the Englifh, who were the greateft Sufferers, as 
will be feen in the following Pages. As to other E- 
vents in this Place from Sir David Kirk's coming 
thither, to the Late War, there were none worth 
remembring ^ and what can we exped of that nature 


i6 The Hifiory ^/Newfoundland. 

in the Hiftory of a Place fo poor, and fo void of Go- 

After the Revolution, and the breaking out of the 
War, theEnglifh and French fell upon each other, 
as often as they had any opportunity of doing it with 
advantage. The Englifh began firft, and with 5 Men 
of War, the St. AWans a Third Rate Frigat, carry- 
ing 66 Guns, being Commadore, attack'd Tlacentia^ 
but were oblig'd to retreat, the French having made 
better Preparations for their Reception than they ex- 
pelled ^ but the latter were more fuccefsful in their 
1696, Attempts on the Englifh, for in September^ 1696. 
they came down upon our Harbours with 6 Men of 
War ^ the Fdican^ Diamond^ taken from the Englifh, 
Count de Tholoiife^ Harcourtj Philips Vendimge^ and 
fome Fire-lhips and Galleys : Off Cape Spear ^ they 
came up with the Saphlre -Fngg^t^ Captain Cleashy 
Commander, to whom they gave Chafe, b6t he got 
into the Bay of Bulls^ where he did all he could to 
fortify the Place in the little time he had to do it 9 
the Englifh who liv'd in that Harbour came to his 
Afiiflance, but on the approach of the French they all 
ran away. On the wth o^ September^ the whole 
French Squadron came down upon the Saphire^ and 
fir'd with the utmofl Fury ^ Captain Cleasby made a 
brave Defence for 2 hours, and hall'd mofl of the 
Ship's Guns on her fide next the Enemy j the French 
at the fame time made a Defcent, and having driven 
the Men that were afhore into the Woods, attack'd 
the Saphire on all fides *, the Captain finding 'twas 
impoffible to maintain the Ship any longer, fet her on 
fire, and retir'd with his Officers and 35 Men to the 
Woods. When the Saphire was on fire, 40 French 
Men came aboard, endeavouring to extinguifh it, 
but they were all blown up into the Air affoon as the 
Firereach'd the Powder Room ^100 more of the Sa- 
phire's Crew getting afhore, made the beft of their 
^^ way towards Ferrylandj but were irttercepted and 
taken by the Enemy ^ Captain Cleasby and his Compa- 
ny reach'd that Harbour, where he did his utmofl to 
defend the Settlement againfl the French, who came 
and attack'd it. The 2 ifl of the fame Month they lan- 
ded 500 Men, who approach'd within Musket-fhot very 
rcfolutely, and the Englifh firing upon them v;ith e- 


Thf Hiftofy of Newfoundland. 17 

qual Refolntion otlig'd them to halt *, the French re- 
turned their Fire, and fent a Trumpet to fummon 
them to furrender. Captain Cleashy leeing 'twas im- 
poflible for him to repel fo many Men with fo few, 
came to a Treaty, and deliver'd up the Place, which 
was not tenable : Himlelf, his Lieutenant, and his 3 s 
Men, were made Prifoners of War, and lent £0 
France ^ from whence they returned to England by 
Exchange \ and the French deftroy'd that and all the 
other Englifh Settlements, except St. John% Bonavlft^ 
and Carhoneer Harbours. King William being in- 
form'd what Damage they had done to the Englifh 
a-fhore, and how they interrupted their Fifhery upon 
the Coaft, order'd a Squadron of Men of War to be ./^^^* 
Equip'd and Commanded by Admiral Nevil^ and ^^^^l 
1500 Men Were put aboard under the Command ^^ sk\o\m^ 
Sir JohnGibfdn^ at prefent Deputy Governour ofQ^i^^Qj^ 
Tortfmouth» Admiral iV^w/ faiFd in the following jjf,^^^. 
Year, and arriving at Newfoundland^ the French im- 
mediately abandon'd all the Places they had taken 
from the Englifh, on the South fide of the Ifland. 
Monfieur Tointy was at the fame time on the Coaft 
with a Squadron of French Men of War, and Admi- 
ral Nevil fell in with Him, but lofl him in a 
Fog. After this Sir John Gibfon held a Council of 
War, and the Sea-Officers ailifling at it, 'twas de- 
bated whitherthey fhou'dperfue Pointy: The latter 
were for it *, but the Land-Officers againfl it, Tointy 
having more Ships thaniVm/^ and if the Englifh 
fhou'd have had the worfl of it, it had endanger'd the 
lofs of their Part of the Ifland. The Marquefs de 
Nefmond and Monfieur Pointy appeared off St, John's 
Harbour with 1 5 Men of War, a few days afterwards, 
and Admiral Nevil had but 12 Ships of lefs Force in 
the Bay. He immediately fent notice to Capt.i>^^^, 
Commander of the Sea-Horfe^ in Scahereen Har- 
bour, that the French were on the Coafls, and bad 
him De upon his Guard *, but the Enemy did not think 
fit to attack ev'n that fingle Frigot, for fear of daring 
the Englifh to a Combat. Sir John Gihfon's Men be- 
ing very fickly, hindered his doing any thing confi- ^^ 
derable by Land. He built a regular Fort at St.John*s ^^^^ jj^^^ 
Harbour, which he call'd Fort Williamj^ and left ^^^^^^ q^^ 
Col. Handajide^ the prefent Governour of Jamaica ygrnour. 

C ' C^v 

1 8 The Hifiory of Newfoundland. 

Commander there, with 80 Men^ after which he 
return 'd to England, 
16^9, In the following year. Captain iVbrm arriv'd at 
St. John's Harbour with a Squadron of Men of War \< 
and had a Commiffion to be Governour at land alfo. 
Colonel //.s;;?^^/^^ going for &gte<^ Toon after. Cap-, 
Cit^inz tain William Lilhurn fucceeded him in the Command' 
LilburiT ^^ ^^^ Gar r ifon in Fort William ^ but there being Peace 
Go-mnor. ^^^^ France^ few Events worthy the Curiofity of the 
Reader happen'd in this Country *, where the Fifhery 
not being difturb'd, new Inhabitants came every year ^ 
infomuch that the People doubled in 3 years time.. 

1700. In the tbilowing year, Sir Andrew Lake arriv'd with 
a Squadron of Men ^ King William^ notwithftanding 
it was a peaceable time, thinking the Newfoundland 
Trade of fo much Importance, that 'twas worth 

Captain ^^^ while to be at the yearly charge of a Squadron to 
Humphry <3efend it. This year Captain Lilhurn refign'd his 
Haven Command of the Garrifon of Fort William to Captain 
Governor, Humphry Haven ^ who did not ,enjoy it long *, for in 

1 701. the enfuing year, Captain John Towel was made Go- 
Capain vernor of thQ Fort : He was lucceeded the next year 
John hy Colontl Michael Richards, This Gentleman being 
Powel ^jj excellent Ingineer, made feveral Improvements at 
oovemr, the Fort, added other Works, and fo ftrengthen'd it, 
r\'^^?* that 'tis a very regular Fortification, and one of the 
Michael ^"^^^^S^ft ^^ America. 

Richards ^^^ ^^^ t^^ Engiifh and French began to commit 
Governor, ^^w Mis of Hoftility on each other. Sir John Lake 

1703. arriving with a Squadron of Men of War, deftroy'd 
Cdpum 3 French Men of War, and 30 Merchant-men, in the 
Th. Lloyd Bay of 5f . Feter^ where the Englilh landed, attacked, 
Govermr, took, and raz'd the Fort. Colonel Richards returning to 

1 704. Englandy Captain Thomas Lloyd was made Governour 
Captam of Fort Willia?n in the following year : and Captain 
joh. Moo- y^/^^ ^^^^j^ had the fame command in the next^ 
dy Govsr- Captain, now Major Lloyd^ being then in England. 
^'^^\ In the endiing year he return 'd to Newfoundland ^ and 
r^^'^-^' bis Government there : A fatal year was this to the 
Thof^ Engiifh *, the French invaded and deftroy'd all their 
Lloyd Settlements, burnt St. John's Town, and befieg'd the 
Uover-aor, Fort with a 1000 Men^ but the Garrifon defended 

themfelves with the utmoft bravery for 5 Weeks to- 
gether ^ during which time, the French held them in 


The Hifiory of Newfoundland. 19 

continual play night and day, with Attacks and A- 
larms, and at laft weary'd out with the vigorous 
Refiftance they made, retir'd, carrying off half 
of the Englilh Prifoners with them, the reft faving 
themfelves, and the beft of their Effefts in the Fort : - 
The French wanted Stores themfelves ^ and if the 
Sloop they expefted with Supplies had arrived, they 
intended to have attackt the Redoubt again, and have 
ftorm'd the Fort v boafting, if they had St, Johr^s 
Town, they would keep all the Fifhery to themfelves. 
They threaten ftill a new Invafion, expelling Ships 
and more Troops at Queheck from France for that 
purpofe. They deftroy^all the Filhing-craft, andlefc 
none of the Englifh Youth they could light on there 
when they went away, fome they fent to France^ who 
came to England by Exchange : Others, for want of 
being exchanged, en ter'd into the French Service •, and 
fome are Slaves at Quehech They have now at Via* 
centia^ aGovernour, a Lieutenant-Governour, a Ma- 
jor, 5 Captains, and Subalterns anfwerable, 3 Com- , 
panics of Soldiers, i Gunner, i Bombardier, 3 Sar- ^^^^^ 
geants, loMafons, and other Artificers, 500 Fighting- g.^^^^^^' 
Men, befides 300 Indians and Canadians-^ and do 
their utmoft to fortify themfelves, fo that they may 
fecure their own Fifhery, and deftroy ours •, which, 
if effefted, would be a Lofs to the Nation of d^ooooo /. 
a year *, for fo much it has clear 'd by this Trade on- 
ly. To defend themfelves till Supplies come from Eng" 
landy the Inhabitants at St. John's Town have now built 
their Houfes round the Fort, under the Command of 
the Cannon, for fear of any new Infult from the Ene- 
my : Within the Palifadoes drawn round this new 
Town, they have alfo built a Church, whofeMinifter 
is the Reverend Mr. John Jackfon : 'Tis not fo big as 
that which was deftroy'd by the French *, who have 
not'fince made any further attempts on the Englifh ', 
and thofe that left their Harbours, are iince returned 
to them. 







From its Discovery to the 
prelent Times. 

In Difco* T^ "T Oua Scotia is part of the Terra Canadenfis ^ 
very, l^^L faid to be firit difcover*d by fome Bretons 

I ^|. in the Reign of Lewis XII. but that was 
JL ^S only en pajfant. Francis I. the French 
King, fent John Ferazx^an^ whom we mention'd in the 
Hiftory o^ Newfoundland^ to take pofTeflion of it in his 
- ' Name. Verazj^jin landed in North Canada^ and pof- 
fefs'd himfelf of the Country that lies beyond the Ri- 
ver of St. Lawrence^ which is now the French Canada : 
But of that part \o the Southward of the River, he 
made little or no Difcoveries y for foon after he land- 
ed in Acadia^ or New-Scotland^ the Savages fur- 
priz'd and murdered, and fome fay, eat him up. The 
Englijb always took Acadia to be part of North Virgi- 
via \ and indeed the firft Fi^'glnia- Compmy thought 
all w^as their own, which fhou'd be difcover'd North- 
ward, and was not planted by any other European 
Nation. Sehajiian Cabot's having been there before the 
; JBretonSj or F'^ by the udial way of adjudging 
Right to the IVejhJndiesj feem'd to give them the 
beu Title to it. The Princes of Europe thought they 
might difpofeofthe Dominions of the ^i^rWi^;?/', and 
made no fcruple of turning them out of their Dwel- 

The Hiftory cf New-Scotlaiid. 21 

lings, if their Subje£ls wou*d go fo far to take their 
places. All thofe Countries that had no Inhabitants, 
were free to the firft Comers: and the firft that fet- 
tled here were the Englifh. 

The Bounds of this Province are the Atlamkk O- Boii?idu 
cean to the Nonhy Breton-l[[ind and the Bay of St, 
Lawrence to the Eafl •, Canada to the Weft^ and New- 
England to t\iQ South'. It runs from +3 to 51 Degrees 
N« L. and from the River oiSt. Croix in Noremhegua^ 
to the great River of Canada ^ has almoft 200 Leagues 
of Coaft ^ but was never much inhabited by the Indi- 
ans themfelves. 

When Sir Ferdinando Gorges was Prefident of the 
New-England Company, confidering xht Extent of 
the Limits c^ their Charter, he proposed to Sir ^i//i- P^^^^fewr. 
am Alexander J one of the Secretaries of State for Scot- 
land^ and afterwards Earl of Sterling^ to procure a 
particular Patent for the Land to the Northward of 
New-England^ which Sir William^ who was in favour 
with King James^ eafily obtained *, and a Pattent for 
this Country was granted him^ bearing date Septem" 
berth^jothy leii. The next year, Sir W^///?*d{»; and 
rbme others, whom he got to be concern'd with 
him, fent a Ship, with a Company aboard, to fettle 
there, and plant: Thefe Adventurers fetting out too 
late, were forc'd to winter at Newfoundland. In 
1^23. They fet fail, and made Cape Breton^ a Pro- ^^^^' 
montory, on the Northern Shore of Breton-lUdind i 
They coafted it along, till they came to Pon-Moutonj 
near Cape Sable in Acadia : Here they found three 
pleafant Harbours^ and went afliorein one of them, Ji^^ ^rji 
which they call'd Luke's Bay : They faiPd up a great Voyage 
way in a large River, that had 8 Fathom Water at thithiro 
Ebb: On each fide of it they beheld fiowry Meadows, 
and a charming Profpefl of green Hills, and fhady 
Groves ^ or rather high Mountains, and thick For- 
j^efts : The Fields were deckt with Roles red and 
white, and Lillies of a fragrant fmell : They faw no 
body here ^ and their Curiofity being fatisfy'd, they 
coafted along to the next Harbour, two Leagues ofF^ 
Here they met with a broa.der and deeper River, and 
a more lovely Profpeifl than before : They perceiv'd 
the Situation was commodious for a Settlement, the 
Soil richj (lor'd with Fruit and Grain, and To natural- Ti&e Sell 

G 3 ly 

22 The Hifiory <>f, New-Scotland. 

ly diipos'd for ftrength^tkat it might eafily be fortify^d* 
Ti'oduct, Gooieberries, Strawberries, Hurtleberries, grew there 
in abundance *, as alfo Rye, Barley, and Wheat : But 
our Authors do not tell us who fow'd or planted them. 
From thence they faiPd to the next Harbour 12 
Leagues off, and found the Country ftill the fame, 
fruitful and beautiful : The Rivers were ftor*d with 
Cod, and other Fifh, great and fmall : There was 
alfo plenty of Fowl at land, as Wild-Geefe, Black- 
Ducks, Woodcocks, Herons, Pigeons, and many 
Xorts of Birds, the like to which they had never feen be- 
Trses* fore. The Timber Trees were Oak, Firr, Spruce, 
'Birch, and other Wood, for which they knew no 
Name : yet ail thefe Temptations did not prevail 
with them to ftay *, They returned to England 
ih-Q fame year, and vifited the Place no more. 

Thus the Plantation never came to any thing: and 
tho.feveral Ships went thither to fifh, and load Lum- 
166^, hQi'fi'om England^ and feveral ]?2Lrts of jimericaj yet 
neither the Englifh nor the Scots ever perfefted a Set- 
Seiid hy tlement *, which gave the French an opportunity to 
thelrench, feizethe Country, and fortify themfelves there dXPort 
Royalj on the North fide ofFunda Bay, in 45 Deg.N.L. 
The Englifh had fo little an opinion of this Ter- 
ritory, that they abandon 'd it to the French by the 
1667, Treaty of ^rf^^, 1^67, and made no attempt to 
difpoffefs thofe Intruders, till the late War •, at which 
we the more wonder, becaufe their Settlement was 
fonear New-England^ that in all cafes of a Rupture, it 
lay convenient to incommode them : And befides, if 
the Defcription we have given of the Province from 
Mo'rifieur our own Authors, and what the French fay of it be 
Deny'^ true., 'twas very well worth our while to put in our 
defcription claim to it, and not give up our Right out of Com- 
Geogra- placency to the French : But 'twas done in a Reign 
phique & ^]^r^^ y^.^^ more favourable to France^ than we or our 

H-^' Pofterity, I hope, (hall ever find another. 
Coftefde ^^^ People of New-England had fuch fentiments of 
f Ame- the Neighbourhood of the French in New- Scotland^ 
rique Sep'- that they refolv'd to drive 'em out at their own 
tentrio- charge : They had built a ftrong Fort at Port-Royal ^ 
nale. where Monfieur Meneval prefided as Governour : 
They had alfo feveral Plantations along the Coaft ^ 
16 $0. and drove a confiderabls Trade in Lumber, Fifhing, 


'She Hjjiory of New-Scotland. '' 25 

and Furrs *, being encreas'd to c or 7000 Souls ^ who, 
in conjunftion with their hdian-AlUQSj weretrouble- 
fom to the Englifh about Cafco Bay^. a.nd Wells^ in 
New-England: To rid themfelves of this Enemy, the 
Go\^ernment.of i\r^Ti7-£?7^te^ fent Sir William P hips sir w, 
with 700 Men, and a convenient number of Ships, to Phips 
diflodge them : Sir William fail'd from Nantajcot on ^''^'^^^ <«• 
the, 2 8/-/? o{ Aprils i6<?o. and on the nth of May^cc-^^y '^^ 
riv'd before Port Royal : Monfieur Meneval the Go- ^^^"^^* 
vernour, furrender'd the Place after two or three days 
refinance *, and Sir William Phips took poiTeffion of it 
in the Name of King William and Queen Mary^ de- 
molifh'd the Fort, fent away the French Garrifon, and 
took an Oath of Allegiance to the King and Queen of 
England^ of the French that flay'd there *, over whom 
he plac'd a "Go vernour. Sir William in his return 
deftroy'd another French Settlement at St. John*s Ri^ 
ver, on the South fide ofFunda Bay. The Englifh for 
fome time carry'd on a beneficial Traffick with the 
Natives for Furrs *, and Baron La Hontan complains La Hor- 
they under-fold the French, and took fuch meafures, tan. 
as he fear'd wou'd in time drive the latter quite out of 
the Trade : But the French have fince recover'd Port They re- 
^oyal^ and their other places in Nova Scotia^ which turn. 
they call Acady ^ and the Englifh now content 
themfelves with their old Title to the Country, with- 
out any Endeavours to iregain it. 

Twill be expelled we Ihould fay fbmething of the 
Natives of New-Scotland^ as well as of other Provin- 
ces of America : Thofe that dwell about Port Royalj 
were caird the Soiiriquoi^^ and were of a midling Sta- Delaet. 
ture, well-limb*d, tawny, black-hair'd, beardlefs, all, of the A> 
except their Rulers and Principal Men, the refb being tiva. 
oblig'd to pluck up their Beards by the roots ', they 
were drefs'd like other Indians, wearing only a Cove- 
ring over their Nudities : In Summer they liv'd upon 
Fiih, and upon Indian Corn in Winter, but did not 
know how to make it into Bread, till they were 
taught by the Europeans : They had no Form nor 
Notion of Religion •, their Conjurors whom they 
caird Autmoins^ were their Priefi:s and DofVors: 
They confulted the Devil's Oracles, and receiv'd am- 
biguous Anfwrers, like the Greeks at Delphos : They 
had certain Tabagia^ or Fefliivals, at which they us'd 

C 4. tQ 

24 5n&^ mfiory of New-Scodand 

to fing and dance inceflantly : We have met with 
Ibme of their Mufick and Poetry, which we believe 
the Curious win be pleased to lee : 

lameja dk luya Tameja douvem Hau Hau He He» 

The two laft Notes Hi Hk^ were repeated by all the 
Company prefent, like a Grand Omm :.And the Au- 
thor which Mr. Delaet too)^ this from, affirms he often 
heard the word jille-Luyay a part of the facred Canti' 
cles, in their Soi^s, averring it to be genuine. 





T^l. I AfJ Zf. JO^ 

a.. Mtddin 

c . Charltj Toum 

d. Atnchury 
I. Jiorchtftir 
f. .VittBn 

i. S^iw£ri/bd 
k. tcrttnuruth 

m. Cattomcurt 
n.£li.z<U>eth T 

tj.Strth Ciity 

r. iftatiiv JJlan A. 
J . Old Vvume- 
■t. Jifew Toufni 



TTT Ty ii*_k^l±ia^^?- 




v# Jbl ^ x» 1« 

Containing an Account of its Difcoveryj Set-" 
tlement^ Wars with the Indians and French^ 
and aU Events to the frefent Times. 


HIS Province being part of the Continent 1585. 
which was difcover'd by Sir Walter Raw- j^^ j^.r 
leigh's Servants, Barlow and Amidas ^ and y^ -^^ 
by QvLQenEllz^abeth call*d Virginia ^ we refer 
the Reader to the Hiftory of that Country for a further 
Account of its Difcovery. The firft Man who landed 
here of our Nation, was Sir Francis Drake^ returning 
from the Wefi-Indies^ in the year 1585-- He ftay'd 158^. 
two or three days on the Coaft, and traded with the 
People for what he wanted. One of the Indian Kings 
fubmitted to Queen Eliz^aheth *, a Submiflion which 
fignify'd no more than a Courtiers Compliment. 
Captain Barlow^ and fuch as fail'd to Virginia after 
him, generally went to South Carolina^ and thofe 
partson the Continent to the Southward of the Bay 
of Chefeapeak which were all caird South Virginia^ as 
thofe to the Northward were North Virginia^ for feve- 
ral Years, 
> . ' ^ . Cap- 

g6 The Hifiory of New-England. 

Cdpt, Gof- Captain Bartholomew Gofnold^ of whom we have 
nold'j had occafion to fpeak in the fame Hiftory that we have 
Voyage, niention'cl above, was the firft Englilh man who made 
any con fider able ftay in this Country : He was very 
well treated by the Savages; and traded in the 
Latitude of 43. where, he made land near Ptfcataway 
River ; but not liking the Weather he met with there, 
% he flood more to the Southward : He^faiFd all Night, 
i(?o2. and next Morning fqund himfelf imbay*d within a 
mighty Head of Land, which Promontory he call*d 
Cape Codj from the vaft quantity of Cod-fifh he took 
there ; 'tis the Northern Point of Plymouth County : 
He alfo gave the name of vl/rfrf/7^'s Vineyard, and 
Eliz.aheth'l^dSidy to two Iflands lying to the South- 
ward of the C^^^^y wher? fome cjf his Crew made an 
Experiment how Englifh Corn would grow; and 
before they went, they faw what they had fown come 
up very kindly. 

The Reputation, of this place, by the Chara£ler Cap- 
tain Gofnold had given it, put fome Gentlemen upon 
begging a Grant \ of it, (and this is the Charter we 
have mentioned in the above-cited Hiftory to b6 
lirfl Pro- granted "to Thomas HUnham^ Rawlelgh Gilbert j Willi- 
frietors, am Parker^. . George Popham^ Efquires ; and others 
of the Town of Plimouth, &c. to plant where theyfhall 
think fit and convenient^ between 38 and 45 Degrees of 
Northern Latitude.) The Lord Chief Juftice Popham^ 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges Gov^xnoxxt of PUmoathj and fe- 
veral other Weft-Gouritry Gentlemen and Merchants, 
were concerned in this Company y who, in Augufiy 
1606, I So 6, fet out a Ship for a Voyage to North Virginia : 
There were about 3 o Men aboard ; and the direftion 
Mr. Chal- of the Affair was given to Mr. Henry Ghallons : who 
lom fet faird as far as the Spanifh Ifles ; and falling in with a 
out by fleet of Spaniards, was taken, and fent Prifoner to 
ihm, Spain-, together with all his Companions ', where he 
afid they w^ere barbarooily treated. Tho the Adven- 
turers were very much difcourag'd by this ill Succefs, 
yet the Lord Chief juftice Popham quickly after fent 
Capuin out another Ship, commanded by Captain //^;?/j^z^, ^ 
Hanham. one of the Pattentees *, who made fuch Difcoveries, as 
Cm Pop-^^^^^ who fell off before, refolv'd now to adventure a- 
iarn* and, g^i^ V ^"^ accordingly Captain P<7p^<5f;«,anS Captain 
Capuin Gilbert^ two others of the Pattentees, were difpatch'd 
Gilbert. awa^ 

The Hifiory of New^England. 27 

away with Two ships, 100 Men, Ordnance, Stores, 
and Provifions, for a Plantation. Thefe Gentlemen 
arriv'd there in the year 16-08. and feated themfelves i<5'o8. 
about the River of Sagadahock in Noremhegua'^ At the 
Mouth of which River, they built St» George's Fort : 
But Captain Popham dying, and Captain Gilbert be- 
ing oblig'd to return to England^ to take pofTefiion of 
an Eftate which was fall'n to him by the Death of his 
Elder Brother Sir John Gilbert^ at that time Prefident 
of the North Virginia Company, the new Plantation 
was broken up, and the Planters re-imbark'd for Eng- 
land. Things lay thus till the year i^-ii. and then i5ii. 
fome of the Ad venturei's, who had more Courage than 
the reft, and was loth to lofe the Country, fitted out 
two Ships, commanded by Captain Hobfon^ and Cap- C^ptdn 
tain Herly^ and accommodated with Men, Arms, Am- Hobfon 
munition, and Provifions, for a new Settlement : ^ni^^^^^^P' 
one Hind an Interloper, fet the Savages againft them ^^^^ '^ 
upon their Arrival*, and the Indians alTaulting them, ^' 
wounded many, tho they kilFd none. Captain //o^- 
y^^ perceiving *twas to no purpofe for him to ftay 
there, and coming thither to trade-, and not to war, 
laird home again to England : However, notwith- 
ftanding all thefe Difcouragements, the Trade wasTo 
beneficial by the Furrs, and other Commodities, that 
were brought thence, that four Gentlemen, Captain 
Rawden^ Captain Langham^ Mr. Bully^ and Mr. Skelton^ 
fet out two good Ships at their own charge, to make 
^ Peace with thQ Indians, and renew the Traffick: The 
! Command of the Ships, and th^ Management of the 
i: Adventure, was given to Captain John Smithy who had Capuin 
[been Prefident of the Colony zx South Virginia^ andJol^" 
j was famous for his Exploits there : The Captain being Smith'j 
jjCome to the Coafts, fifh'd for Cod, traded with the Aiven- 
I'i Inhabitants ^ and having only 8 Men in his Com pa- *^^^^- 
|ny, landed, rang'd up and down, and furvey'd the 
I Country. He made a very good Voyage ^ and put 
11500/. in his pocket : The Gentlemen on whofe ac- 1^13. 
count he went, were alfo fully re-imburs'd their 
■Charges by the Produce of their Otter and Beaver 
ij Skins, Salt Fifh, Train Oil, and. other Commodi- 
jties.^ He preiented the Court of Managers of the q^'^^ 
\North Virginia Company, with a Draught of the New-En- 
! Country, and got it call'd by the Name ofiVfTr-&^- gland. 


2i Yhe Hipry of New-England. 

land in the ye^r i<?i4. The Society upon this Suc- 
cefs, immediately difpatch'd away 4. Ships, manning 
them with the fame Men that had been with Captain 
Smithy who did not go this Voyage, and filling up 
their Compliment with others : Thefe Ships made 
i^;^ their Voyage in fix Months, as the laft had done, and 
returned with a profitable Lading. The fame year. 
Captain Smith faiPd with two Ships for New-England ^ 
and ill Weather breaking his Mails, he was forc'd to 
return to Pllmouth : Whence, fo eager v/as he for the 
Voyage, he put to Sea only with a Bark, and pro- 
Captain ceeding towards New-England^ was taken by the 
Smith ta- French, and fent Priibner into France: One of the 
ken by the Ships that was to have gone with him, arriv'd there V 
French, and came back with a good Cargo. 
j^jg. The next year, there went 8 Ships from Z^W^/i 
and Pllmouthy which were loaden with Fifii and Train 
Oil v and fold their Commodities at good Rates in 
Spaln^ and the Canary Iflands. The year after, the 
Company fent no Ships thither ^ but in the following 
year two flout Ships (ail'd from Pllmouth *, and made 
a profperous and profitable Voyage in 5 Months. In 
% 61 8. i.|^g yg^^ enfuing, another Ship was fent to New-Eng" 
land ^ and the Adventurers fucceeded fo well, that e- 
very private Seaman had, clear of all Charges, 1 7/. to 
his fhare,in 6 Months time \ as much as 30/. now *, and 
as good as 5 /. a Month, a Mafter's Pay, Thus the 
Trade to this Country went forward, but the Settle- 
ment was little thought of ^ till Mr. John Rohlnfon and I 
Theoccafi" Mr. William Brexvfier (the former an Independant 
en of the Minifiier, who was driven out of England in the Reign 
jlrfi Settk' of King James I. for his Principles, and liv'd at Leyden) 
ment by reviv'd the Enterprize : Mr. Brewfter^ and feveral Eng- 
^Ir. John lifh Families follow'd Mr. Rohlnfonto Holland ^ where, 
Robinlon.^j^Q they had the Liberty of their Confciences, yet 
they found a great many'Hardfhips and Inconveniences ^ 
and thought by removing to America^ they might 
not only have the fame Liberty of Confcience, out 
more Opportunities of providing for their Families, 
King JameSy by Sir Robert Nanton^ the Secretary of 
State's Mediation, confented to their tranfporting] 
themfelves thither. Sir Robert ask'd the King, Thati 
fuch a People might enjoy their Liberty of Confcience ^ w«- 
,dcr his Gr adorn Protc^lon^ In America \ where they. 

roou . 

^he Hijiory of New-Ertgland. i^ 

^m^A endeavour the Advancement of his Majefly*s Do- 
mnionsy and promote the Gofpel, The King reply'd^ 
'Twas a good and honefi PropofaL Mr. Brewfier f for 
Mr. Roblnjfon did not live to go in Perlon) made an A- 
greenient with the Company for a large Tra£t of Land . 
in the South- Weft parts of New-England. He and his 
Companions 6mbark'd at Delfr^ and faird to Southamp^ 
ton-^ where they met another Ship, that went with 
them, having feveral Diflenters aboard, who, quite 
tir'd out with the Perfecutions they met with, on ac- 
count of their Non-conformity, were refolv'd to ac* 
company them. They fet fail the 5^/? of ^«^w# , i6io\ t^liu 
and after a dangerous Voyage, fell in with Cape Cod 
the 9th o{ November : They defign*d to have fat down 
upon Hudfon River •, but their Dutch Pilot had been 
brib'd by the Hollanders to carry them more to the 
Northward \ the Dutch intending themfelvesto take 
PofTeffipnof that part of the Continent, which they Ti&ej?;^ 
! did afterwards j and were lately difpoflefs'd by the^'^'^^ 
\ Englifh, who call the Country New-Tork. Being ^vf« 
! come upon the Coaft they intended to pofTefs, they re- 
folv'd on a Form of Government before they landed, 
and fign'd an Inftrument as the Foundation ofit^ 
Declaring themfelves SuhjeBs of the Crown of England, 
joining in a Body Politick^ andfolemnly engaging Sub- 
mijfion^ and Obedience to the LawSj &c. that Jhou*d 
from time to time he made for the Good of the Colony. 
This was done on the nth of November ^ after which 
' they chofe Mr. John Carver to be their Governour : Mr. Joha 
who fent 1 6 Men afhore to make Difcoveries, and Carver 
look out a convenient Seat for their Settlement : They Governor 
landed over againft Rhode Ifland, in the Kingdom of 
Patuxet'^ which Indian Nation had lately been de-> 
ftroy'd by a Peftilence. The Savages, as they advanced 
higher up within Land, fled from them ^ However, 
: they found fome Indian Corn that was bury'd in the 
; Snow. They fent another Party of 30 Men, and a 
tl third of 20, who had the fame Succefs r The laft were 
;,! furrounded by fome Indians, who let fly a ihower of 
I Arrows at them ^ but upon the Englilh firing their 
iPieces, they fled into the Woods, as the others had 
lldone. They then took Boat, and iail'd, till they 
ijjcame tea place which feem'd to be for their purpole : 
The Land was high, and accomodated with pleafant 


JO The Hip:ory of New-England. 

Fields and Brooks ^ The Harbour was a Bay larger 
than Cape Cod ^ and two fine Iflands, Rhode Ifland, 
and Elizabeth Ifland, in it. This Place was alfbfo 
near Cape Codj that it might be feen from an adja- 
cent Hill. 

Here thefe Adventurers refolv'd to feat themfelves ; 
and accordingly began to build a Town on Chrifimas- 
day ^ which in 4. Months fpace they effected in fome 
Plimouth meafure, and calj'd it Pllmoutk They had yet no 
Colonjf, Authority from England to confirm them in their 
PolTefiions '^ the Place being too far to the North- 
ward of that which they had treated for : and till they 
were impower'd to proceed legally by Charter from 
the King, they agreed among themfelves to chufe Ru- 
lers, who were, as near as pcflible, to govern them 
by the Laws of England, They faw no Indians all the 
Winter*, but were feverely afftifted by Sicknefs, 
which leflen'd their number from 15:0, to 50 Men. 
Early in xhQ Spring, one of the Lords of the Moratig- 
gon Indians, who dvvelt 5 days Journey from them, 
enter'd their Town alone, and bad them Welcome in 
Englifh *, for he had learnt a little of the Language by 
his converfing with thofe Traders that had been there 
before from England : Him they treated highly, and 
engag'd in their Interefls ^ as they did Maffajfoit^ the 
greateft King in all thole parts, by the means of one 
Squanto an Indian, who had been in England : and tho 
he had no great caule to love them for the occafion of 
Jiis being there, yet he-was fo well us'd, that he ever 
after had a friendfhip for the Englifh : He had been 
fpirited away by Hunt the Interloper, with Twenty 
Indians *, whom that Traitor fold to the Spaniards for 
Slaves : Squanto afterwards made his efcape into Eng- 
land f, and was a Servant to one Mr. Slany •, from 
whom, tho he had no reafon but his love of Liberty to • 
leave him, he got away to his own Country ;, and did ! 
very fignal Services to our Nation : For he fatisfy'd the • 
Indians, who in revenge, had till thenrefolv'd to mur- 
der all the Englifh who fell into their hands, that this 1 
Hunt was generally cry'd out againft as a Villain, for 
Jrt AmbaC- ^^'^^"^ ^^ ^^^ done. Squanto was more than ordinarily 
fy j^ ^y kind to the New Colony, ferv'd them as an Interpre- 
hhihn ter, and as fuch accompany'd Mr. Win/low in his Am- 
Kj^g Mai- bafly to Adfajfajfolt^ to confirm the Peace that King hadi 
faiToit. come. 

Th0 Hifiory of New-England. 1 1 

come on pur pofe to conclude at Plimouth Town : Mr. 1^21; 
IfmJIow had' the honour to be lodg'd on the Royal Bed 
l^Maffajfoit and his Queen ^ the King doing the fame 
honour to two or three of his Grandees •, which crou- 
ded the AmbafTador fo, that he did not at all like his 
Lodging 5 befides, Maffajfoit's Court was fo ill provi- 
ded with Food, that Mr. Win/low was aimofl ftarv'd : 
•However, this Friendfhip was the more defir'd, be- 
caufe the NarragantfetSy a powerful Nation, had de- 
clar'd War with the Colony, and fent them an 
Anibaffade of Defiance ^ which Mr. Carver returned 
boldly, and fomewhat ch«^k*d the Infolence of the 
Barbarians. The Governour dying in the firft year of 
his Government, William Bradford Efq-, was chofen ^^ ir^"l 
to fupply his place : He was a York/hire Gentleman, ^^^i 
and one of thofe who came from Holland •, from whence Jl!^^^ 
more Families arrived, as alfo others from England^ be- 
fore the end of the Summer : And now the People began 
to plant in the Fields about the Town, to clear 
the Woods, to enlarge their Bounds, and built a 
fort of Fort at Plimouth j to prevent any furprize from 
the Narragantfets. They were in great diftrefs for 
want of Corn, till their own was fit to be gathered ; 
and that had like to have been fpoiFd by a fevere 
Drought, but there fell afterwards fuch refrefhing 
Showers, asrecover'd it^ and the Settlement flourifti'd 
and encreas'd daily. In the mean while, they had no 
Pattent from England : To get which, they employed a 
i Perfon, who took it out in his own Name, and wou'd 
have betray 'd the Colony •, but at laft, after feveral un- 
; fuccefsful Attempts to go thither, he refign'd it : And 
jMr. Win/low J the New-England Agent in England^ pror 
cur'd one ^ which he took out in th« name of the Go- 
;vernour, William Bradford^ his Heirs ^ Affoclates^ and 
L^g^s: But when the Number of Freemen increased, 
[the General Court defir'd him to furrender it into their 
jhands \ which he generouily did. And thus the Pro-> 
vincej)ecame a kind of Republick, by Pattent from 
King James L that Pattent (referving the Sovereignty ta 
\^he Crown of England) enabled the People to choofe a 
vGovernour^ Council^ and General Courty in manner of a 
fiParliament y who Jhould have full Power of Adminifira' 
many Execution^ &c. As will appear by the Laws, to 
jwhich I refer the Reader. For want of a regular Ghro-= 


^2 The Hifiory of New-England, 

nology in this Hiflory, we are forc'd to ^nte-date 
fome Events, andpoftpbne others*, biit we have been 
asexaft aspoflible j and fometimes fhall do thus, on 
purpofe to avoid breaking the thread of the Difcourfe. 
The Peo|)le -at Plimouth extended their Trade on all 
fides : And Mr. Bradford put to Sea in Perfon, to find 
out a PalTage to the Majjachvfets within the Shoals of 
Cape Cod \ but he did not fucceed in it ^ However, 
he went thither by Land to trade with them. He 
found the Nation in a fickly Condition, and in an ill 
Humour with the Englifh, on account of fome LofTes 
they had fufFer'd from a Colony that had planted them- 
felves among them, under the Direction of Mr. Wc" 
fion-^ who deferted that ^tTlimouth^ and feated ano- 
Wey- ther fmall one at Weymouth^ in Suffolk County in Maf- 
Tilt /^^^^/^^'s Bay. This Mr. Wefion, and his Followers, 
difTenting from the Church of New-England^ fet up a 
Cot. Mat. Forjn of Worfhip in imitation of the Anglican Church \ 
and 'twere to be wifh'd, that they had taken care by 
their Lives to adorn the Doftrine they profefl. On 
the contrary, They abus'd the Friendfhipof the Colo- 
ny at Plimouth^ and robb'd the Savages j and what 
was worfl of all, they had enter'd into a fort of Part- 
nerfhip in fome points of Trade with the Plimouth Co- 
lony, wliich feeni'd to make them concerned in their 
Robberies ^ and that render'd them fufpedled to the 
Indians. Mr. Wefion's Men fpoird the Indian Trade, 
by the great Prices they gave for Furrs and Corn. 
The Governour from this Nation returned to Nanfcty 
at the Bottom of Cape Cod^ thence to Mattachiefi^ Na- 
fnasket^ and Mammet •, where he got good flore of 
Corn. The King of the lafl Nation, acknowleg'd the 
Sovereignty of King James, Mr.Bradford by thefe tar^ 
ding Voyages plentifully fupply'd his Friends, who had^. 
not Corn enough of their own Growth, to anfwer the ; 
confumption of the Colony. The next Perfon who was 
fent aboard on the like account, was Captain Miles 
Standijh^ who commanded the Militia of the Settle- 
ment \ which by this time amounted to 4 or 500 Men 
effeiftive : He went to Mattachieft^ but was not as 
well us'd as the Governour, for the Savages pilfer'd his 
^^gg^^g^ ^s they faw opportunity to do it : While he 
was at Manomet^ another Indian Town, one Witu< 
rvameta, Aiajfachufet Indian, came to the King as ap 


The Hijlory of l^QW-Bnghnd. H 

AmbafTador from that Nation, to defire him to enter 

I into a League with them for the extirpating the Englifh • 
as well at PUmouth as 2XWeymouth. C2i^t.Standiflj^2iftQV 

I this Man had had his Audience, perceiv'd his Ufage 
was worfe than before *, fo he got his Corn aboard 
his Sloop as faft as he could, and hailen'd back to 

I flimouth^ halMng twice efcAp'd the Defigns of a Tray- 
terous Indian, imploy'd by the Sachem^ or King of 
Manomety to murder him. About this ti me Maffa^oitj 
the Colony's Ally, fell fick, and a Compliment of Con- 

I doleance being in fuch Cafes expelled by the Kings of 
the Savages,Mr.JF/^<?n7 was again fent to him to pay it. 
This Gentleman not only perform'd the Office of an 
Ambaflador, but of a Phyfician ^ and as bad as the 
Monarch was, fome Englifh Cordials reftor'd him to ^ 
his former Health. In return of which Kindnefc, Maf J^^ ^^^r'l^ 
J^/o/> told him, the Confpiracy that th^MaffachufetSj.^^y^*^ 
had form'd againll the Engliib, and advis'd him to fair^^^^«^' 
upon them before they could execute it. The Englilh 
at Weymouth were fo infulted by them, that their 
Lives were precarious, the Savages taking the Provi- 
fions out of their very Fort, and threatning to cut 
the Throat of any Man that durfl call tnlm to ac- 
count for it. Thefe things being reprefented by 
MxWtnflow and Weflon's Men to the PUmouth Colony, 
they took it into Confideration how to proceed in the 
Matter *, and hi the mean time theGovernour order'd 
Capt. Standijh to go to Weymouth^ and defend the 
Engliih there againft the Savages, notwithftanding 
they had by their Diforders brought this Danger upon 
themfelves , and all their Countrymen. When 
Mr. Standi]}} came among them, he found the Indians 
as it were Mafters of that fmall Colony, and they 
us'dhim as ill as they did the Inhabitants of ^F^j/wowr^. 
He had but 8 Men under him -^ with whom however chaftis'df 
j he fell upon the Indians, kill'd fome of the Chief of 
i 'em, and drove the reft to the Woods. 
! Among thefe Indians was Wituwamet before-menti- 
on'd, a Bullying Barbarian, and an Enemy to the En- 
glifh *, and one Peckfnot^ a Fellow of Gygantick Sta* 

I ture. With thefe two, Capt. Standijh and another 
EngUfhman fought,and kill'd them on the Spot in fair 
Combate. He Challeng'd the Sachem of the Maffachu^- 
fets to decide the Gontroverly, the fame way which 

D the 

14 The Hiftory of- New-England. 

the Barbarian refus'd to do : And Mr. Stdndijh having 
put new Life into Wefion's Men, by his Example and 
Affiftance, they fell upon the Indians, who tied from 
'em with Terror and Precipitation at the noife of 
their Guns. Thefe Indians were fuch as liv'd near- 
eft Weymouth Settlement, and they giving the AUarm 
to the reft, the' whole Nation was imnfediately up in 
Arms. At the approach of the Englilli they difpers^d •, 
. fo Cmt^Standifl) returned in Triumph to Plimouth^ car- 
fyin'g with him the Head of Witmvamet^ which an 
Indian in that Town feeing, was fo dejefted, That be- 
ing queftion'd upon it, he confeft the MaffachufetSj and 
the other IndianNations in Ally ance with them, defigns 
againft the Englilh. This Savage they releas'd, and 
fent to the Sachem to let him know. That they 
were provided to receive him ^ and if he attempted 
any thing againft the Peace of the King of England's 
Subjeas- at mymouth^ they wou'd feverely revenge 
■it Upon which the King fubmitted, and beg'd Par- 
Iheyfub- don. -the Indians were not long after moft of them 
mh. deftroy'd by a Plague, which made room for the En- 

Mltovhcgiow inhabit the Country they then PolTefsU ; 
Both- the Settlements were quiet, and fo continued 
for TO years, profpering under the wile Government 
of Mr. Bradford^ a Gentleman of equal Piety and 
Learning, and as ^Lealotts for the good of the Colony,-, 
as- if he had been their Common Father. The iVey^- 
-^5wf^ Settlement leften'd by degrees, as tUPUmoufh^ 
encreas'd-, and at laft the People were forc'd to leave 
i^,"; and ^remove either to the other ^t Plimouth, or. 
remm to Old England, ^ ; r t.^ 7> ' 

^ Tis-time we ihou'd take iome notice or Mr. Brew-: 
fieK who was the next Founder of this Sett! emeu t to 
Mr. Rohinfon^ and may indeed be reckon'd the firft *, 
becaufe he came over,, and liv'd and %'d here. Tho 
he was a Lay-Man, yet, according to the Terms ot 
their Relipion, as a Ruling Elder he might teach and! 
penonii aU the other Offices of the Miniftry, exceptc 
5.vrn^iv<^.-g the Sacraments, which he was not quaiify'41 
by Oidiiiation to do. So thefe New-England Meai 
continu'd without a Faftor till the Year. 1^2.9*, wheni 
1 629. y^^ j^jpi^ g^i^ij arriv'd from England^ and took upoai 
Phmouth j^.^^^ ^|,^. Government of the Church at Pltfmuth.. 
ri^ With Mm came the firft Black Cattle thither, whichh 

The Hiftory of New-England. 3 5 

have fb multiply'd, that for many years this Colony 
has fupply'd the Sugar-Iflands with Provifions as 
much as any, or all the reft, ot Old England it felf. 
Mr. Smith prov'd to be a Man of very ill Morals ^ and 
for that, and his writing Home againft the People of 
New-England^ which the Governour difcover'd by 
intercepted Letters, He was exp^U'd the Planta- 

While the Colony at Plimouth by their Planting, 
Fifhing, and Traffick, were growing rich and nu- 
merous, feveral Worthy Perfons, encourag'd by" 
jthe Proipeft of Advantage, and others animated by 
LZeal for the Propagation of Religion, refolv'd 
to make Settlements in other Parts of the Coun- 
try. The chief of thefe was Mr. White Minifter of 
hDorchefi-er^ who having ^ngag'd feveral Gentlemen in 
jthe Defign. they fent Mr.Roger Conant with Tome Men 
nd NecefTaries, to fettle about Cape jinn^ the Nor- 
hern Promontory of Majfachufets Bay. Mr. Conant 
as foon weary of his Poft and about to return, 
li^'ii he received encouraging Letters from Mr. iVhite^ 
iilTuring him, That he wou'd procure a Patent for him 
imd his Companions, and feafonable Supplies of all 
Ifhings: Upon which he ftay'd and look'd out for a 
[aiore commodious Place to build a Town upon. 
jVIr.JF/7/>e,as he had promis'd5by folliciting the Matter 
Jtrenuoufly did it fo effeftually, That feveral of his 
friends purchased of the NorthY'vcgixm. Company^ caWdy 
Yhe Council of Plimouth, that Part of New England 
jfvhich lies b cween the River Merimack diXid Charles- 
Jliver in the bottojii of Maffachfets Bay. The chief 
:jf thefe were , Sir Henry Rofwellj Sir John Yoimgy 
'iir Richard Saltonjiall^ Ifaac Johnfon^ Efq^ Matthew 
^adock^ Efq^ Theophilus Eaton^ Merchant, Thomas 
Muthcot^ Elq-, and Mr. John Fen. They bought all 
jhe Company's Right and Intereft, and obtain'd 
i Grant of the King, bearing Date in the Year 
f62'i. To hold their Lands in Common Socc age as of the i(5'28. 
\Manner of Eaft-Greenwich, and an AfTurance of Pro-Maflachu- 
'bftion in their Liberty of Conlcience, and for all iuch tec Cgkyij, 
ip ftiould remove thither. Several of them accord- 
ingly went over with their Families, and carry*d with q!J;^|Jq^ 
jbm as many as they cou'd engage to accompany them. ^^-1' q^^ ' 
m thefe Matthew Craddock^ Elq j was appointed Go- y'^rnour, 

D 2 vernour^ 

36 The Hiftory of New-England. 

nour, who feated him{elf at a Place call'd iT^te-'i 
keik by the Indians, to which thefe Kon-conformifts 
save the Name of 5^/^w, about 8 Miles Northward of ^ 
T l^^^tf ' Bofion in the County oi Effex. To them came UxMg- j 
ritnt Fr.. vnp>n, a Lefterjhire Minifter, and Mr. Skelton 2. Mim- 
B^vm fter QiLlncolnjUre, filenc'd for their not Conforming | 
gJw. to the indifferent things imposed on them by their J 
Ecclefiaftical Governours. And thefe drew lo many J 
Puritans after them, that ^akm Colony in a little| 
while began to Rival her Elder S\Rqic Phmoutk^ 
Mr. Higginfon wasChofen Minifter of the Church at 
Salem, and Mr- Skelton his AlTociate. The former^ 
dy'd in about a Year, and his Son Mr. John Hlgginjon 
fudcceded him very young in the Miniftry, and is 
Minifter of 5^/^;^ at this Day. . c - 

The Company of Adventurers in England hnding 
thc'iY Ma^acLfet Colony thriv'd, and was likely to 
turn to a good Account, refolv'd to give it due En- 
couragement *, and confidering UxXraddock was 
srown old, and his Deputy John Endwot, Eiq; not 
To fit for the Poft as a Man of greater Quality and In- 
tereft wou'd be •, By Virtue of their Charter, which 
impower'd them to eled their ownGovernour, De^ 
• puty-Governour and Magiftrates, they made fohf 
JohnWin- Winthrop, Efqv of Groton in SuplK Governour, an4^ 
t^^^V.^k.rhomas Dudley, Efq*, of Northampton, Deputy Gof 
Governor, ^^^^^^,^^ ^c .j^^ ^^^^ Colony. To whom they fen| 
DnXv' with thefe Gentlemen large Supplies of Neceffarie^' 
E^^ I)Vp«-and about 1000 Perfons tranfported themfelves thithet 
vt^ at this Time. Among whom were Sir ^..W^ Sal^ 
mr. tonfial, Theophilus Eaton, John renn^f%f^^' >^^^^ 

Efq- and his Wife, the Lady -/4rr^^^//^7<?/:'^M They 
arriv'd in New-England in the foUowing Year 1^3 0. 
Mr Wlnthrop entring upon the Exerciie ot his Uttice, 
gain'd the Affeftion and Efleem of every Body ; and 
the eafmefs of his Government, the Succeis ot his 
Councils, and the Piety of his Life, invited man>^ 
more Families to retreat thither from the rage o 
their Perftcutors, who are an eternal Shame to tl| 
Purity of our Holy Religion, f ^,^^^.^,^^^^4\^,]f^^^ 
per of a true Church ot &g/W-Spirit The He| 
of thefe Furious Zealotc, was the Head of the Chui| 

at thattime, Archbiihop L^^^^^- J,%''^Y''] Sffo 
gland ^ was as much oblig'd, as Old England wa^dilo 

The Hijiory of Nev/'Enghnd. 37 

!ig*d by him *, for his obftinate Severity drove To 
lany thoufands out oi England thithtr^ for Liberty 
if Confcience, that he was himfelf fore'd to complain 
f it to the King, and defire fome reftraint might 
>e put upon their abfenting the Kingdom. Since 
is Spiritual Sword cou'd not reach 'em in America^ 
e refblv'd to hold them within the length of his Arm, 

will be {een hereafter. 

To difturb the Peace of this Gentleman, Mr, Win- 
hrop^ and his Colony, He fummon'd one Mr. Cleaves ^ 
efore the King.^ in hopes to get fame Accvfation from ^"' 
im againji the Country, Mr. Cleaves gave fuch an ^^^' 
iccount of the Governour's laudable Carriage in all 
efpeBsj that his Majejfy exprefl himfelf highly pie as' d 

nth him. 

ThQ Maffachufet Settlement had now built feve^ 
al Towns , as Charles-Town^ on Charles River in 
Widdlefex County, where there was a Church ereft- 
d, and Mr. Wilfon an outed iVIinifter of Sudbury in. 
uffolky chofen Paftor of it, Dorchefter in Suffolk 
-ounty, and Bofton^ which rofe out of the Ruins, if we 
lay ufe the Expreiiion, of Charles-Town, That Town 
eing not thought fo Commodious for Trade as Bo- 
^ofij many of the Inhabitants remov'd thither, as did 
he Minifter Mr. Wilfon. This Place flourifh'd fo 
nuch, that in a little Time it became the Capital . 
f Maffachufet Colony, and of all ISfew-England. Af- 
er Bojlon^ Roxhury in Suffolk County was built, and 
hen Lyn m Effex County, Water-Town in Middlefex 
ounty J all thefe were finifh'd and iettled in lels 
han two years, and the Plantation went on fo profpe- 
oufly by the Multitudes of Peaple who came over, 
hat fome of them were fore'd to remove to other 
arts of the Country. 

The firft who broke up from Maffachufet Colony, ^. 

vasMr. Thomas Hooker ^ Minifter o{ Cofnhridge^ ^'^'^'^ -CoL/i 
^ated himfelf at a Place on ConneHicut River, where ?^J^^ ^ ^ 
le built the Town of Hartford in the County, from^' * * 
hence call'd Hartford-County. From Dorchefler^ fe- 
eral Families remov'd to the Place now call'd Windfor^ 
n the fame County of Hartford. From Water-Town 

veral went and fettled on the place where Weathers- 

ield now (lands, as they did from Roxhury to Spring- 

h^\d. This New Settlement had a fort of Commifiir 

3 8 The Htftory of New-England/ 

\6i's* on for what they did from that of Majfachufet'^ but 
finding they had extended their Difcoveries far be- 
yond the Limits of that Colony, they fet up an inde? 
pendant Government of their own, founding it on a 
League or Agreement among themfelves, became a 
Body Politick, made necefTary Laws and Orders, 
chofe proper Officers to execute them, and Edward 
Edward Hopkins Efquire to be their Governour. This Gen- 
Hopkins tleman retarn'd afterwards to England^ was made 
EjT'^ ^^' Warden of the Fleet, one of the Commiflioners of 
vemor. ^^^ Admiralty, and chofen a Member of Parliament 
duiing the Prote£^orate of CromweL But many years 
before he left New-England^ he was every otheif 
year chofen Governour of ConneEhicut Colony. The 
Man who had always the Alternate with him, being , 
}^ri.i.^nt, joijn Haynes Efquire. This Settlement was fcarce 
Jm '^r' ^^^^ ^^^' before George Fenwick Efquire, wasfent toi^ 
• New-England^ on account of fever al Perfons of Quali-| 
ty, who had bought of the Lord Say^ and the Lord 
JBrookj fome Lands on the River which ran thro' Con^ 
netbicut Colony. Mr, Fenwick feated himfelf at the'< 
Mouth of 'the River •, and built the Town call'd Say- 
hropL The Lord Say and Brook's, Title to that Terri- 
"tory^ was by a Grant from the Earl of Warwick^ to 
whom tYiQ King had given it. John Winthrop Jun, 
, Efquire, affifted him in this Undertaking *, and had 
himieif thoughts of planting there : To which end, 
he got a Grant of the fe Lords for fome Lands*, but' 
being unwilling to hinder the new Colony, he made 
no ufe of his Grant. In confideration of which, he 
was chofen their Governour after the Reftoration. 
The ConneEiicut Colo«y thinking, that by purchafing 
this Ground^ their Right to the Land they had leiz'a 
without any Grant wou'd be the ftronger, bought it 
of Mr. Fenwick by Confent of the Proprietors ^ :hat 
Gentleman having but begun his Plantation, and not 
finding fuflRcient Encouragement to finifh it. With 
this fhadow of a Coiftitution they continued till after 
the King's Reftoratton:^ and then they procur'd 
Charter from the Crown*, upon which they chofe 
John Winthrop Efquire, Son of Mr. Winthrop GowQt' 
nour of Maffachvfet^ to be their Governour. 

Two years after the fettling the Colony at ComeBl- 
€ntj Mr. Iheophilus Eaton^ and Mr. Davenport a Mini^ 


The Hifiory <?/ New-England. J9 

.J ftet-, hearing of another Bay to the South- weft o^Con- 
', netiicut^ and espefting more Families to follow them 
from England^ purchas'd of the Proprietors, all the 
Land that lay between .them and Hudfon's River, 
\ which divides the Southern parts of New-England 
Ifrom NewTork J and remov'd thither in the year 
1 5-5 7. where they feated themfelves in a pleafant Bay j i ^3 7» 
and built New-haveny which gave name to the Colo- New Ha- 
ny, Guildford^ Milford^ Stamford^ and Bra'mford. ven Colo- 
1; Tho they had a Right to the Lands by purchafe, they ny, 
; had none to a particular Government ^ yet they fbrm'd 
lihemfelves, by mutual Agreement, into a Body Poli- 
tick. Thefe Men who fettled here, were generally Lon- 
\ doners and Merchants ^ and apply'd themfelves atfirft jj^gQp|^«_, 
jto Trade *, choofing Mr. Eaton^ who had been bred a j^^^ ^^tq^ 
j Turkey Merchant^ for their Governour : But they ^y-^. ^^^ 
I met with (b many LolTes, that they were difcourag'd -uemur. 
in their Traffick, and were going to traniport them- 
[felves to Maryland^ Jamaica^ or Ireland'^ where the 
^Parliament had offered *em the City of G'^to^^y for 
I their Dwelling, with large Privileges : At laft turning ^ 
'their Induftry to Husbandry, they thriv'd wonder- 
. fully, and thought no more of removing. Mr. Eaton i §^ 7; 
; dying in the year 16^7^ was fticceeded by ^^^^' ^^^xids 
\ cis Newman^ Efquire, and William Leet^ Efquire, Newman 
who was Governour of the Colony when Mr. Win- j^j-.^ qq^ 
\ throp procured a Charter from K. Charles IL for fettling vernour, 
{the Liberties of this Plantation on a (olid Foundation, William 
i and annexing it to Connecticut ^ which was done in the Leet £/^5 
': year 1 66^. Upon this Union the Colonies chole John Governor^ 
^Winthrop Jun. Efquire, to be their Governour, and <"onne£ti- 
i Mr. Leet their Deputy Governour. ?^^ ^'"^^ " 

I Thus we have given the Reader a Ihort Hiftory of^^^^^'^^^ 
\ the Rife of the four Settlements that were made in ^^^.'^^ ^^^.^^,^^ 
jj New-England : We have divided them into their fe- johnWiu? 
[ parate Governments ^ and taken notice of their moft ^hrop 
ji remarkable Occurrences : We fhalj now proceed in junior 
j our Hiftory moret generally ^ and treat of thole Fafts Efquire 
I that related to all the Colonies, as they went under the Oovemor, 
'' general Denomination of New-England, ^'Alv^. m 

\ The Flimuth Colony was ftiil govern'd by Mr. Lee££/^| 
I Bradford ^ ahdLcarry'd on their Trade and Planting^ ^% 
with Succefs i The fame did Majfachufet's Settlement, 
Mnder the Government of Mn Winthrot) x\i^ Elder, 
■ " ' ' ^ ' U ^ ' ' ^ ' ' ' The 

40 The Hiftory of New-England. 

The Indians were quiet, and nothing moleftedthem in 
Witr with their Proceedings, till in the year 1 6^ 4.. the Savages fell 
the Jndi- upon Capt. Stone j who was fa iling up ConneEhlcut River, 
^^i' ' murder'd hini, and 6" Men that were with him, and funk 
ta Bark they werein-They alfo»murder'd a Ship'sCrew 
vcho were thrown upon Long liland. TheTe Infolencies 
Gccafion'd the Governour and Council of M^jfachu- 
fet Colony, to fend out 120 Men, commanded by 
Captain Endicot^ Captain Vnderhillj and Captain 
Jhrner^ Xo demand the Murderers *, w^hom the Indians 
refufmg to fur render, the Englifh deftroy'd \heir 
Country, and drove the Barbarians to the Woods. 
The Fequots (a Nation inhabiting the ConneBlcut Coun- 
try) wsrevery troublefome to the Settlement, kill'd 
nine Men, and took two young Women, near We a- 
thers Field. Upon which Mr. John Mafon with sfo 
Men, Captain VnderhilL with th.t Garrifon of Say- 
hrookj confirting of 20 Men, and Captain Patrick 
with 40 Men from Bofion^ were difpatch'd away to 
fubdue them, and clear the Colony of them. Cap- 
tain Mafon and Captain Vnderhill entring the Terri- 
tories of the Narragantfets^ their King retir'd to a 
Fort which h;; thought impregnable, with 5 or 600 
Men, but the Englifh attackt it with great Kefolu- 
tion, and took it by florm the 2of/7of A% 1537. 
putting all the Savages to the Sword, except 8 Men 
who made their eicape. Weywajh an Indian Con- 
vert, did the Englifh great lervice in this Expeditk 
on, following them where-ever they went in their 
Wars. Sajfacp^y the chief Prince of the Barbarians, 
threaten'd to be feverely reveng'd on the Englifh for 
this lofs, and accordingly made mighty Preparations 
to invade them *, but Captain Patrick^ and loon after 
Captain Stoughton^ with a Reinforcement from Majfa- 
chyfet Colony, arriving, the Savage fhut himfelf up 
in his Fort, and the Englifh made feveral hundreds 
of the Indians Prifoners. They alfo put many hun- 
dreds to the Sword, and forc'd Sajfacus to fly to 
the Maguas^ a Nation the moft dreaded of any 
of the Indians, being (aid to be Man-Eaters ^ but 
thek Barbarians were unwilling to bring the War into: 
their Country ^ So they cut the^King and al I the Pequots 
that accompany'd him in pieces. The NarraganfetT 
and the other Indian Nations, fubmitted on the Suc- 



The Hi/lory of NQW-Enghnd. 41 

eefs of theEnglifli, who in this Expedition kill'd near 
1000 Men, took almoft as many, and cutoffnolefs 
than 13 of their Petty Kings. The Savages to gain 
the favour of the Englifh, murdered the Pe^mrs where- 
ever they met with them, and fent their Heads to the 
Chriftians *, who having thus chaftis'd the Barbarians, 
ftruck 'em into fuch a Confternation, that they were 
quiet for Forty years afterwards. Indeed the Power 
of the Englifh began to grow formidable. The Majfa- 
chufet Colony had a ftrong Militia of near 2000 Men, 
commanded by their Deputy Governour My. Dudley ^ 
with the Charai^er of Major General. Their 
Civil Government was well regulated , and all 
things going on happily among themielves, they were 
not afraid of any Irruptions from the Barbarians. In 
the year i^f^s. there was a terrible Earthquake felt 
all over New-England^ and the Peace of the Colo- 
ny had like to have been diilurb'd by a Faftion 
that grew to a great height among them. Thefe 
Perfons favour'd thofe whom the Presbyterians call'd 
Sedaries:, by which, according to their modeil way 
ofexprefTing themfelves, is to be underfbod Men of 
all Religions but their own. The Presbyterians Dhifions 
were for rigid Conformity to their VVorfhip. Mr. 2>New- 
Wtnthrop the Governour, oppoflng this Faftion, they England, 
opposed him j and when the time of elefting a new ,, ,j u 
Governour came, fet upMr. Tho, Dudley ^th^ Deputy ^^J,!';^ ;,..,. 
Governour, againft him, got him chofen •, And in the g^^. (ci . f-'^?- 
tollowmg year, when Mr. Winthrop was reftor'd to his 
Government, wou'd have prevented it. The Court 
of Eleftion, for fear of a Tumult, was remov'd from 
Bofion to Cambridge : The Seftaries intended to con- 
found the Choice, by defiring the General Court to 
take a Petition they had prefented them into Confide- 
ration that day ^ which if it had been granted, the 
tmiefor choofuiga new Governour had elaps'd, and the 
Fadion had kept their own Governour in a year longer* 
Mr. Wimhrop's Friends did not prefently fee into the 
Deceit of their Opponents, and were going toconfi- 
der the Merits of their Petition -, but Mr. Winthrop 
Itrenuoufly oppofing that Irregularity, procur'd 
the Eleftion to be carry'd on according to th.Q cu- 
ftom of the Court \ and notwithflanding the violent 
Uppofition of the Faaion, he was chofen Governour 


42 The Hiftory of New-England. ' 

^by a great Majority of Voices *, yet fo Powerful was 
the Party, and they fo aw*d the Officers, whofe Duty 
'twas to wait upon the Govern our, that they refus'd 
to attend him, and laid down their Halberts : MrWln-^ 
thropy inftead of pun^ihing the Serjeants for their Info- 
lence, order 'd his own Servants to take them up, aid 
wou'd not fufFer the Magiftrates to punifh the O.Tv^n- 
ders. ThsAntinomlan and Famlllfiical Faftions were the 
moft Rampant, and thefe he was very Jnfl-rumental 
in fuppreiling, by getting an Order pall: for banifiiing 
the Chief of them : Himfelf pronoiinc'd tae Sentence 
of Banifhment, and their Friends, who cou'd not call 
him to account as Governour, did i^ as he was a 
Member of the Church, and oblig'd him to vindicate 
himfelf before the Congregation, which he condescend- 
ed to do, and was iuftify'd by them. Thefe Heats had 
like to have fpread as far as Tlimouthj and have crea- 
ted a difference between t^^iQ . two Colonies ^ but 
Mr. Winthrop\ Moderation triumph'd over all Diffi- 
culties, and prefer v'd the Peace of the Settlements. 

The Troubles of the Diffenters continuing at home. 
Sir Matthew Baynton^ Sir William Conflahle^ Sir Ar- 
thur H after ig^ John Hampden^{q^Oliver CromwelljEfq-^ 
Names too well known in the Hiilories of England^dind 
Teoplehin- fever al other Gentlemen, were preparing to remove to 
derifrom j^fewEngland -^ at which both the Church and State 
New-En- ^^^'^ aliarm'd \ and on the 50^/:? of April^ a Procla- 
sland mation was ifla'd forth, to refirain the dlforderly tran- 
/porting his Majefiy's SiSjeHrs to the Plantations^ without 
J 6 ^7, a Licence from his AIajefiy*s Commlffioners : J\nd an Or- 
der was made in Council, That the Lord Treafurer of 
England, fijould take fpeedy and e^eUual Courfe to flop 
eight Ships in the River o/Tham :s, hound for New-En- 
gland, and command that all the Pajfengers and Provifl- 
cnsjhould be landed. All Unconformable Minifters were 
alfo to be ftopp'd *, which proceeding, fays a Doctor 
of our Church, increased the Murmurs and Complaints 
of the People thus rejirain^d^ and raised the Cries of a 
double PerfecutioTi '^ to he vex'd at home^ andnot fuffer^d 
iofeek Peace or Refyge abroad, 'Tis true, the vaft Num- 
bers of People thfetranfported themielves to Ameri- 
cAj if it did not mike the Government jealous that 
they might throw off their Dependance on the Crown, 
as well as on the Churdij yet it c.ou'd not but give 


The Hiftory of New-England. 45 

an ill Idea of that Clemency to which it pretended, 
and which is the diftinguifhing Charafter of Chrifti- 
an Rulers. Sir Henry F'ane^ junJ with near twenty sir Henry 
Sail of Ships in his Compmy, vifited New-England VmQ^pn.Ji 
about tliis time, and was Chofen Governour of Ma(fa- Governor, 
chufets Colon y. He went over by the King's Confent, // /^ € u;fM ^^^ 
and his Mi.^efty commanded Old Sir Henry^ who •»*'*) ^W^ 
was againft x\\q A'oyage, to give his. The young 
Gentleman defign'd to refide in ConneHicut Colony ^ 
but the Compliment paft upon him by that of Maffa-^ ^ .^ ^^^^ e^ 
chufetj altered his Refolution. ^ He became here a^|^^^^7^^mai£ai- 
more rigid Non-conformift than he was before ^ and ^.f^.h^J^f.-^ 
when he return'd to England^ was fo aftive againft ^^/4*^i^i'^»^''^P/ 
the Royal Family, that it cofi: him his Head, in the p '<-*• tnUo^i. 
Year 1662. The Plantation of New-England en- 
creas*d fo in a few Years, That Anno i ^40. There 
were 4000 Men there, befides Women and Children. 
They had out-ftripp'd all the other Engliih Settle^' 
ments in America^ and probably wou'd have grown 
ftill more numerous, had not the Civil War in En- 
gland broke out, and put a flop to Peoples removing 
in fuch Multitudes till after the Reftoration. The 
Colonies were often mifreprefented by their Enemies, 
who had driv^^n them out of England^ as a Fa£lious, 
Schifmatical Company of Perfons, who wou*d in time 
endanger the State. Tho thofe were diftant and Chi- 
merical Views, yet they had like to have ruin'd the 
Plantations in New-England in King Charles the Firfl^s 
Opinion, had not Mr. Win/low of Plimouth Colony 
undertaken their Defence : And accordingly he went 
to England^ vindicated them at the Council-Board, 
and wip'd off thofe ill Impreffions, w^hich the Go- 
vernment Jiad received of them from their implacable 
Adverfaries. For which Service, when he return'd, 
the Colony of Plimouth chofe him their Gover- 
nour ^ whofe Prelence being again necelTary in En- 
gland^ Mr. Bradford was reftor'd to his Government, 
and Mr. Win/low went again to Court, where he was 
employ'd by the Powers then in being, and never re- 
turned to New-England ^ but he did them all the good. 
Offices he cou'd by folliciting their Affairs. Tho thele 
Settlements were feparate Jurifdiftions, yet they were 
like xYiQVnited ?rovmces^coxikd.QXdX^di into one League 
for the Common Good of them all : which Confede- 

44 21^^ Hifiory of New-England. 

racy after feveral fruitlefs EfTays to bring it about, 
TheColo' wasefFefted in the Year 1(^+3. and they became in 
ms unhedp Fa£l as well as Name the VnitedColonies ^ they Form'd 
and Sign'd an Inftrument, declaring, 77?^^ they all 
came into thofe Parts <?/ America with the fame End 
and Aim^ to advance the ^jrifiian Religion^ and enjoy the 
'' Liberty of their Confciences with Purity and Peace, It 
was^rmly agreed between the four Settlements, that 
there fliou'd yearly be chofen two Commiffioners oiit 
of each,who fhou'd meettit fit Places appointed on pur- ^ 
' pofe,with full Powers from the General Courts in each 
* Colony, to concert and conclude Matters of General 
Concernment : As Peace or War,or any thing relating 
to the Welfare of the Confederacy. Thus they fettled 
their Polity or Civil Government, and by Synods of 
their Clergy •, they did the fame by their Ecclefiaftical 
declaring, 'That the Church ought to he governed by Pref- 
hytersj Elders^ &c. as will elfewhere be fhown more 
largely. They began very early to Found a Col- 
ledge at Cambridge^ before call'd New-Town^ where 
they eftablifh'd a Univerfity : Which was begun 
about the Year t e^ o. when Mr. John Harvard Mini^ 
]ijr 1 V, ft^i* of Charles-Town near Bojion^ dying, left almoft 
HarvVicr So° A to be laid out in carrying on the Defign, and 
pGurds he is look'd upon as the Founder of the Firft College, 
Harvard- which from him was call'd Harvard-CoUegQ. The 
College, Foundation was incorporated by the General Court ^An, 
I (5-40, and the Univerfity has (ince flourifh*d fo much, 
that there is now another College built, and 2 or 
300 Students. We ihall treat further of the iV^iP- 
England Accademy in the following Chapters. 

The People of this Province applying themfelves 
nioft by Husbandry, Tillage and Pafture *, their 
Trade confifted chiefly in Corn and Beef, which they 
exported to the Sugar-Iflands*, In Fifh, which they 
fent thither and to the Streights •, In Oil and Lumber, 
which they Shipp'd to all the Places where they had 
any Commerce. Their Lumber is Timber, Boards, 
Mafts, Pipe-ftaves, Hoops, all good Commodities in 
the WcJi'Indies. They alfo fell to building of Ships, 
which Trade has fo encreas'd, that it has been a Com- 
mon Thing for the Merchants of London to have Ships 
built at ^^^(?w,and other Parts o^ New-England^hx the | 
Wefi-Indla-Tx?^dQ ; and there have been mare Ships built * 

The Hipry of New-England. 45 

in NeW'Englandyth3.n m all the other Provinces ofj4me- 
rka^ fubje(^ to the Crown of England, The Colony 
of Majfachufet thrived more than the other three, and 
therefore we ihall be the more particular in its Hillory. 

In the Year i s^^, Mr. Dudley was again chofen 
Governour^and MxWinthrop was his Deputy. At which 
time there happened a fort of Tumult in the Town of 
Hlngham in Suffolk County, whither Mr, Wimhrop 
went to appeafe the Mutiny, by interpofing his Au- 
thority : Upon which the Seditious petitioned the Ge- 
neral Court againft him, as invading their Liberties, ^^^-^^i'^ 
and he was forc'd to leave the Bench,and ftand forth as Governor 
an accused Perfon, to defend himielt *, which, waving p** ^* ^ 
his Prerogative, he did, and was acquitted by the ^^^^^** 
Court*, but his Profecutors were feverely fin'd. 
John Endkoty Ef^'^ was now Major General of the 
Forces, and William Burgts^ Efq-, Secretary, Mr. Win' 
throp in the following Year re-afTum'd the Place of 
Chief Governour, and fo continued till his Death. 
Mr. Bradford govern'd th.^ Tlimouth Colony alfo thirty 
feven Years except three Years, in which Mr. Win-' 
flovpy and two Years in which Thomas Prince ^ Efq', at 
the Choice of the People, took a Turn with him. 

The ConneEiicut Colony loft their Governour C()jine£li- 
Mr. Hopkins y whofe Brother was Warden of the Fleet axt'CoJony, 
in Englandy and dying, left his Eftate to him, which 
oblig'd him to go thither ^ where, befides his 
Brother's Poft, which was given him, he was 
made a Commiffioner of the Admiralty and Navy- 
Office, and ferv'd as a Burgefs in CrbmwePs Con- 
ventions. His Place in New-England was fupply'd J. Haines^ 
by John Haines^ Efq*, George Willis^, Efq^ Thomas ^fyj Go- 
Wellsy E:q-, JohnWehfter^ Efq, who were all Gover- "^^^^^^r ^ 
nours of Ccnne^icut Settlement, alternatively ^ and ^ WilHs, 
contributed, by their prudent Adniiniftation, to the|'^9|^s, 
fiourifhing State of that Colony. fter ^• 

Mr. Eaton held the Government of New-Haven Q^Zf^Q^ 
tillhedy'd, and there hapning nothing remarkable in 
either of thefe Colonies, leperate from the Concerns 
of the Confederacy, we fhall not detain the Reader 
longer about their Hiftory. The Province of 
Majlachufet fent out feveral Families, who inclined 
to the Fifhing, and Beaver-Trade, to fettle to the ^ 
North of Fafcatcway Riverj where thefe New Inha- 

^6 The Hifiory of New-England. 

bitants built feveral Towns, and thofe Parts are now 
Eaft- the Counties of Eafi- Hampjhire an d Pefcatoway^ which 
Hamp- were added to the Majjachufet Colony, and taken into 
fhire Ceun- ^j^g Proteftion of their General Court, Marthas Vine- 
tj fettled. y^Yd^ Namuket^nd Elizabeth liles were granted to 
T. May- Tljomas Mayhew^ E^q, who fettled there with his own 
liew, Efq\ Family, and a few others. The Savages were ail this 
fettles on time quiet, and the Engliih fear'd them \o little, that 
the IJles. Q^Q Capt. Atherton with a fmall Company, being pro- 
Caipt. vok'd at the Prevarications of the King of the Narra- 
Athertoti gantfets^ went boldly to his very Town, enter'd his 
Jnfults An Wigvam or Pallace, took him by the Hair, held a 
Indian Piftol at his Breaft ^ and told him, vnlefs he deliver d 
^^^' his HoflageSj and paid his Debts to the Colony^ he 
wou'd kill him ^ which the Barbarian promis'd to do, 
and did accordingly, not one of his •Attendants during 
to aiiift him. There were feveral Rumours of "on- 
fpiracies and iniended MafTacres : But they all va- 
ni{h*d, and while Old England was rent and torn to 
pieces by inteliine Wars, New-England enjoy'd a 
profound Peace. Moil of the American Colonies on 
the Revolutions, after the Death of the King, Pro- 
claimed King Charles 11 and ftood out againft the 
Commonwealth, hxxX. New-England-^ whoCe Principles 
were nearer the Conftitution of the Republick than 
the other Settlements, willingly fubmitted to that 
Government •, and feveral confiderable Gentlemen re- 
mov'd to Old England^ to come in for a {hare, with 
their Puritan Brethren,of the Spoils of their Enemies, 
and the Benefit of Pofts and Offices, which now were 
wholly dilpos'd of by them. Many of thQ New 'En- 
gland Divines left thofe SanBlffd Regions, as they are 
pleased to term them, and came to England : Among 
the Gentlemen, were Mr. Win/low Governour of 
Stverd pUfnouth Colony, who left his Government in A- 
mavTw^'^^^^'^^-> ^^^ ^ Commiiiioner of the Navy's Place 
Endand. ^^ home ^ Edward Hopkins ^^ YS.% Governour of 
ConneBicut^ of whom mention has been made al- 
ready : Mr. Geo, Downing^ afterwards Sir George^ 
Sir Henry Vane^ and others. Of their Minifters were 
Mr. William Hook^ who thought fit to leave his Flock 
at New- Haven in New-England^ for the Mafterfhip of 
the Savoy in Old England, Mr. Robert Peck^ Mr. 
Hugh Peter s^'^ho left his Church at Salem^ for a 


The Hifiory of New-England. '47 

Chaplain -iliip to Cromwell^ Mr. Samuel Mather^ 
MV' Blinman of Brifiol^ Mr, Eaton of Che/hire^ Ml'. 
Knowies of London^ Mr. Fir mm of London^ and many 
more, who ^vere lilenc'd after the King's Reftorati- 
on, but- had either (uch good Congregations in pri- 
vate, or had heap'd up iuci fair Provifion in the Days 
of their Domination, that they did not care to crols 
the AHantkk again, to lay their Bones among the 
Brethren. We muft not omit a PafTage in the Hi- 
ftory of New-England about this time, which relates 
to Venner the Fifth Monarciift , who was one of Hugh Venner 
Peter*s Congregation at Salem, This Fellow was by t5 ^^^^^.^ 
Trade a Cooper, but very mutmous in Public k Mat- ^-^^ . 
ters: He would fain have perfwaded a Company of|^^^^ " 
People to have abandoned the Settlement at Majfa-- ■ ' ■ 

chtifet Colony, and have remov'd to providence, ond . 
of the ^^/7^;;2,:7 [(lands. 

They petitioa'd the chief Magiftratesfor leave to do 
it *, and an Ailembly was held to confider the Bufi- 
nefs. The Magiftrates affifted by the Minifters, de- 
clared, that for Several Reafons by them alledg*d, they 
could not admit of their Propofal : Upon which yen- 
ner flood up and faid, according to the Cant of the 
Place and Times, Notwithfianding what had been of" 
ferd^ they were clear in their Call to remove. But his 
Companions not being fo mad as himfelf, there were 
no Attempts made to get off tumultuoudy, which Ven- 
ner was ready to have done, if any one wou*d have ac- 
company'd him. The Colony of Majfachufety on the Maffa- 
Death of John Winthrop Efquire, who died March 16, chufet. 
16 \9. chofe Thomas Dudley Efquire their Governour \ > 
and Mr. Dudley furviving Mr. Winthrop but three or Tho.Dud- 
four years, the Inhabitants would have elefted John ^^Y ^hs 
Haynes Efquire to fupply his place, but that Gentle- ^o^^^^or, 
man removing to Connecticut^ John Endicot Efq'-j was,!^^^^*. 
chofen Governour*, and Edward Gibbons Erq,fuccee- J^"*^ncU- 
ded him as Major General of the Militia. Plimouth^ ^Go-m-^lr 
the Mother-colony of the three others, had the mii- piimouth 
fortune 3 or 4 years afterwards, to be deprived of her Cohvy, 
old Governour Mr. Bradford^ who died May the i^th^ 
i<5'57. In his room the Court of Eleftors chofe 1(^57. 
Thomas Prince Efquire, who had been twice their Go- Thomas 
vernour before, to fucceed him ^ and this Gentle- Prince 
man continu'd many years in the Government. In EJ quire 

the Governor^ 

48 The Hifiory of New-England. 

Newha- the fame year i6$7. Theophilus £^fo;2 Efquire^ Go- 
ven ColO' vernoui* of Newhaven Colony, dying, Mr. Francis 
^ "M Newman their Secretary, was chofen Governour : 
Fr.New- g^f ^l^jg Gentleman enjoy'd his honourable Office 
^^,^1}} fcarce 4 years:, and dying at the end of that Term, 
Wil LeeV ^^^^^ fucceeded by William Leet Efquire •, who, be- 
Bfa' Go- ^^^'^ 5^e came to New- England^ had been Regifter of a . 
vermur Bi (hop's Court in Old-England. But, fays a famous 
Cot.Mat, Writer of that Conntty^ finding 'twas made a Crime ^ 
i^iji, to hear Sermons abroad when there were none at home ^ and^ 
that the Court he ferv'd^ made themselves merry with ^ 
fuch Peccadillo's as Fornication and Adultery^ he took a \ 
difguft againft them, refus'd Conformity, and went I 
^ (^ii^if,k H t0^tiica- to New-England'^ where the good People err'd as 
^^ '*^'/'^'^/l*^i niuch on the other hand, by hanging Men andWo- 
l;^uii^''t^^M^^^^'»men for thofe Peccadillo's,* and feverely punifhing 
^..c^ Acta ci-do\»^ It them for not attending their frequent Sermons, let 'em 
i^"**' • m^JcKa. ^g never fo tedious and dull.* 

On the Reftoration of King Charles II. the Colo^} 

nies of New-England fell in chearfully with their Pres-| 

byterian Brethren in Old-England^ and congratulated! 

his Majefly on his Acceflion to the Throne of his An-j 

ceftors, fending Simon Bradftreet Eiquire, Secretary 

of Majfachufet Colony, and Mr. John Norton Mini- 

fter of Jpfwichy in EJ^ex County, a Man whom. Dr. 

i<?6"i. PpJler commends in his Church Hifiory^ forhisLear-' 

The Colo- ningand Modefty, to carry their Addrefs to his Ma- 

mes ad' jefty ', which contained chiefly a Petition for Liberty of 

drefs I(, Confcience. They fail'd in Febrnary 1661. and re- 

Cha, II» turn'd in about a year, with Letters from the King, 

fignifying, That the Exprejfions of their Loyalty and 

j4ffed:ion to him were very acceptable *, that he would 

confirm their Privileges^ e?2courage and proteB them* 

The Colony of ConneBicut having been all this 
time without a firm Charter, with the confent of 
that of Newhaven^ prevail'd with John Winthrcp Jun* 
Efquire, Son of the late Governour of Majfachufet^ to 
go to Englandy to get them a Charter of Settlement 
and Union, which he did. This Gentleman had been 
generoufly educated, and was a Philofopher, as well 
as a Chriftian, and a Gentleman *, Infomuch, that 
when the Royal Society was Eftablifh'd, he was ad-! 
mitted a Member of it, and he conmiunicated feveral 
curious things to them^ as appears in the Colle^ion ol 


The Hifiory of New-England, 49 

their Tranfa£lions. Tis faid that he procured the 
King's Favour, by prefenting him with a Rio^ which ,_ 

King Charles \, had on fome occafion or ot'ier gj-'^en 
Mr. PF/«tibr(?/s Grandfather. On his Arrival in fen?- 
^nglarutj the two United Colonies made him the-r^-on"'eai^ 
povernour •, and Mr. John Wehfler Governour of 9J^ "f^ 
pomeBlcut Colony, and Mr, William Leet Governour ^g^^^ 
;bf that of Newhaverij refign'd rheir Charges into his ^^^^ ^^^ 
liands 1^ the New Colony choofing Mx.. Leet to be^^£ 
5:heir Deputy Governour. There were fome Mem- joim 
jjers of thele two Colonies who oppos'd ciiis Union, vVinthco]^ 
|5ut the major Part were for it, and they prevailed : Ef<i^ Gq- 
knd by the Moderation and Prudence of their Go- '^<^'''nor, 
Lernour Mr. Winthrop^ they were foon all reconcird ^ ^^¥ . 
:o the Union. 

I While thefe things were tranfading, Alexander^ 
5on of Maffaffoit^ follicited the Narragantfets to 
revolt •, Which Mr. Prince^ Governour of PHmouth 
learing, lent Jojias Win/low^ Efq*, who at that time 
;;^ommanded the Militia of the Settlement, to feize 
lim *, which he did at a Hunting- Houfe of his, and 
brought him Prifoner to Tlimouth '^ where he dy'd 
|)f Grief and Rage. His Brother Thilip lucceeded 
liira, and was a Plague to the Englilh, notwithftan- 
ling he had renew'd the League with them, and 
iworn to the ftrid Obfervance of it. But he gave 
'hem no difturbance till about nine Years after his 
(Brother Alexander's Death. 

I 'Twas now that the Province of New-England was 
|:)ecome a powerfiil Nation. The City of Boflon^ the 
Vletropolis, being as big as mofl of our Epifcopal 
>ees in England^ and containing no lefs than 12 or 
[4000 Souls. For after the fevere A£l, call'd th.Q. 
Harthokmew-A^j which fome pretended Church of 
{England Men procur'd, to turn above three Thou= 
land as good Proteftant Minifters as any in the World 
but of their Livings, many of them remov'd to New- 
\England ^ and were foUow'd by fome hundreds of Fa- 
hiilies, who fear'd the fame cruel Treatment from 
^\rch-Bi(hop Sheldon^ who had been a Creature of 
poftor Laud's^ as they had met with from that Pre- 
1 ate. The whole Number of Inhabitants in this Co- 
lony were computed to be near one hundred Thou- 
I and 'f and fome of thofe who came over, bringing 
■ -E good 

5© The Hijiory of New-England. 

good Eftates with them, the EngliHi filFd their 
Towns, and extended their Limits. Such was the 
1 66^, General State of the Colonies in the year x 66^. when . 
Maffachu- that of Maffachufet mourn'd the Death of theinGover- 
kt Colorj. nour Mr. Ef^dlcot : In whofe Chair they plac'd Richard 
BUlirf^- ^^V/i;7g^^;72 Efq^ a very old Man, who had been a Ma-. 
ham Efj' §^^,^^^^ ^^ Councellour thirty Years before. He en-? 
Governor] Py'd that honourable Office about Seven Years;, and 
1672.' ^^^^J^ <^yi^^g9 7^/^« Leverett Efq*, was advanced fromt 
John Le- ^he Poft of Major General of the Militia, to that of 
verett Governour of the Colony. The next year i<? 7 3. Mr J 
£/^; Go~ Vrince^ Governour of Vllmouth Colony, dy'd, and- 
-Pernor, was fucceeded by Jofm Win/low Efq-, the firft Go- 
Phmouth vernour that was born in New-England'^ A Man 
Tofias'' ^"^^w*d with fo many Chriftian and Heroick Ver-, 
Winflow ^"^^' ^^^^^ ^^ feems to have wanted a larger Sphere 
Efq- Go- ^^ ^^ ^^5 ^^^^ ^^ might have fhewn himfelf more, . 
vernor, ^^^ have ferv'd the Commonwealth better, than ii^i 
thole rude Corners of the World. (( 

A year or two before he was chofen Governour,! 
The rife of the War with the Indian King, Philip Son of MaJJafl 
taeifW j-Qif^ broke out. He had a long time been contriving 
^.^i^a Confpiracy to. invade and deftroy the Englifli^, 
^^' which he difcover'd the fooner, to revenue an Affront • 
he pretended to have receiv'd from the Plimouth Co-.; 
lony, the Government having hang'd one Tobias a: 
Councellorofhis, and two other Indians, for murder-- 
ing Joh/7 Saufaman^ an Indian Preaching Convert. They^ 
had a fair Trial, and were condemn'd by a Jury of half 
Englifh and half Indians. However Pk7/>, . who ha- 
ted the Englifh, was refolv'd to take this occafion of ; 
fhewing his ill Difpofilion towards them. He cour- 
ted feveral other Indian Nations to joyn with him y 
and ?viultitudes of them flock'd to him to fight againft 
the Common Enemy, as they reckon'd the Chriftians. 
The Governour of Plimouth fent JvlefTengers to de- 
mand the reafon of Philip's arming, but his Envoys 
were infulted j . and foon after a Party of Savages made. 
an In-road into the Territories of that Colony. They' 
fir'd a Volley of fmall Shot on a Congregation of 
Chriflians when they were at their Devotions, kiil'd, 
three Men, and wounded another. They pillag'd' 
the Plantations about /Mount Hope^ and began the 
War between Sivajjfey and Taunton in the County of 


The Hifiory of New-England. 5 1 

Plimouth. This Settlement immediately fent to the 
Dther two for Succours '^ and that of Majfachufet^ with 
iU poflible diligence, difpatch'd away Captain Tho^ 
mas Prentice with a Troop of Horfe, and Captain 
Daniel Henchman with a Company of Foot, to aflift 
their Brethren of Plimouth, Thefe were followed by 
I Company of Volunteers, commanded by Captain 
Samuel Mofely^ and were join'd by the Tlimouth For- 
res under Captain Cudworth dXSwanfey, They fent 
Dut 1 2 Men to difcover the Enemy, of whom the Sa- 
vages from their Ambufhes kill'd one, but the reft Wm mth 
Irove them from behind the Bufhes, thothey v^enQ thsMiam^ 
ive times their number. The next day the little 
Englifh Army march'd againft the Indians, who 
iurft not give them Battle, but abandoned their Coun- 
:ry to their juft Revenge. The EngUfh in their 
March found the mangl'd Carcafes of fome of their 
Countrymen, their Heads ftuck upon Poles, Bibles 
corn in pieces, empty Wigwams or Cottages, and no 
body to oppofe them. Philip himfelf fled with the 
reft, and left his Kingdom to the Mercy of the Inva- 
ier. The Name of Philip's Nation was Wompanoags ^ 
irid thefe had drawn in the Narragantfets into the 
League againft the Englifti, 'Tis true, the latter had 
lot appeared in Arms ', however the Englifti knowing 
io\y far they incourag'd the Rupture, march'd thra 
:he Country of the Wompanoags into that of the Nar- 
ragantfets^ and forc'd them to renounce their Alliance 
A^ith Philip. Captain Cudworth proceeded into the 
Dominions of the Sachem of Pocajfet^ where Captain 
duller ^.nd Captain Churchy with two fmall Detach- 
iients of Englifh, were over-power'd by an Army of 
Barbarians, twenty times as many in number as they 
vvere. Captain Fuller was driven by them into Rhode 
i, lland,^ and 200 of them furrounded Captain Church 
knd 1 3: Men in a Peafe-field .• Notwithftanding the 
nequality of the Number, Captain Church fought 
hem with invincible Refolution till all his Ammuni- 
lon was {pent, he then retir'd to the Shore, driving 
x\\ that oppos'd him before him*, and fome Sloops 
:oming off from Rhode Ifland, he retreated thither *, 
from whence, without lo(s of time, he pafs^d over to 
:'ie Continent, got two or three Files of Mulqueteers 
jrom the Majfachufit Forces, and engaged them again 

E 2 m 

$2 The Hijiory of New-England. 

in Pocajfet. He flew in this A£lion 1 5, and in the for- 
mer 5 o of the Savages, and ftruck fuch a TerrcHir in- 
to the red, that they fled to the Woods from the 
{mall Company he had, with him, of which he loft not 
a Man. Captain Cudworth being join'd by the Maffa- 
chvfet Captains, march'd from Taunton to a Swamp 
1 8 Miles off, where the Savages from feveral Ambul- 
cades kill'd fome of his Men, bu!: the Englifh purfuing 
them to their Wigwams, they found nolefsthan 100 
of them empty :, out of which the Indians were fled to a 
neighbouring Thicket. The Officers thought the beft 
way to reduce them wou'd be by ftarving •, fo they 
pofted two Hundred Men at all the Avenues of the 
Thicket, and fentthe reftto the Relief di Mendham^ 
where the Nipmuck Indians, King Philip's Confede- 
ratesj committed terrible Spoil and Cruelty. Philip 
himfelf was in the Thicket, and being driven to De- 
fpair, he with his beft fighting Men taking the ad- 
va.ntage of a low Tide, in a River that ran through the 
Swamp, wafted over it on fmall Rafts, and eicap'd into 
the Nipmuck Coun tr y *, i o o of his Men were left behind 
in the Thicket,who furrender'd themfelves at difcretion. 
The Englifh purfu'd Philip aiToon as they heard of his 
Flight : And tno they could not come up with him, o- 
vertook fome of his Men ^ of whom they flew 3 o. The 
Monhegin Indians join'd with the Englifh *, and moft of 
the Weftern Nations were fet againft them by Philip. 

Thus the whole Province of Majfachufet became en- 

gag'd in the W^ar, the Flame of which rag'd more 

J f . than it had doi'iQ in thit of Pli mouth. Captain i^w?- 

Itjpreads. ^^-^y^,^ i^^:,.^^ (e;^^ ^^ j^j^^^^, ^j^^ Reafon of the Savages 

invading that Colony, was himfelf mortally wounded, 
and eight of his Party kill'd '^ the reft fled to Quahoag^ 
a little Village where the Chriftian Inhabitants we^e 
retir'd into one Houfe, and the Barbarians having de- 
ftroy'd the reft, befet this alio. They try'd all the 
Devices they could think of to beat them out of it, 
but the Engliili defended themfelves fo bravely, that 
all their Attempts prov'd in vain •, at laft they re- 
folv'd to fet it on fire •, and juft as they were preparing 
to do it, iVIaior Wihvardy who had heard of his Friends 
Diftrefs at Oiiaboagj arriv'd with 48 Men, attack'd 
the Savages, and forc'd them to raife the Siege of this: 
Hovel, for it deicrv'd no better Name. The Ma jo? 


TheHiJlory «?/ New-England. 55 

cletdtch'd Captain Lathrop and Captain Beers with 
more Forces to obferve them, for Fear they fhould 
march to CormeBkut River, and feduce thQ Indians 
^ there. This Colony lent Major Treat to the Afli- 
' fiance of their Mother Maffachyfet *, and the Gover- 
nour, who heard that tl^e Savages upon that River 
within his Government were in motion, fent a Party 
of Soldiers, with an Officer, to demand of them Hofta- 
ges for their peaceable Behaviour: Butthefe Barbarians 
were fo far from anfwering the demand, that they 
kiird their King, becaufe he wou'd not go v^ith them, 
and then fled to a Swamp ^ from whence they fir'd on the 
Englifh, and (lew 9 Men belonging to j? feveral Towns. 

Thus this bloody War fpread over all New-England. 
They deftroy'd the Plantations about Deerfield^ a ve- 
ry pleafant Country, and forc'd the Garriion there to 
fhut themlelves up within the Fortification of a poor 
Work which they had rais'd for their Defence, it be- 
ing a Frontier Place in Hampfilre. They (lew 8 Men 
in the Woods near Squak-heag, Upon which Cagtain 
Beers was fent with 40 Men, to fetch off that and fome 
other fmall Garrifons. Thefe were intercepted by an 
Army of the Savages '^ and Captain Beers with 20 of 
his Men having fought to the lafl with the utmofl 
Refolution, w^as over-power'd by Numbers and ('^^'^^'^cmm 
the reft efcap'd to Htdley •, and a few days after Ma- Beers ^ 
jor Treat with more Soldiers perform'd what he haidflam, 
undertaken. Captain Lathrop mdiVchiBg with So Men 
to bring off the Corn from Deerficld^ v/as alfo inter- 
cepted by 8ao Indians. The Captain thinking he 
fhou'd fucceed better by fighting as the Savdges didj 
skulking behind Trees, and aiming at Tingle Perfons, ■ 
exposed his Soldiers to the Ruin that follow'd, <5'o of 
them being kili'd on the fpot.t Captain M'^fely hear- 
ing the Noife of the Fire, haften'd to Y^i]\sr^t Lafhrop^ 
but he came too late : He broke his way through the 
Barbarians five or fix times *, and with a handful of 
Men kiird almoft loo of the Enemy, loofing no 
more than 2 of his own. In this Aftion f:;!! Captain MdCap^ 
Lathrop^ and above 70 of his Men, the greatell: Slaiigh- Lathrof. 
ter that/ever happened till that Day of the New- Eng- 
land Chriftians. 

The Indians encourag'd by this Succefs, fell upon 
^'-nng-field ^ (the Hoibges they had given for their 

He t-^cj Xo^t $i\ (tot-n-i*.*^ to Tiqi^t c-S q^'pt<)icin( do: i^Ue^^Ct^ He ^Uci 

54 The Hifiory of New-England. 

preferving the Peace, flying before they came) they 
^ ^^^ burnt 52 Houfes, and among the reft, the Minifter 
%Jtlt i^^itf^ Ir? -Mr. Brewer\ together with his Library* and had 
i^f^i ^"J'^i"I^^^^J cut the Throats of all the Inhabitants, had not an ho- 
^^^^ftv^'tJl-^^H nefl IjQdian reveaFd their Defign to them time enough, 
4(^c^cu d»r"t- before 'twas executed, for them to retire to the for - 
'"'-^"'^'tify'dpaXsof theTown. * 

The Gen^ml^urt rittif>g at Bofton^ order'd all their 
Forces to rendezvous about Northampton^ Hadley^ and 
Hatfield^ for the Security of thofe Places. Of which 
Orders the Indians having no notice, and growing 
bolder by Succefs, 800 of them broke in upon Hat* 
field J but the Englifh being prepared to receive them, 
the Enemy were foon beaten out of the Town, and the 
Weftern Counties were for a long time free from their 
Incurfions, except now and then fome Straglers com- 
mitted a few Robberies. Thefe Indians fied to the 
Narragantfets^ and were entertain 'd by them : Upon 
which the Commiflioners of the United Colonies, 
who were affembl'd on this Emergency, refolv'd 'twas 
a Breach of the Peace ^ and underftanding that Na- 
tion intended to begin a War in the Spring, were be- 
fore-hand with them *, and in the Winter fent Mr. 
Win/low^ Governour of Tlimouth Colony, with 1000 
Men, to invade their Territories. General Win/low 
being joyn'd by the ConneBlcut Forces, march'd up 1 8 
Miles in the Enemies Country, attacked the Savages 
in a Fort they had rais'd in an Ifland, of about 5 or <? 
Acres, and taking it by Storm, put 700 Indians to 
Indians the Sword, befides 300 which dy'd of their Wounds, 
^^J^^^' and a vaft number of Old Men, Women and Chil- 
dren, who had crowded into the Fort, which was 
thought impregnable. The General loft in this gal- 
lant A£tion 85 Men and (5" Captains, Cdupt, Davenport^ 
CdipW Gardner y CapL Johnfon^ Capt. Gallops Capt. 
Sealy^ and Capt. Marj})all^ and about 150 Englifh 
were wounded. This was the beft Fortification the 
Barbarians ever had, being foftrengthen'd by Nature, 
that they wanted not the Arts of Europeans to fortify 
it. The Savages had never fuch a terrible Blow given 
them, and they cou'd never recover the Lofs theyi 
furTer'd. After this the Englifh had fome flight Ad- 
vantages more in the Winter, and then returned to. 
their Quarters, Mendham not being tenable, they de- 


The Hijfory of N,ew-England. 55" 

ferted it, and the Indians laid it in Aflies. The French 
'2itCanada^ tho there was no War between England and 
France^ fent them Afliftance, and they fell upon Lan- Affiflsi 
cafler^ burnt feveral Houfes, kilTd and carry'd away ^^ '^^ 
into Ca|)tivity above 4.0 Perfons, among whom was ^''^'^^^* 
the Minifter Mr. Richardfon's Wife and Children. 
He was then at Bofion folliciting Succours, and found 
his Houfe and Library in Afhes when he return'd, and 
heard the dreadful Tidings of his Family being led a- 
way into Slavery by the Barbarians, who had been 
forc'd to leave the place by Captain Wadfworth, They - 
did further Mifchief at Marlborough^ Sudbury^ Chelmf- 
fordj and 200 of 'em CuYpYis'dA^edfield^ burnt half 
the Town, and kill'd 20 of the Inhabitants. The 
like Damage they did to Weymoiah -^ and entered the 
Lines that were drawn up for the Defence of iV^^r/-/;- . 
ampton-^ but they were repuls'd by Major ^^x/^^^*, af- 
ter they had burnt 5 Houfes, and kill'd 5 Perfons. 
The Enemy finding they had not Strength fufficient to 
carry on a General War, return'd to the Province 
that at firft was the Seat of it ^ furpris'd part of 
Plimouthj and having murder'd two Families, retired: 
Then they fell upon Warwick^ aud burnt it to the 
ground. Captain Tierce with 50 Englifh, and 20 
Chriftian Indians, purfu'd thefe Incendiaries ^ who 
laying an Ambufcadefor him, in w^hich they were ve- 
ry dextrous, and over- powering him with Multitudes, 
kill'd him and all his Men, except i Englifhman, and CcLptyitf 
12 Indian Allies. Captain Pierce dJid his Men fold ce i:i//'^. 
their Lives dearly, there being 140 Indians Enemies 
flainin the Engagement. 

The fame Day, another Party of Savages laid Marl- 
borough in Afhes ^ flew feveral Chriftians at Spri?jg- 
field -^ burnt 40 Houfes at Rohobothj 30 at Provi- 
dence-^ committed terrible Cruelties at Chelmsford 
and Andover on the poor innocent Children *, and tho 
40 Inhabitants of the Town of Sudbury fally'd out up- 
on them, and kill'd 30 out of 300 in one Night", 
yet that Place was affaulted by them, ieveral Houfes 
burnt, and 1 2 Men coming from Concord to their 
Afliftance, cut in pieces. Captain Wadfworth li ear- 
ing of thefe Murders and Burnings, march'd againfl 
the Savages with 70 Men*, of which they having no- 
tice, furrounded him in the Woods with 500 Men, 

E 4. i'ut 

The Hifiory of New-England, 

cut offthenioft part of his Soldiers, took feveral Pri- 
Cap. ifoners ^ and what was a greater Lofs than all, flew 
^^°k^^ himfelf and Captain Brattlebank, with the lofs of 120 
rTnZ ^^ ^^^ E^ci^my. The Prifoners they took, they put to 
tiebank '^^^^^ with exqnifite Tortures. 
^^l^^ Thus they continn'd profperous for four or five 

Months •, and the firft blow that was given them 
fmce General Window's Viftory, was by Captain 
Dennifon of ComeBicut ColoDy^ at the head of 5o Vo- 
lunteers, and 100 Indian Confederates. Thefe fet 
Upon a Body of the Savages, flew 70 of them, a- 
mongft whom were fome of their chief Princes : And 
the Maquas breaking in upon thofe Indians that were 
in War with the Englilh, and DilTention arifing a- 
mong the Barbarians, gave the Chriftians the more 
Opportunities of defeating them. Another Party of 
Connecticut Englifh routed another of Indians, and 
flew 44, without any lofs. They took fome Prifo- 
ners, among whom was ^^/^^i^c^^^, the mighty 5^- 
chem o^ Narragantfetj whom the Englifh wifely gave 
to their Indian Auxiliaries to cut off his Head, know- 
ing that wou'd make the Breach between thbfe Indi^ 
ans and the Enemy irreparable. However, the Sa- 
vages did further Mifchiefs at TUmouth^ Taunton^ 
Chelmsford^ Concord^ Haverhill^ Bradford and Wohurn. 
They attempted to fire the Town ot Bridgwater^ but 
the Inhabitants fallying out upon them, and a great 
Shower falling at the fame time, fav'd that Place. 
The Englifh kill'd feveral of the Indians near Medjield 
^nd TUmouth •, and having notice by two Boys who,, 
JDeing Captives, made their efcape from them, 
that feveral Savages were in great Security fome Miles 
further up the River, Captain T^/w^r with 180 Men 
haflen'd thither, furpriz'd them, kill'd 100 of them ^ 
Cap.i:ux-^ and in his Retreat was himfelf furpriz'd and kill'd, 
^ri'i A ^^'^^ ^° of his Men, by an Ambuicade of Indians, 
tiiPl^'^ who purchased this Vi^ory with the lofs of 
■ ■"" ' 300 cf their Fellows. At Hatfeildi^ of the Savages 
were kiU'd, and but y Englifh v and at Rohoboth iz 
Indians, with the lofs of one Englifhnian only. A 
Detachment of th^Mqfachvfet Forces took aiid kill'd 
40 Indians', and another of ConneBicvt 100 Savages, 
/^Mam ^''^'i^^'ic)^'^ loofinga Man. Seven hundred Savages were 
'^orjfedo ^repuli'd from pefpre fi^dley ^ and at the fame time. 

i The Bftory of Ncw-^Enghnd. S7 

th^Ma^uas invaded their Country, and carry'daway 
their Wives and Children into Captivity. They fell 
upon King Philip's Subjeds, and kill'd 50 of them. The 
; Barbarian had try'dfevcral ways to engage them in the 
I War with the Englifh ^ one of which was this : He 
' kiird fome Macquefe^ and gave out they were mur- 
der'd by the Inhabitants of Plimouth County. It hap- 
pen'd one of the Maqueje^ whom he had mortally 
wounded, as he thought, recovered, efcap'd into his 
own Country, and informing his King or the Truth 
of the Matter, that Nation conceiv'd an irrecon- 
cilable Hatred to ThiUpj for his Treachery and 

Philip thinking he might return fecurely into his 
own Territories, now the Englifh had been fo har- 
rais'd by the Enemy, came to Mount Hope^ and Major 
Bradford of Plimouth had like to have falFn into an 
Ambufh ^ but he was delivered by a Arrange Accident, 
flew many of the Indians^ and reduc'd the Queen of 
Saconetj who had revolted. Of the Narragantfets^ 
the ComeBicut'YoYCQs kiird 240. Two hundred lub- 
mitted in Plimouth County, and as many of them who 
attacked Taunton were beaten off. Capt. Church with 
no more than 18 Englifh, and 22 Indian Confede- 
rates, flew 80 Savages without lofing one of his Com- 
pany. At Dedham^ s 6 English 2ind 90 ConkdQrnQ 
Indians, took Pomham^ a Prince of the NarraganfetSj 
and 50 Prilbners. This Prince receiv'd a mortal 
Wound, and lay as one dead ^ yet when an Englifli- 
man came to look upon him, the Barbarian took him 
fafl: by the Hair, and had kill'd him, if help had not 
come in. Thefe SuccsfTes fo terrify'd the Indian Sava- 
ges, That Joh'dj a Segamore^ or Lord of the Nipmuck 
Indians J with 180 of his Men fubmitted to Mercy. To 
ingratiate himfelf with the Englifli, he brought in 
with him one of the Chief of his Nation, that had 
inftigated the reft to the War in the Maffachufet Co- 
lony, and the Officers ordered the Segamore to fhoot 
him, which he did. The Garifon of Bridgwater 
h&2iXmgPhilip with a Party of Men was in their Neigh- 
bourhood, fally'd out upon them, kiU'd ten of his Fol- 
lowers, took 1 5, and the reft fled •, among whom 
was Philips who for hafte left his Spoils and Trealure 
behind hinio Capt. C/^z^rc^ with 50 Englifh, and 


S8 The Hipry of New^England. 

20 Indian Allies, took 23 of the Enemy, fell upon 
Philip in his Head Quarters, flew 1 3 o of his Men, 
and loft but one of his own ^ The King hardly 
^ng Phi- efcap'd : His Wife, and Son were taken. A Deferter 
h^'sWife coming to the Town of Taunton, informed the Garifon 
and Son y^vhej-e ^ Body of Indians lay, upon which they fally'd 
taken. out and brought ^6 of them Prifoners. The Queen 
^een of of Pocafet, who was with Philip in the late Aftion, 
Pocairet flg(j 1-0 the River, and not finding a Canoo to carry 
^ownd, her over, fhe threw her felf into the Water on a 
Raft, which breaking under her, fhe was drown'd : 
Some Englifhman meeting with her Body by Chance, 
cut off her Head, not knowing who fhe was, and 
fluck it upon a Pole in Taunton, which the Indians 
feeing, they made a hideous howling, and were in 
a. terrible Conflernation. Capt. CWc^ having re- 
cruited his Forces at i^W^-Ifland, and received inti- 
mation by an Indian Deferter, whither Philip was 
fled, purfu'd him *, and coming upon him, the King 
thought to have efcap'd from a Swamp, to which he 
had retir'd *, but an Englifhman and an Indian firing 
^. p, . at him, the latter Ihotnim to the Heart. He was 
hp kiWd, ^' QU^^^^i*'<^5 2:nd his Quarters fet upon Poles for a Ter- 
^ . * ror to fuch Rebellious Princes as dar'd make War 
upon their NewEnglifl} Sovereigns. His Head was 
carry'd in Triumph to Plimouth, and his Death put an 
End to the War in the Weflern Parts of New-En- 

In the 'North, the Indians bordering on the Coun- 
ties of Main ^nd Cornwall, lyin2 beyond Pefca- 
taway River, had driv'n a very profitable Trade with 
thQ Englilh, who had fettled there. Thefe Europeans 
minded their TrafHck more than Religion, and werei 
fo taken up with Lumber, Fifhing, and their Beavor- ^ 
Trade, that they had not time to build Churches or 
Towns, but liv'd in Plantations, and in Houfes fcat- 
ter*d up and down : The Savages having fome old , 
Grudges againfl them, and underflan ding the Chri- ; 
Wars in the ftians in the other Parts of New-England were involved I 
North in a dangerous War, fell upon theTe Settlements, d€- 
Part of ftroy'd many of them, and kill'd 50 Men, not with-: 
New-En- ^^ lofing twice as many of their Countrymen. ' 
'gland. ^^^ Wakely of Cafco, his Wife and Children were 
butcher'd by them, as was Capt. Thomas Lake at 


Th Hijiory of New-England. 59 

jirrorofilk Ifland. The Government of Majfachufet 
Colony hearing of thefe Murders, fent Capt. Haw- 
thoTHj with Forces to fubdue them •, this Gentle- 
man furpriz^d 400 of them,' as they were coming^ 
to Deftroy Major Waldeu's Houfe at Quehecho^ of 
whom half were fold as Slaves for their Rebellion 'r, 
and the reft on Promife of future Obedience, difmifs'd *, 
which gave Peace to the Colony for feveral years. ^^7^« 
Moft of thefe Events happen'd between the Year, ^onn^^"* 
1^73, and 1676, and tho they are not fo i^^^po^tant, ^^^^^^_ 
as the Great Aftions in Flanders and Spain^ which ^^^ ^^j^^ 
have lately rais'd the Winder of the whole World, jjj^s 
yet the Valour of thefe Englifh Captains in Atnerica w. Lect, 
defer ves to be remember 'd, and the Reader will, we £/^; Go- 
doubt not, be diverted with their Hiftory. vemor. 

A few Months before the War was at an end, dy'd Maffachu- 
Mr. Winthrop Governour of ConneB:icut Coloxny, and ^^} Colony, 
was fucceeded by Mx,Leet^ who had formerly been |^^'.J^{?^- 
Governour ^ and two Years after dy'd Mr. Leveret^ J^^^^^^p 
Governour of Maffachvfet Colony, whofe Place was piimouth 
fupply'd by Simon Bradftreet^ Efq^ who had ferv'd the Colony ^ 
Settlement in feveral Capacities. Mr. Winftovo Go- Mr. 
vernor of Plimouth Colony dying about Chrifimas^ Treat * 
1^80. was fucceeded by Mr. JreatT in whofe TimQ Govsrmr, 
the Charter granted to this and the other Set- i^^s* 
tlements in New-England ^ fufFer'd the fame Fate H, Cran- 
with thofe of the Chief Corporations in England '^^^^^i ^Jil 
Quo Warrantors were brought againft them,and a Judg- ^^^"^^or 
ment enter'd up in Chancery : Upon which King ^^^^l^^ 
Charles II. fent over Henry Cranfield^ Efq*, to bt Go- ^ coinmif 
vernour o( New-England j and King James arbitrarilyy^^^; a.^,^^ 
affum'd the Power of making Governours, Deputy- the iQng^ 
Governours, Magiftrates, Judges, Officers of the Mi- Tk co/o- 
litia, and depriv'd the Colony of New-England of all nies lofe 
her Privileges. He impos'd a Governour on that Re- tkir Fri- 
publickj with a Commijfio&j by which he and thr ee or '^i^^ge-^* 
four more of their naming^ had Power to make what i^^'Sy. 
Laws they pleas' dj and levy Taxes vpon the People ac- |?^^P^ 
cording to their own Humour, In the Year 1585, Jo- 5^. ^^' 
feph Dudley J Efq*, Son of Mr. Thoma^s Dudley^ wasap- M^^^ '^r' 
pointed Prefident by the King's Commillion. -ihe j^^^^,.^^. 
Elected Governours were all turn'd out of their ^2^^^ yy 
feveral Governments, and the Form ot the M-thc K^irig's 
miniftration quit© ch^ng'd. This Gentleman wsls commijfi'^ 

^ the on, 

^lOi ngt! #^ttM CJutiEj 

6o The Hijiory of New-England. 

the more acceptable to the People of New England^ 
becaufe of his Father's Services and Merit, and for 
that he was a Native of that Province ^ but his favour- 
ing th.Q Church and Government of England at that 
Time made him many Enemies. He did not keep his 
Poft long ^ for in the Year le^e^ Sit Edmund Andros 
j?>Ed- arrived there from England^ with a Commiflion to be 
inund Ap-Governoiir of the Country. How welcome he 
dros Go- was lo the People vye may imagine, when we 
vernor. confider by whom, .and over whom he was put 
in Power. Twas not likely that a Perfon who 
came on thofe Terms, ihou'd be very well belov'd ', 
or that one who, fays a New-England Hirtorian and 
Cot. Mat. Preacher, aEied by an fegal^ A-bitrary^ Treafonahle 
Commijfwn^ fhou'dgain tne good Opinion of the Peo- 
ple : And indeed his Government is reprefented by 
that Author, to refemble his Mafter King Ja?nes'sy in 
the Courfe of it, as it did in the Confequence. Twas 
. in his time that Capt. William Phips^ a Native of New- 
t^m £f}gland^ went from thence to London^ to foUicite fome 
P^yi?-^ Noblemen and Gentlemen, to undertake anAdven- 
to the ^^^^ for the Wreck near Port de la Plata. Which 
Ifygch ^^ prevail'd with the Duke of Alhermarle^ and others, 
to employ him ^bout, and he was fo fortunate as to 
hit upon the Ship where the Silver he fought after was 
lodg'd, and brought 300000 /. in Pieces of Eight to 
England: Whereof about 20000 /. came tohisfhare. 
The King Knighted him for this Service, and made 
him Higii-SheriiT of New-England. Sir William pe- 
titioned that the Charter might be reftor'd, but that 
was a Grant which the King wou'd not at any 
Terms part with. Sir William's Defign by obtaining 
a Pattent for High Sheriff of New-England was, that 
he might have it in his Power tofupply the Country 
with honeft Juries ; But the Government then in 
being fotind a way to evade his Pattent, and when 
he arriv'd at Bofion^ \N\i\c\i was in the Year i588. he 
had like to have been AfTaflinated at his own door, 
in G-'pen-Lane^ in that City, where he built a fine 
Brick Houfe after the Modern way of Building. 

The People oi New-England^ by their Agents at 
London J Sir Henry AJhurfij and Dr. Mather Re£lor of 
Harvard College, petition 'd the King to have their 
Charter reflor'd 5 and had many good Words in an- 

The Hi^ory of Ntvf-Enghnd. &t 

!wer from him, but nothing was done in it, till after 
that Prince, for his Male Adminiftration in Old-Eng' 
la?fdy was reduced to the neceility of abdicating his 

In the mean time, the Government of New-Eng- 
land grew fo rampant it became intollerable. The 
Properties of the People were every where invaded. Cot. 
and the Lives of the befi Men in the Country began to he Mathj 
TraEhis'd tipon. The Minifiers and their Minifieryj a 
mojk infuffr/ahle Outrage^ eonjidering the Nature of that 
Set of Men J were diicountenanc'd, and the College 
and Schools difcourag'd. The Governour pretended 
to rule by a Fa£lionj and that all Foreigners. Laws 
were made without the Majority of the Legiflators Orkvati" 
confenting to them. Complaintsof Grievances were ^'^'^* 
frown'd upon, Money levy'd without a General Court \ 
Perfons imprifon'd illegally, and Juries were pack'd. 
Thefe Men gave out. That the Charters being lofi^ the 
People lofl all their Titles to their Lands with them. 
Thofe who would take out New Patterns for Eftates^ 
that had been fifty Years in their Families, were forc'd 
to pay one fourth part of their Value for them. And to 
add to all thefe Affli£lions another more terrible than, 
all of them, The Indians by the Hardfhips they fuffer'd 
from the Government, and at the Inftigation of the 
French and their Abetters^ broke out into a War in 
the Eaft, which lafted almoil as long as that oiTroy, 

Sir William Phips went in Perfon to England^ to me- 
diate for his Country with the King, but he found the 
Court in fuch Confufion, on apprehenfions of a Revo- 
lution, that he cou*d do no good :> fo he returned after 
the Prince of Orange's being declared King, with In- 
ftru£tion from the Miniilry then at Court, how to 
proceed for the Service of the Colony. King William 
was not willing to difplace the Governour, till he 
heard how he behav'd himfelf •, and the People of 
New-England fav'd him that trouble. 

About loo Indians invaded the Eaftern Counties in 
Jw/y Td-88. and fays our Hiftorian, " Tho the Gover- Cot. Mat* 
*' nour then in the Weftern Parts of it, had immedi- 
^' ate notice of it, yet he not only delayed and negle- 
" (fted all that was necefTary for the Publick Defence, 
" but alfo, when he at la ft returned, fbew'd a moft 
^^ furious Difpleafure againft thofe of xh^ Council^ 

" and 

62 The Hiftory of New-England. 

*^ an J all others that had forwarded any one thing for 
" the Security of the Inhabitants, while at the Fame 
" time he difpatch'd fome of his Creatures on (ecret 
*' Errands to Canada^ and fet at liberty fome of the 
*' moft murderous Indians whom the Englifh had 
" feiz'd upon. 

He imprifon'd a Man who brought over a Copy of 
the Prince's Declaration ^ and put out a Proclamation, 
requiring all Perfons to ufe their Endeavours to hin- 
der the landing of any whom his Highnefs might 
fend thither. Reports were fpread in Bojion^ that 
Mifchief was to be expefted from the Rofe'¥ngot^ a, 
Man of War then in the Harbour. Upon all which, 
many Soldiers of the Governour's Forces deferted 
the Army :, and a general Revolt feem'd to be prepa- 
ring. Several Gentlemen met on this occafion, and 
refolv'd to appear at the head of the People, in cafe of 
an Infjrrei^ion, and drew up a Declaration to be 
i<5"Sp. dirpers'd about the Country. On xhQ lUh o{ April^ 
fome of the difafFeO:ed feiz'd the Captain of the Rofe 
Frigot, and immediately the Town of Bofion was in 
The Cover- Amis : The Townfmen feiz'd the Governour ; and 
Tiour de- fljQJ'e xvr etched Men^ who by their innumerable Extor- 
pos dby the f^^^^ ^^^ ExaBions. had made themfelves the ObjeEls of 
^''^^'' mlverfal Hatred. 

This Revolution was eflfe^led without the leaft 
Plunder or Bloodfhed. The Gentlemen who brought 
it about, appointed a Commitee for the Conservation of 
the Veace, The Criminals were fent Xo England ^ and 
the Governour and Maeiftrates who were in Power 
before the lofs of the Charters, were reftor'd to the 
Exercife of their former Authority. King Willia?n 
^. Willi- and Qiieen Mary approv'd of their Proceedings, and 
am ap' granted them a new Charter ^ which tho it referv'd t}iQ 
jjrovss of Power of nominating the Governour in the King or 
it^ and Qaeen o^ England^ yet it granted them great Privileges^ 
■^/^^r"/ '^^^ ^'^ fome refpeEis greater than what they formerly en- 
f^ewLbar" py^^ ^q u{^ i}^q words of one of their own Country- 
men. While the Agents were foUiciting the Affair 
1 5^0. of the Charter, Sir William Phips reduc'd New-Scotland 
to the Obedience of the Crown of England^ at the 
charge of ihefe Settlements, as wejhall (hew in a - 
nother Chapter. Upon the Petition of Sir Henry 
AJJnvrfi and Mr. Mather^ in the Name of xh^ Colony, 


The HifioYf of New-England. 6| 

King William made Sir William Phips Captain General, Sir Willi- 
andGovernour in Chief of the Province of Maffachi- ^^ Ph^ps 
fet Bay in New-England, Under which Title that Co- Governor^ 
lony only feems to be meant, but the other two were 
included in the Gommiflion. 

Canada was always a Thorn in the fide of New- 
England^ and from thence all her Troubles came. 
The French having fuch a Natural Envy and Hatred 
to the Englilh, that they never mifs'd any opportunity 
of doing them a Mifchief, in whatever part of the 
World they met with them. By their own Confeffi- 
on, they and their Confederates the Hurons^ fell up- The French 
on an Englifli Company in the year 1^87, and took ^-f^U upon^ 
way from them to the Value of 50000 Crowns: Alib^^Y^&^l^ 
Monfieur Dulhut defeated another Company, com-^^f'^^^T^ 
manded by Major Gregory^ who was Convoy to fome ^'^^^^^^^^' 
Iroquois J a Nation in league with the Englifh, and at 
War with the Hurons, Thefe, and other late Provo- 
cations from their Allies the Indians, were juft 
grounds for Sir William^ Expedition to endeavour to 
diflodge them at Quebec. Their Indian Confederates 
rifl'd leveral Plantations about North Tarfnouth ^ and 
Captain Blackman^ a Juftice of Peace, feiz'd about * 

20 of 'em, who had been Ring-leaders in the lafl 
I War. Thefe Indians were fent Prifoners to Falmouth^ ^ 

I in Cafco Bay *, and the Savages took Reprizals. Willi- 
I am Stoughton Efq', Deputy Govern our, and other Gen- 
tlemen, went to treat with them, whom the Savages 
promis'd to meet at Macquoit^ and to bring their En- 
I glifh Captives, in order to their being released ^ but 
never came, being, as they declared, diffwaded by the 
French : The Englifh ftay'd for them fome days ^ af-r 
ter which, finding they had betray 'd them, theyre- 
turn'd to Falmouth ', and they were fcarce arrived 
there, before the Barbarians fell again on North Tar- 
mouth. Yet Sir Edmund Andros took no care to put 
an end to this War before the Flame fpread farther, 
and the French had .fupply'd them with Arms and 
We fhall now take a fhort view of the State of the 
\ Indian War ^ in which we fhall find the French open- War md 
I ly ingag'd. After the feizing of thofe Indians by Mr. the Indians^ 
Blackmans Order, the Savages furpriz'd Captain Raw- 
den and Captain Gendallx The former of them dy'd ia 



The Hiftory of New-England. 

Slavery, the other made his Efcape ^ and being afarout 
fortifying North Tarmouth^ was attackt by the Indi- 
ans, whom he repuls'd. This was the firft Blood that 
was fpilt in this long War, Captain Gendall paffing 
over the River with his Servant in a Canoo, fell into 
an Ambuih of the Savages, by whom they were both 
murdered : They afTaulted and flew feveral Englifh, at 
a ^'illage call'd Merry Meeting \ the fame they did at 
5/J eepfcoatj a Town that was reckoned the Garden of 
the Eaft : This Place they burnt to the Ground, and 
oblig'J rhe Inhabitants to retire into their Fort* 
Thev murdered Mr. Burrow's and Mr. BuJJy's Families 
zt Krnehvnk'^ and committed fo many Outrages, 
that at iaft Sir Edmund Andros with looo Men, 
i^rirch'd into the Eaft, built a Fort at Temmaquid^ 
another at Pechypfot., and repair'd and enlarg'd that at 
Sheepfcoat, ^Upon the depofing of this Perfon from his 
Government, the old Governour and Magiftrates fent 
Captain Greenleaf to treat with the Penacook Indians, 
who, notwithftanding their fair Pretences, join'd 
with the Saconian Savages, furpriz'd Major Walden 
in his Garrifon of Quobechoy kill'd'him, and 22 of 
his Soldiers, and carry'd away 29 into Bondage. 
' ^his worthy Gentleman was betray'd by one Mefan- 
dotik^ a Prince of the Saconlans^ whom he had honou- 
rably entertained and trufted as a Friend, and who on\ 
the approach of t}iQ Indians, open'd the Gate of the 
Fort, and admitted them. Mr. John Broughton they 
murder'd in their Retreat •, and Forces being fent af^ 
ter them, the Penacooh fled to the Woods, and left 
their Corn and Country to the mercy of Captain 
Noyes and his Men, who enter'd it, and deftroy'd \ 
their Wigwams and Plantations ' 

The Indians kill'd many Men, Women and Chil- 
dren, in other places*, as a whole Family on the 
North- fide of Merrimack River, four youn^ Men of 
Saco whom they furpriz'd in the Woods, five more 
near Saco falls, out of 2 5 who came forth to bury the 
others \ one Starkey falling into their hands, to fave 
his own Life, difcover'd to them, that one Mr. GileSy ' 
and 1 4. other Englifhmen, were not far off, thefethe 
Savages murder 'd. -. ■ 

The Indians having intimation, that there was but 
a fmill Garrifon in Pemmaguid Fort, got up upon a. 


The Hifiory of New-England. 65 

Rock which over-look*d it, from whence they mife- 
rably gauFd the Befieg'd, who furrender'd, with 
their Governour Captain Weems^ on Coaditions 
of Life and Liberty. The Indians broke the Capitu° 
lation, and butcher 'd the greateft part of them, as 
alfo Captain Skinner and Captain Farnham^ who were Several 
coming to th.^ Relief of the Fort ^ and Mr, Patifljallj EvgUJh 
as he lay in his Sloop in the Barbican. Theie Lofles ^^P}^^^^ 
caus'd the Inhabitants of Sheepfcoat and Kennehunk to-^'*^^^ 
abandon thofe Places, and retire^ to Falmouth^ as did 
feveral other Planters in other Parts of the Eaft. 

It was time for the Government of New-England to 
think of vigoroully oppofing thele Murders and De- 
pradations of the Savages : Accordingly Major Swayne 
with 500 Men from Majfachufet^ and Major CWr^, 
one of their beft Officers from Pllmouth^ with as ma- 
ny more Englifh, and Chriftian Indians, marched a- 
gainft the Enemy ^ who hearing, that one Lieutenant 
' Huckin was gone out of a Fott he commanded on the 
Frontiers, with all his Garrifon about their daily 
Work, intercepted them in their return, and cut them 
all'ofF, 17 in number. Then the Indians attacked the 
3 Fort in it, which were only two Boys, and fome Wo- 
;men and Children. Thefe Boys defended it againft UeBrnve^ 
\ the Savages, wounded feveral of them, and when they ry of twQ 
j faw the Barbarians had found out a way to fet fire to Evgiijb 
jthe Houfe in the Fort, and fo burn 'em out, wou'd%^» 
not yield, but on Terms of Life, which thele inhu- 
mane Wretches granted, and yet afterwards kill'd 
three or four of the Children, with one of the Boys, 
the other made his efcape. Captain Garner purfu'd 
the Enemy, but they were too nimble for him, A° 
nother Party of 'em affaulted Cafco^ kill'd Captain 
Bracket^ and had put the whole Town to the Sword, 
had not Captain Hall come opportunely with Relief, 
and engaging the Barbarians, put *em to flight. 

The Defigns of Major Swayne^ and Major Churchy 
were fruftrated, by the Treachery of fome Indiaa 
Confederates, who being fent out as Scouts, difco- 
ver'd all that they knew to the Enemy *, and thefe 
underftanding the Number of the Engliih, fled to 
their inaccemble Woods and Swamps, where there 
was no coming at them ", fo Major Swayne having 
reliev'd the Garrifon of ^/w Folnt^ retir'd to Winter ^ 
Quarters, F Iti 

66 The Hifiory of New-Englaad 

in the following year, Monfieur Artell^ a French* 
man from Canada^ and one Hoop-Hood an Huron Lea- 
der, afTaulted Salmons Falls, and deftroy'd the beft part 
of the Town with Fire and Sword, killing 3 o Perfons, 
and leading away above 50 into Captivity, ufing their 
Captives with the utmoft Barbarity that French and 
Indian Cruelty could invent. 

This Defcent of the French, and their confedera- 
ting with the Indians, alarm'd all the Englifh Settle- 
ments on that Coaft ^ and after the Reduftion of No- 
^/V W. ^^ Scotia J Sir William Phips was difpatch'd away with 
P ^Py . 3 2 Sail of Ships and Tenders to attack Ouebeck. The 
agmP'^^ principal Men of War were, "^ 

The Six-Friends^ Capt. Gregory Sugars Admiral, 44 Guns* 
The jfohmnd Thomas, Capt. Carter'Vict- Admiral* 
The Swan, Capt . Tko, Gilbert Rear-Admiral. 

They had aboard m all 2000 Men *, and fetting faij 
from Hully nQdiV Boflon^ th.Q 9th of Augufi^ 1690. ar- 
riv'd before September^ 2it Quebeck ^ but were detained i 
fo long by contrary Winds, that they were 3 Weeks < 
going up the River of Canada^ which otherwife they 
might have done in 3 Days. This gave the Count 
de Prontenac an opportunity to prepare for his De- 
fence, and draw all the Strength of the Colony to 
Quebeck'^ which Sir William Phips expe£led would ; 
have been divided by an Army marching over Land, , 
and attacking Movm Royal Fort at the fame time that ' 
he fell upon the City. 

This Army was to confift of 1 000 Men from Nevo* 
Torkj ConneBicut^ and Plimouth Colonies, and ijoo 
Indians, to whom the French give the general Name 
of Iroquois^ but our Englifh dillinguilh them by the ) 
Names of their feveral Nations. The Englifh march'd I 
as far as the great Lake of Canada^ but not finding ; 
Canoos ready for them to pafs it, and the Indians not : 
joyning them according to their Agreement, theyr 
returned ^ by which means. Count ^^ Fro;?/^^;/^^ had no » 
need of making any Detachments for the Security of i 
Mount Royal. Sir William fummon'd the Count to fur- • 
render the City, but received a very infolent abu fiv»> 
Aniwer : So on the Sf/? of OBoher^ the Englifh landed, , 
under Lieutenant General malley^ to the number oft 

The Hiftory of New-England. 6^ 

i4do, for to thofefew they were already reduced by 
the Small Pox, and other Difeafes. 

In the mean while. Sir William brought his Ships to 
bear on xhQ Weft-end of the City^ waiting when Ge- 
neral J'F'W/O' wou*d begin the AiTault ^ but this Gen- 
tleman hearing Count Frontenac had 4000 Men 
with him, and was provided to make a vigorous De- 
fence, notwithftanding the Prayers of the Englifh 
Soldiers to the contrary, refolv'd to re-imbark ^ and 
Sir William eKpQiking the Signal of their attacking the 
Town on the Eaft-fide, fent a MefTenger afliore, to . 
know the reafon of their not giving the AfTault^ 
which when he underftood, and that many of the Men 
were almoft frozen to Death, and that the Colonel Vtjform- 
and others were ill of the Small Pox, he ordered them ^^ts^ 
onboard to refrefh themfelves *, and calling a Coun- 
cil of War, it was refolv'd to return. 

The Baron La Hontan^ who was then at Quebeckj 
{ays, there was not 200 French in the Town when 
Sir William came thither ^ that when he fir*d upon it, 
he was two Leagues off it :, that the Englifh landed a- 
bout 3000 Men againft the Ille of Orleans, about a 
League and half below Rebeck 5 but meeting with art 
Ambufcade, they retir^ 

The Englifh Account varies from this, and afTures 
us, that Ambufcade ran away from Whalleys Men« 
The Baron adds, That if Phips had been engag'd by 
the French, to ftand {till with his Hands in his Poc- 
kets, he could not have done lefs againft them. That 
the Englifh kill'd MonfieurS* Helene, and 100 French, 
and took the Sieur Jolet^ his Lady, and other Prifoners. 
This was a fad Misfortune •, by the New-England Ac- 
counts,above 1000 Men periili'd in it one way or other. 
The Fleet was feparated in its return, and fome Ships 
driven as far as the Leward Iflands •, one was wreck'd, 
another never "heard of^ a third foander'd and all the 
Crew loft*, a fourth was driven afhorson thedefbiate 
Ifland of Antecofta^ where Captain Raimford and his 
Company, forty at firft, were reduc'd by Want and 
Weather, to half the Number, in a Month's time^ 
and then fav'd almoft niiraculouHy. This Expedition 
coft the Colony of New-England 40000 /, for which 
they ran in Debt, and paid it off by Bills which they 
made currant, likt the Exchequer Bills in EngUmd. 

F 2 Sir 

• 68 The Hifiory of New-England- 

Sir William, foon after 'his return to Bofion^ 
faird from thence to Brifiol •, and haftning to Londoriy 
fhew'd the King the necefiity of reducing Canada^ for 
the Safety of his Dominions in the Weji-Indies *, but 
the French War in Europe lay fo heavy on King Wil- 
liam^ that he could not find a way to begin it in Ameri- 
ca^ where he had enough to do to defend his own Terri- 
tories. Twas now that this Knight,on the reprefentatiori 
of the Agents, of his Merit and Zeal for the King and 
^/^ Willi- Country's Service, received his Commiflion ofGover- 
am Phips nour, and the new Charter we have already fpokea 
Governor. f^{ \^ this Chapter. With thefe he haflen'd back to 
New-England^ accompany'd by the Agent Mr.Mather j 
and a Day of Thankfgiving was appointed for the fafe 
Arrival of two iiich important Perfons. If the Author 
of Sir William Phips's Life, in Cotton Mather's loofe 
Colleftions, be to be credited ^ He was a Man of 
great Honour, and a true Lover of his Country^ as 
will appear by this Speech of his to the General 

Gentlemen -^ 

'His speech You may make your fellies as eafy as you will for ever : 

to the Af- Co?jfider what may have any Tendency to Tour Welfare^ 

feinbly, ^^^ Ton may be fure^ That v^hat ever Bills Tou offer to 

me^ confluent with the Honour and Inter eft of the, Crown^ 

lil pafs them readily : I do hut feek Opportunities to 

ferve you. Had it not been for the f the of this Things 

I had never accepted the Government of this Province : 

And whenever Tou have fettVd fuch a Body of good 

haws^ that no Perfon coming after me may make Tou 

v/aeafy^ I fljall defire not one day longer to continue in the 



We are told, he was ^'er^ careful to make good 
^^'"ifrj J^^S^^' Juilices, and Sheriffs, and tender in burning 
^ * Witches. The People of A^r:p-£??^te^ were at this 
time got into fuch _ a Humour of Witch-hunting, 
Cot. Tvlat,th?.t there was a Society of them at Bofion^ as there is 
p.6i> of Reformation in Z.?;'/.^^;^ i and that Society engag'd 
theinfelves to find out and profecute all Witches, . 
as the Society in London iceks after and punifhes all 1 
Whoresp &C' The New-Engla-nd Society had thrown i 
!io lefs than iqo old Men and Women intojGoall 

" for ' 

The Hiftory <?/ New-England. 69 

for Sorcery *, and fome had been put to Death -^ 
ibnie Scores lay ready for the Faggot ;, but the Mini- 
fters of Bojiorij and the French and Dutch Miniflers 
at New-Tor k^ informing Sir William Phips^ that per- 
haps fome of the pretended Mifchiefs faidtobedone 
by the Witches, might be the Devil's doing in the 
Shape of fuch Perfons *, the new Governour was 
not fo ready to burn them, as thofe who went before 
him were •, and many of the Sorcerers, who lay only 
for the Warrant on a new hearing, were found rather 
to deferve Pity and Alms, than a Gibbet or Fire. 

Sir William by difcountenancing the Novelty of 
Witch-burning, clear'd the Country more of Wit- 
ches, than all the Executions that had been done be- 
fore his time. For to ufe the Hiftorian's own Expref- 
fion *, They ran as vehemently vpon acquitting all the Ac- 
cus'dj ashy mifiake they ran atjirfl vpon condemning them. 
For which prudent Proceeding, the late Queen Ma- 
ry^ our Sovereign of Sacred and Glorious Memory, 
wrote him a Letter of Thanks. 

We muft now take a further View of the Indian The Inikn 
War '-) the Seat of which was in that part of the Pro- Wat^ 
vince where the Governour was born. The Indians 
knew him Perfonaljy, and when they heard that he 
had taken a Ship full of Money ^ they wonder 'd mighti- 
ly at the Fortune of a Man, of whom they had no 
manner of expectation that ever he would make fuch a 
figure in the world ^ but when he was made Governour, 
their wonder was increas'd, and Fear added to their 
Aftonilliment. They knew he was acquainted with 
them and their Country, and underflood hov\r to car- 
ry on an Indian War much better than his Predecef- 

The French and Indians attack'd Cafco^ kili'd Lieu- Cafco ti- 
tenant Clark^ and 13 Men out of 30 near the Town, len, 
drove thofe within it into the Fort, undermin'd it, and 
oblig'd die Englifh Governour Major Davis j after he 
had loft moft of hisMen,^to furrender, on promife of Mijor 
Convoy to the next Garriibn. However the French fent Daviso 
the Major and fome of the Men Prilbners to Qvebeck^ 
and the reft were murder'd by the Savages j, Captain 
Lawrence was mortally wounded in this Siege, and 
many brave Soldiers kili'd. 

F % Upon 

70 The Hijlory of New-England. 

Upon the lofs of Cafco^ the Garrifons oiTapoodack^ 
Spurwinky Bkw-point and Black-pointy retir'd to Saco^ 
and thence to Wells .y from whence half of them re- 
treated as far as Lieutenant Storers, Hopehood follow'd 
them, burnt fome Houfes, kill'd 12 or 15 Men and 
Women, and carry'd away 6 or 7 from Berwick and 
Fox-point'^ But Captain H(?)/^ and Captain G'r^f^/^^?/ 
meeting hun, many of his Men were flain, and 
himielf wounded. He was afterwards kill'd by fome 
French Indians, who miflcKDk him and his Party 
for Confederates with the Englifh. At Spruce-CtQ^k 
an old Man was murder'd, and a Woman made a 
Captive. At Lamperwell 9 Men were (lain, and others 
led into Captivity. Capt H^Z/rr^//, and Capt. H<?y, 
being detach'd by the Council of War at Vortfmouth^ 
to icour the Country as far as Cafco^ overtook the 
Enemy near Wheelwright s-Von^^ and coming to an 
Engagement, the former, his Lieutenant F/^^, and 
molt of his Mm were kill'd, which obliged Capt.Hoj/^ 
theErgliihloxQti^cQ. They had 100 Men with them, but the 
tvorfiedby Indians 3 or 4 times that number •, and befides, there 
the Inutjm y^ere lome French Soldiers mix'd among them to difci- 
anmemh. pUne them, and teach them a regular way of Fighting, 
wliich wasthereaibn that the Englifh wanted more 
Men in this Indian War, than they did in the former r 
Nor durft they vefiture an Aftion where the Advan- 
tage was fo much on the Enemies fide, as they us*d 
to doo After this Vidory, the Savages made an 
Incur fion as far as j4meshury^ took Capt. Footj and 
tortur'd him to Death. The Townfmen taking the 
Allarm fled to their Fort. However, the Enemy 
kiird 3 Perfons, burnt as many Houfes, drove off their 
Cattle, and retreated. 

A greater Force under the Command of Major 
Church was fent againft thefe Invaders. Himfelf, with 
300 Men, went by Sea, and landed in the N^ght 
at Mac quoit in Cafco Bay. They march'd immediate- 
ly to Fechepfcot an Indian Fort, which they found de- 
ferted : From thence they advanc'd 40 Miles up the 
River to Amonofcoggin Fort, where they met 5 Indians > 
haling away 2 Englifh Prifoners. They releas'd the 
Captives, but cou'd not come at the Indians. There : 
were no more than 21 Indians in Amonofcoggin \ oir 
them Major Chvrch took and ilcw 20, and let 5 En- 

The Hiftory of New-England. 71 

' glifh Prifoners at Liberty •, the Major hunted the Sa- 
vages up and down, forc'd them to drop fome of their 
Captives, particularly ^x, Anthony Bracket^ kilFd fome 
of their Straglers, but not being able to get them 
I out of their FortrefTes, he return'd, leaving Capt. 
j Conversj and Lieutenant Plaifted in that Country to 
obferve the Enemy. 

Soon after the Indians came to Wells with a Flag ^ 7rw<r^ 
of Truce, and Major Hutchinfon and Capt. Townfend f^^^^^^^tkd, 
j were fent from Bofton to treat with them. A Truce 
\ was concluded : The Captives on both fides were to 
I be reftor'd, and Edgeremet and 5 more of their Sega- 
! mores fign'd the Treaty (as well as they cou'd) in 
their Canoos at Sagadahoc , for they wou'd not come 
afhore. Among the Prifoners that were released, ^ " 
were Mrs. Hull, whom they wou'd feign have kept, 
becaufe fhe cou'd write, to be their Secretary, and 
Nathaniel White, whom they had faften'd to a 
Stake to roaft him to Death. Captain 0?;zt/^ri ftaid ^ 
with a good Garrifon at Wells, for the Security of 
thofe Parts. And thus the War ceas'd for a little 
while. Anno 1691, 

The Indians inftead of bringing in all the Captives, Thelndim 
came down two or three Months after upon Capt. breAk iu 
Convers at Wells ^ but he received them fo well, that 
they withdrew. The Hoftilities buing renew'd, they 
kiird 2 Men at Berwick, 2 at Exeter, and 5 or 5 
at Cape Nidduch To prevent further Mifchief, 
Capt. March, Capt. King, Capt. Sherbarn, and Capt. 
Waters, with 400 Men, landing at Macquoit, march'd 
to Pechypfcot. Thefe Forces not meeting the Enemy, 
grew fecure, and flraggled out in Parties •, w^hich 
thQ Savages obferving, gathered in a Body, attack'd 
them with Advantage, and drove them to their Ships, ' 

with the Lofs of Capt. Sherbarn and feveral Men. 
They then kill'd 7 Perfons dX Berwick^ 21 ^.t Sandy 
Beach) a Family at -^<?n7/^, another at //^-z/fr/:?///, and 
forc'd the Garrifon to defert the flrong Fort of Cape 
Nidducl^ for want of Men to defend it. A Body of 
Popifh Indians affaulted the Town 01 York ^ kill'd ^50 
Men, and led away 100 into Slavery *, the reil for- 
tify'd themfelves in their Houfes \ and tho they were 
but a handful, yet the Savages, who were feveral 
hundreds, durll not attack them. Here Mr. Dimt- 

F 4 ^'^'^T 

7 2 The Hijlory of Ne w-Engl^d. 

mer the Minifter was fhot, to the great Joy of thefe 
Romifi) Barbarians. A Ship was immediately dif- 
patch'd away, with a Grant to purchafe the Re-* 
demption " of the r^r/^-Captives *, and thofe Men who 
remai-i'd in that Town talking of abandoning it,"~ 
Major Hutchinfcn w^as fent thither with aftrongParty 
commanded under him by Capt. Convers^ Capt. Floyd^ 
and Capt. Thaxver^ to defend thole Parts of the 
Country from the Incarfions of the Enemy. Capt. Con-^ 
vers was Pofted at Wells ^ with only 15 Men in the 
Ti^t- Con- Fort, and 15 more in Sloops, to aliifl th^Garrifon 
yeis^r^i- xx^on cccafion from the River. Againft him Ma- 
^^^' denkawando^ Moxus^ Edgeremetj Warumho^ Indian 
Princes, Moniieur Burniff^ and Monfieur LabrocreCy 
and 500 Hurof-2Sj or French Indians, came down ^ 
yet fuch was the incredible Valour of the Men in 
the Sloops, and the Captain wath his in the Fort, 
that after fever al fruitleis Attempts to niafter them 
by Land and Water, the French Generals, and 
their 4 Indian Confederate Princes, were oblig'd to 
retire *, and Moniieur Labrocree never liv'd to bear 
the Reproach of fo fcandalous a Retreat, being kilFd 
in the firil of it. The Enemy happen 'd to take one 
John Diamond Prironer,whom they us'd fo barbaroufly, 
that 'twou'd move too much Horror in the Reader 
to hear it. Forsi^one but Indians or Frenchmen 
cou'd be guilty of it. 

Sir William Phips having fettled the Affairs of his 

Government at Bofton^ and underftanding the Enemy 

had made a terrible Slaughter of fome Husband- 

p men on the Northfide of Merrimack River, rais'd 

quid^on "^^^ A'^en, and march'd to femmaquid •, where Capt, 

built bi Bancroft^ and Capt. Wing^ by his Order and Diredi- 

sir Willi- ^^"^^5 hiAx. the beft Fort that is on the Continent of 

%T^V\{\'^%. -America in Englilh hands: In which he put a 

Garrifon of 69 Men , but tlie Charge of building and 

maintaining it, caus'd Murmurings and Complaints 

in the Country, which began to make Sir William^s 

Adminiftration uneafy to him. Major Church took 

5 Indians at Tenobfcot^ demolifh'd their Fort at Taco-, 

netj and deftroy'd x\iQ Corn about it. The next 

year Sir William fent 350 Men to Wells^ and order'd 

Captain Converse whom he alfo made Major and 

Commander in Chaef, to drain ikQ Eaftern Garrir^ 

^ fons 

The Hiftory of New-England. 7 } 

Fons, and march into the Enemies Country, which 
he did ^ icowr*d the Woods 2ihoutTaconetj proceeded 
to 5<^(7^^ and laid the Foundation of a Fort there, which 
was carry'd on by Major Hookj and Cape. Hillj and 
was a great defence to the Eaftern Counties. -He 
took feveral Indians, and cut 'em in pieces, to revenge Jnd, 
fonie late Murders they had committed at Oy/^^r-Ri- i^pj;. 
ver. At ConneBicut alio the Englifh hearing the Sava-Saco-forr. 
ges appeared about Quaboag, fent out a Party of Horfe, 
who purfu'd them to a Swamp, and leaving their 
Horfes at the Entrance of it, follow'd them by their 
Track, kill'd moft of them, and recovered fome Cap- 
tives which they had taken, with all their Plunder. 
Upon the late SuccefTes of the Englifh, the vigorous 
Proceedings of Sir William Phips^ and the building 
the Forts in the Eaft, the Indians began to incline 
to a real Peace, efpecially hearing the Macquas threat- 
ned to fall on them for killing fome of their Squas 
or Princefles, on a Whan el-berry Plain. Thefe Ma- 
quas had the Uie of Guns, before any other Indian 
Nation, and by this Advantage are (aid to have kiil'd 
two Millions of Indians. They inhabited the Regions 
to the Weft, and were generally in League with the 
Englifh. The Indian Segamores had a French En- 
voy in their Courts, who was a Friar, to ftir them up 
againll the Englifh, and keep them in heart. This 
Prieft did- his utmoft to perfwade them to continue ihQ 
War ^ but the French not aflifting them with Men, 
Arms and Ammunition, as they promis'd, th^ Vtii'c 7h Mms 
cou'd not hinder them from begging a Peace. beg aPeace. 

Accordingly a Peace was concluded thQ nth of 
Auguji^ i69S' hy Capt. Wing^ Mr. Manning^ and 
Mr .Johnfofij in the Name of Sir IVilllam PhipSj and 
by Edgeremet ior the Indians. The Indians lay quiet 
about a year, and all that while the French Priefts 
inftigated them to break the Truce. They atjaft^^^^^^^ 
prevail'd upon them to make an Inroad into the J^ ^^" f /if ^/f^' 
ritories of the Englifh, who were not provided to re- .^^Ji^^^^ 
ceive them, reckoning themfelves fecure in th& French 
Treaty. ^ vrkfis. 

An Army of thefe Savages falling on a fudden on Oy- ^ 
^^r-^i-z/^r-Townjiiiade near i oo Perfons Captives. One 
Bickford couragiouily defended his Houfe againft them, 
^nd defpairing to reduce him before Succours came^ 


74 T^f^^ Hipry of New-England. 

they left him: Such was the end of the Peace of 
Temmaquid^ the Place where the lafir Treaty was con* 
eluded. They niurder*d Mrs. Cutt and her Family 
on Pifcataway, They made an AfTault on Groton j 
but were repuls'd by Lieutenant Lakin : However 
they kiird 20 Perfons in that Plantation, At Spruce* 
Creek they flew three, and at Killery eight more* 
Here they barbaroufly us'd a Daughter of Mr.BowK" 
ingj who notwithflanding fhe was knocked down,' 
had her Skull fcalp'd, and was left for dead, rec^ver'd 
and is ftill Living. Mr, Fike^ Under-Sheriff of 
Effex 5 was murder'd by them , between Am^^^^'^y 
and Haverhill, To recompenfe thefe LofTes) ^he 
The Bn^ Englifh feiz'd Bommafeen^ one of the Segam^resy 
^il^^lf^ who, with Edgeremet^ had fign'd the late T^ea- 
^Sacfiem^y^ He pretended to be juft come from Cana^^t 
^mma- ^^^ ^^ime into the Englifh Territories, on purpofe to 
endeavour to put an end to the Hoftilities *, but it 
being prpv'd that he was a Principal A£lor in the late 
Murders, he was fent Prifoner to Boflon, The lofs 
of fo great a Man as Bommafeen quieted the Indians 
for 6 or 7 Months, and then they renew'd their Bar-* 
barities. They took two Souldiers belonging to the 
Garrifon ofSaco^ kilVd the one^ and fent the other into 

Sometime zftcr Sheepfcoatjohfi^ fo call'd from a Place 
of that Name, near which he was born, who was one 
of the famous Mr. Elliotts Converts, but now an Apo- 
flate and Enemy, proposed a Treaty, and the Indians 
came to Pemmaquid^ pretending to be (brry that they 
had violated the Truce. To fliew their Sincerity, they 
deliver*d up 8 Captives, and promised to releafe the reft. 
Col. Philips Commander in Chief of the Forces, Lieu* 
tenant Col. Hawthorn^ and Major Convers were Comr 
miffion'd to treat with the Savages, who defign'd 
only to get Bommafeen again if they cou'd ^ and 
when they found the Engliih were refolv*d to keep 
him faft at Boflon^ they broke off the Conference, 
and departed. 

An Ambufcade of Indians took Major Hammond 

^. of Kettery^ and fent him to Canada^ where Count 

{"^' Frontenac treated him very honourably, having bought 

uTHrr" ^"^'^ ^^^^^ Savage-Mafler. Another Party came to Bel- 

me ^^J^^'i^yica^ on Hor&ack, which rendered them unfafpe^^ 


The Hifiory of New-England. 7 1 

cd ^ they never ufing a Horfe, unlefs to eat him. 
Here they kilFd and took 1 5 Men and Women. They 
Hew Serjeant March^ and 5 Men, near Temmaquid^ 
and 6 more as they were rowing a Gondola round a 
Point above the Barbican, They took 9 People out 
of Newhuryj and being purfu'd by Capt. Greenleafy 
wounded them fo, when they found they cou'd not 
keep them, that they all dy'd, except a Lad. Capt. 
Churchj Governour of Temmaquid Fort, defiring to 
lay down his Commillion, was fucceeded by Capt. 
€htdfj who we are told was guilty of a Piece of Trea-Cjpww 
jChery unworthy the Englifh Name *, for, meeting ChubV 
Edgeremet and another Prince on a fort of Treaty, ^^^4^^^^ 
he put 'em both to Death. 

The next Year ouq John Churchy and 3 more of isps^ 
Quohechoy Thomas Cole and his Wife of Wells^ 
14 Perfons near Fortfmouth^ were mafTacred, and 
7 taken Prifoners. In Augufl^ the French landed fome 
Men out of a Man of War, the Newport^ which they 
had taken from the Englifh, to affifl the Indians. This 
News fo frighted the Traitor Chuh^ that he furrren- 
der'd the new and ftrong Fort of Pemmaquld. The 
People of New-England mifs'd their Governour 
Six William PhipSj whom by their Clamours and 
Complaints they had caus'd to be fent for to England, 
a little after the Pemmaquid-PcdiCCj as we fhall fhew 
in the following Pages, being now willing to finilli 
the Indian War ^ which, tho it made a mighty Noife 
in New-England^ will not have a like effeft on an 
OldEngliJh Reader. 

The taking of Temmaquid Fort threw the Englifh Pemma^^ 
in thofe Parts into a dreadful Confternation ^ and the^'-^i^^^- 
Deputy Governour, Col. Stoughtony fent out Col. Ged-VP ^ ^ 
}^iey^ Col. Hawthorn^ and Major Churchy with leve- '^* 
jral Parties, to put a ftop to the Enemy, who, pleas'd 
I with fo formidable aConqueft, were retired, doing 
ij'no more mifchief at that time, except in murdering 

IS Souldiers of Saco Fort, who fell into their hands. 
From Haverhill in the enfuing Year, they took 3^ 169$. 
I Captives, of whom one was Hannah Dunjlan^ a Wo- 
I man of a mafculine Spirit : She had lain in not above 
a Week, yet fhe and her Nurfe walk'd 150 Miles on 
foot to the Town where the Indian, fhe was to ferve, 
liv'd. This Woman being afterwards to travel with 


7<5 The Hifiory of New-England. 

her Mafter and his Family, to a Rendezvous of 
Indians, ihe watch'd her Opportunity in the Night, 
and having animated her Nurfe to affift her, they 
kiil'd ten of the Indians with their own Weapons, and 
made their efcape \ for which A^ion they received 
a Reward of 50 Pounds, from the General AfTem- 
bly of the Province, and Prefents from private Perfons 
to a good Value. The Savages continuing their In- 
roads, kiird a Man at Tor\^ another at Hatfieldy a third 
at Grcton^ and a fourth at Exeter^ from whence they 
carried away 2 Children Captives. They kill'd another 
Man at Exeter ^ after this wounded a fecond, and 
carry'd off a third: They alfo furpriz'd and flew. 
Major Fr(?^ and his Two Sons, and 3 Women neai? 
New'Chawannic ^ and dreadful Defolation threat- 
ned the whole Province, from an Invafion of the 
French : But before we ipeak of that, we fhou*d let 
the Reader know what became of the Governour, 
Sir William PhipSj and in whofe Hands the Govern? 
nient of New-England was in thefe difficult times. ■ 
Sir William having fettled Peace, as he thought^ 
in the Province, and the Trade being open'd with the a 
Savages^ went for England to juftify himfelf againft \ 
the Complaints of his Enemies, who profecuted himi 
at the Council-Board, for feveral Acls of Male- Ad- - 
miniftration. The General Affemhly of the Province, , 
fent Letters to Court by him, to pray that he might r 
be continu'd Governour, which feem'd to be a fuffi- ■ 
cient Juftification of his Innocence *, and the King ; 
was fo well fatisfy'd of his Conduft, that had he liv'd,'t 
'tis thought he would have been fent back in the fame.' 
Poft *, but he dy*d at London^ and the Government of I 
New-England was after his Death manag'd by hiss 
tipf* Deputy, William Stoughton^ Efq', till the Year i d'p 7. . 
William when the Earl of Bellamont came over Governour.- 
Stough- Sir William carry'd home with \i\m a Proje£l too 
ton, Ff<{'^ fupply the Kingdom o^ England with Naval Stores fromn 
Deputy the Eaftern Parts of Maffachyfet Colony, which might 
Governor, eafily be done *, he alfo intended to lollicit Afliftancei 
for the Conquefl of Canada •, and the Court was foe 
well convinc'd of the Necellity of that Conqueft,:. 
as to order Sir Francis Wheeler to flop at New-En-i- 
gland^ to take in what Forces the Province had rais'd,i 
and thence proceed to Canada, Accordingly Sir Fram 


The Hiftory of New-England. 77 

)pis arrived there during the Peace of Vemmaquid^ but he 
had loft three quarters of his Seamen and I andmen at 
the Sugar-Iflands, and fo that Defign came to nothing ^ 
^hich, had it been executed as 'twas proie£led, wou'd 
jhave prevented the Fears of a French Invafion in 

The Deputy Governour prepared for a vigorous De- 
jFence, and the Forts, particularly thofe at Bofton^ were 
put into very good Order. Major Af^rc/? with 500 
'Men was pofted on the Eaftern Frontiers, to obferve 
the Enemy on that fide *, and he did fo much good, 
that few Englifh fell into their Hands. They kill'd 
ja Souldier near Wells^ took another and Roafted him. 
Three more they furpriz'd as they were cutting Wood 
for the Garrifon at Saco Fort, and murder'd them. 
They took Lieutenant Fletcher and his two Sons, one 
of whom efcap'd *, the other with his Father was maf- 
facred. Major March proceeded to Cafco Bay, and 
came on the Enemy unaware, who after one Fire, 
fled to their Fleet of Canoo's and got ofF^ the Ma- 
jor having kill'd a good number of them before they 
cou'd get away, with the lofs of Capt. Weymouth of 
Barnflahlej and 1 2 Men. This A6lion, tho it does not 
appear to be of any great Gonfequence, yet was (b in 
letfeft : For it hinder'd the promised Irruption of the 
Savages, as that did the Defcent of the French, who 
! being weakned by a Storm, and hearing of the De- 
feat of their Confederates the Indians, and the good 
, pofture of Defence the Englifh were in, gave them no 

While the Savages con tinu'd their Incur fions, the i^<p>^^ 
Lord Bellamont in England was preparing for his De- ji^ jr/^/ 
parture, and fet fail in the Deptford M3.n of War, in of Bella- 
Novemher 1 697^ He was driv'n as far as Barhadoes^ mont Go- 
iibut kept clear of the Ifland,and arriv'd in lafety at Bo- venwr. 
iflon, in December, After his Arrival, the Enemy hQ^Jnives at 
gan to grow weary of the War. They kill'd 20 Men Bollon. 
at Lancajler-Town^ with Mr. Whiting the Minifler, 
burnt fome Houfes, and two or three old People in 
them, and carry 'd away 5 into Slavery. They alfo 
; , murdered one Man at Oyfier-Bay. Nor mufl we for- 
t^gQtChtih^thQ falie Wretch, who furrender'd Pe^nma- 
^Uuid Fort. The Governour kept him under Exami- 

ition fome time at Bofton^ and then difmifl him. 


'j% The Hifiory of New-England. 

the "trdm As he was going to his Houfe at Andover^ the Indians 

Chub furpris'd him and his Wife, and maflacred them* 

fnurier'd ^l juft Reward of his Trealbn. They (lew three or 

fy ths In* fouj. Perfons more \ and had got Colonel Dudley 

itms. j^radftreet into their hands, but being clofely purfu'd, 

they difmift him and other Priibners. They kill'd 

two, and took two fometime after at Haverhill^ 

murder'd an Old Man at TorJij and attack'd Deerfield 

on Connecticut fide, but were beaten off by Mr. 

Williams the Minifler, and the Townfmen. A Man 

and a Boy were (lain at Hatfeild^ and that was the laft 

Blood fpilt by them. For Count Frontenac gave 

They mah notice to the French Indians, that there was a Peace 

Teace. concluded in Europe^ and they niuft reftore all the 

Englifh Captives *, many of whom were dead, and 

the reft returned. Major Convers^ and Captain Al- 

den were fent by the Earl of Bellamont to receive 

them, and the Submiffion of the Sachems and Se- 

gamores ^ who came and excus'd themfelves for 

Complain breaking the Peace, faying, The Jefuits would not 

of the Je- let them alone till they had done it -^ and if the Earl 

juhs, of Bellamont, and the Count de Frontenac, would 

not hanifh thofe Devils^ they could not promife the Peace 

wou'd lafl long. 

Colonel Phillips^ and Major Convers were fent 

again to fettle Commerce with them, and to take a 

more formal Submiilion *, which Moxus^ a principal 

Segamore^ and others, Sign'd near Mares Pointy at 

i<5*p8. Cafco Bay, the yth of January^ 169^, 

On the Conclufion of the Peace, the Earl of Bella- 
mont funimon'd an AiTembly, wherein, beiides his 
juft Praifes of our Late Sovereign, King William of ., 
7he Exrl of Qloxioxxs Memory, he recommended to them. To en" 
Bella- gage their Neighbour Indians in a Trade^ by a good Re» - 
inont 5 gulation^, and underfelling the French, To provide War-^ 
^IaC-^ 5f(7r^^, and take care of the Fortifications, To lem 

\^ hi their Laws agree with thofe of En gXdcnd as near as pofft- ■ 
J em y. ^^^^ ^^ which the AiTembly made a handfome Re-; 
ply, in an Addrefs of Thanks *, and the Lieutenant ' 
Governour Mr. Stoughton did the fame in the Name 
of the Council. So that all was Peace and Harmony , 
now in Kfew-England. The Earl of Bellamont was al- 
io Governour oi NewTorky and choleto refide moftly^ 
at the City. In his Abfence, the Lieutenant Gover- 
nour fupply'd his Place. In 

j The Hifiory of New-England. 79 

In the Year 16 g^* the famous Pirate Captain JRjr^ 16992 
was taken at Boflon^ by Order of the Governour the Cyip, Kid 
Lord Bellamotttj and fent Prilbner to England^ where ^^^ Pirate 
he was often examined concerning his Piracies *^^^''^^*'^* 
jby Conmittees of Parliament, and afterwards try'd, and hang'd. 

In 1700. The Aflembly gave a Tax towards buil- 1700; 
ding a Room for a Library, and a Theatre at Cam- 
hndge^ where there was an Indian College ere£led, 
br Appartments built for them in that of Harvard, 
!On the 10th of Marchj 1702. a^dreadful Fire broke ^702. 
out at Bofio;jy in the Houfe of Mr. John George^ which 
burnt fo violently, that 9 Ware-houfes, withavaft 
touantity of Goods, werereduc'd to Afhes, andfeve- 
kal Streets confum*d and damaged by it. As to other 
!E vents, there have been none remarkable lately : 
JThe Indians have not dar'd to break the Peace in the 
prefent War , and the Privateers which the Govern- 
ment and Merchants of New-England have fet out 
rince the laft Rupture with France^ have been fo 
fuccefsful, that they took 14 Merchant-men, and 5 
papers, in a few Weeks time. The Earl of Bella- 
mm dying in this year, Her Majefty Queen Anne 
Ivas gracioufly pleas'd to appoint Colonel Jofeph Dud- ^^^- J^f- 
ey to be Governour of New-England ^ but the Go- "^^^^^"f 
^ernment of the Province of New-Tork was given ^^'^^^^^^* 
p the Lord Cornbury by King William. ^ ^^^' 

Xl. A a IXo 

)/ the Country J Towns and Forts ; Of the 
1 Climate^ Soil^ and ProduSf ; Of the Am- 
! mats and Trade at New-Englando 

jyfR. Delaety who is look'd upon to be the niofl exaft ofUcw'^ 
f Author that ever wrote of the Weft- Indies^ is in England* 
i^n Error in his Account of New-England^ when he 
|ys It has but 70 Miles in Length. The Dutch at 
n} ^^^^ ^"^ ^^ ^" ^^ much on the South-fide, from 
fiiich they took all Newhaven Colony^ and thQ 


8o The Hifiory of New-England. 

P'rench on the North, where they reckoned al! beyond 
Tifcataway River, as part of Noremhegua^ that there 
was little left for New-England, But we fhall prove 
it runs near 300 Miles along theCoaft, without rec- 
koning the Angles, which wou'd make it much more. 
It is not any where in a dire£l Line above 50 Miles 
broad. It lies between 41 and 45 Degrees N. Lati- 
tude: Is bounded by the Terra Canadenfis on the N. 
Penfihania W. New-Tork S. and the Atlantick Ocean 
E. By the Situation, 'tis in the Middle of the Tem- 
perate Zone *, yet the Climate is not fo mild nor fo 
regular as to Heat and Cold, as thofe Countries are, 
that are Parallel with it in Europe^ as fonie Par*"s of 
Italy and France, For what reafon, "f we may fee in 
f Nam Mr. Delaet^ who in his Defcription of it fays, " ^ The 
qua Mare « Summer is not fo hot, and that the Winter is 
cGnnngic cc ^^^y^ j^^^y than 'tis commonly in the fame Climate \ 
t ffavji " and for Goodnefs of Air, and Fertility of Soil, the 
or '^pft '^' Country may be compar'd with the beft in Eu- 
idquepar- rope, .^.j 

tim ab O- '^ 

ceani (uti videtur) vicinitatem, ciijus jugis & inconftans motuss ra| 
diorum Solarum rcflexum frangit, partim ab Vaporum afcendentiunt 1 

copiam qui i^ftum mitigant, &c.- 'And again, Eafdem regiones 

longe trigidiores effe qua afcendentem Solum fpe£lanr, quam qua de- 

* /5.ftas minus ferveat, & Hiems magis algeat, quam vulgo in Euro- 
pa Tub eodpm Climate ; Cceii Solique bonitate cum laudatifli mis Euro j 
pae merito polie comparari. /j 

Q The Climate of New-England^ in comparifoftj 
with that of Virginia , is as the Climate of ScoH 
land^ compar'd with that of England. The Aifi' 
however is healthy, and agrees with Englifh Conl^ 
tutions : On which account, this Colony is the moft^ 
fiourilhing and numerous of any that belongs to the 
Ue Soil Crown of England in America. The Soil is ge- 
nerally fruitful, but in fome Places more fo than 
in others. 

We ihall ihew the difference in treating of the paM 
ticular Counties. In doing which, we fhall run along! 
the Coaft from North to South, and take in every- 
thing remarkable that has come to our knowledges 
Dividing the v/hole Country into the four firil Colo- 


The Hifiory of New-Edgland. 8 1 

niffs or Provinces, andthofe into Counties, according 

to the prefent Divifion of it in the lateft Surveys. 

^ Thelargeft and moft populous Settlement is that of 

IMaffachufef^ which was the Name of the Indian Na-Maffachu- 

tion inhabiting that part of the Country, where now ^^5 ^''^" j 

iftands the City ofBoflom This Province extends from ^^*^' 

Eaft to Weft in length along the Coaft from Scituate in 

Tlimouth County, to Saco River in that of ^^/;^,near no 

Miles, and in breadth from the fame Scituate to Enfeild 

in Hampjhlre in the Province otComeUicute about do,but 

*tis narrower up in the Country. It contain^ the Coun- 

.ties of. 

Towns Names. 

r Falmouth^ 

Mdn^ in which are, ^Wells^ f 

The Jfle of Sho2ils. 

Tork gives the Name of a Shire to a fmall part of 
this Province, but 'tis generally included iii that 
of Main, 

Cornwallj in v^hich J Hampton^ 

Minifters Names. 


Mr. — - ^^'^ 

Mr. Hancoch 





Mr. Job. Pike. 
Mr. Jok Clark. 
Mr. Job, Cotton. 

Mr. Sam. Moody, 


Portfmouthj Mr. Jofi. Moody. 

The furthermoft Bay Northward is Cafco^ in which 
is Saco River. On this River Saco-T o\Nn or Scar- 
horougb ftands. Here is a very good Fort, built in 
the laft Indian War, and is a great awe upon the 
Hurons^o^ French Indians to the Eaft ward. 'Twas 
mounted with lo oris Guns. In the fame County 
%s, the William and Henry Fort, on Vemmaquid River, 
jabout 2o Rods from High-Water- Mark *, which in 
time of War, was mounted with 1 8 Guns, and garri= 
fon'd by ^o or 8o Men. The River Pemmaquid runs 
^between 40 and 50 Miles up in the Country: There 
^re befides three lefs Rivers, Spurnrvincky Kenne- 
ihmky and Pifcatawayy and feveral Illands off the 
Coaft, feme of which are lo Miles long. There are 
! . G high 

82 The Hijlory t?/ New-England. 

high Mountains, and horrible Forrefts in the Eaftern 
Parts of thefe Counties, which are the moft barren of 
any in New-England : However, towards the Sea- 
coafls, and upon the Rivers, the. Soil is fruitful for 
Corn and Pafture ^ but the chief Trade is for Beaver,. 
Lumber and Fifh. Thele two Counties, when they 
were firfl: planted, were a. Province of themfelves, 
and were cail'd New-Hampflnre^ but they defir'd to be 
added to the Government of Maffachufet, The moft 
confiderable Towns in them, are Tork^ Dover ^ and 
Wells ^ where there are Fortifications ^ and fo there are 
in ail the Frontiers, and indeed in moft of the other 
Towns, for the Indians in a Day's march can be in the 
middle of the Country. There were above loo Fa- 
milies in Wells-i before the breaking out of 'the Indian 
'War in the Eaft. The County-Courts are held at 
Dover and Portf^nouth the laft Tuefday in Juney and 
at York the fir ft Tuefday in July. The next Coun- 
ties are. 

.•^ \ 

Towns Names. 
t j4meshiiryj 


I Beverly^ 


^ I Haverhill^ 


- s Manchefier^ 
°^ I Marhleheady 
^ j Newhury-Eaft^ 

j Rowley^ 

Salemy - 




Salem is the chief 
County . Court is kept 

Minifters Names. 

Mr - 

5 Mr. Francis Dean, 
C Mr. Thomas Barnard. 
Mr. John Hale. 
Mr. Symmes. 
Mr. Emerfon, 
Mr. Benjamin Rolfe, 
5 Mr. William Hubbard. 
IMy. John Rogers, , 
Mr. Jeremiah Shephard, 
/vir. John Emerfon. 
]Vir. Samuel Cheever. 
M^« "Tappin, 
M^' Samuel Belcher. 
JVir. Edward Payfon. 
^ Mr. John Hig^infon. 
\ Mr. Nicholas Noyfe. 
Mr. Cvjhing. 
Mr. Jo[^ph Capen, 
Mr. Jojeph Gorifi. 



Town of this County. Th«| 
there the laft Tuefday in June^ , 

and \ 

The Hifiory of New-En gland. 

and November, It has a Market ev^ry Wednefday, and 
two Fairs in the Year, the laft Wednelday in May., and 
thelaft Wednesday in September, Tis pleafantlyleated 
between tvvo Rivers, and was the firft Town that was 
built in Majfac'hvfet Colony. Ly^i is a Market Town : 
The County Court is k ;pt at Ipjwichy the laft Tuefday 
in March and September. This Shire is water'd on the 
Eall by the great River Merrimack^ navigable 40 
Miles up and more *, the Soil is not very fertile, ex- 
cept it be near the Coaft. The Hills here are not ve- 
ry high ^ but in the Weftern Parts are inhabited by 
the Indians. There's an Ifland lies off of it, about 
three Miles long, whichis very fruitful *, andmoftof 
the Towns being built near the Sea-fide, afford great 
Conveniences for the Fifhery. In this County is the 
Promontory Trabig^anda., now Cape Anne., which is 
very high. The next to it is that o^ 


• •—I 

Towns Names. 


' Concordy 

, Maiden J 
.S \ Medfordy 







Minifters Names, 
Mr. Sam, Whiting» 
Mr. PF. Brattle. 
Mr, Char. Merfion, 
Mr. Tho. Clark, 
Mr. Jofeph Eajibrooh 
Mr. Tho. Weld, 
Mr. Gerjham Hobarty 
Mr. John Whiting, . 
Mr. WiL Brinfmead, 
Mr. Michael Wigglefworth, 
Mr. Simon Bradjireet, 
Mr. Nehemiah Hobart, 

Mr. Jonathan Peirpoint^ 
Mr. Daniel Gookin, 

Mr. James Sherman, 
Mr. Henry Gibs, 
M)c,Sam, Angier. 
Mr. Fox. 


The chief Town of this County is Cambridge y fitu° 
ated on the Northern Branch of Charles River. Tis 
a Univcrfity, which has two Colleges , Harvard 

G 2 Col" 

§4 The Hiftor) of New-England. 

College, and Staughton Hall. Twas at firft caird 
Newtctij but it got the Name of Cambridge by 
the College's being built there. There are feveral 
fine Streets and fair Houfes in it. The County 
Court is held there the firft Tuefday in April and 
OBober, The next Town is Charles Town, the Mo- 
ther of Bcflon \ from which it lies about a Mile crofs 
the Harbour, over which there is a Ferry. 'Tis fitu- 
ated between two Rivers, Charles River and Miflic 
River, and takes up the fpace that is from the one to 
tho. other. Tis beautify'd with a handfome large 
Church, a Market-place by the River's fide, and two 
long Streets leading dovvn to it. The County 
Court is kept there the third Tuefday in June and 

Reading is a populous Town, commodioufiy fitua- 
tQ^i on the Banks of a great Lake. There are two 
Mills in it, one for Grift, and another to faw Boards*^ , 
fuch a one as is on the River o( Thames on Southwark-M 
fide. " 

Watertown is noted for the Fairs held there the firfl 
Fryday in June^ and the ifi in September, The Ri- . 
vers are fmall in this County, but there are a great 
many of 'em, which watering the Paftures, render 
this one of the pleafanteft and fruitfulleft Spots of 
Ground in New-England, The Fields are fdl- of Cat- 
tle of all forts, and the Market at Bofion is plentifully 
fupply*d by it for Exportation, wdth Beef, Pork, 
&c. befides for a home Confumption. The Hills are 
cover'd with Sheep ^ and both together refemble,^ 
Sm. Del. BevonJInre in England, and as do the following County, "^i 

• Towns Names. Minifters Names. -j 

^Bofton^ Mt, James Allen, '■- 

iT I Mr, Benjamin Wadjworth* 

'^1 Mr. Mather^ fen, 

^ I Mr. Mather^ jm, 

^ 1 Mr. Sam, Wilward, 

Suifolk. ?< Mr.Emblin, 



Monfiew Daille, 

_^ Braintree^ Mr. Mofes Fish, J 

i^ [ Dedhamy Mr. Jof. Belcher, J 

l^Dorchefier^ Mr. John Danforth. 


TheHiftory <?/ New-England. 85 

^CHing/iiam^ M^,,John Norton^ 

^ I //«//, Mr. Whitman, 

-§ tMedfeildj Mx.Jof. Baxter. 

IB J JUfendon^ Mr. Grindall RavafoU' 

^ *Mtltonj Mr, Peter Thatcher, 

B Roxbury^ Mr. Nath. Walter, 

^ \ Weymouth J Mr. Sam. Torrey, 

^ I Woodftock^ Mr. Jofiah Dwlght, 

^ {Wrentham^ Mr, Samuel Man. 


The Capital of this County is Boflon^ the Capital of ^^V ef 
New-England^ and the biggeft City in America^ ex- Bofton. 
cept two or three on the Spanifh Continent. 'Tis 
built on the Sea Coaft, which renders it very com- ' 
modious for Commerce. 'Tis fortify'd on the fide 
of the Sea by a ftrong Caftle, in an Ifland at the 
Mouth of the Harbour, thence call'd Cafile-Ijlandj 
and on the fide of the Shore by Forts on two or three 
Neighbouring Hills, which command the Avenues to 
it. There are abundance of fine Buildings in it pub- 
lick and private *, as the Court Houfe, Market Place, 
Sir William Phlps's Houfe and others. There are feve- 
ral handfome Streets : *Tis bigger than Exeter ^ and 
contains lo or 12000 Souls*, the Militia confifting of 
four Companies of Foot. There are three Parifh- 
Churches, and a French Church, and two Meeting 
Houfes, in this City, the old Church, North Church, 
and South Church belong to the Presbyterians, who 
are the Church of England as by Law EftahUJJfd : The 
French Church to the French Proteftants ^ and the 
Meeting Houfes to a Congregation of Church o^ Eng- 
land Men and Annabaptifts. This is the chief Port of 
the Colony, and from hence 3 or 400 Sail of Ships 
have been loaden in a Year, with Lumber, Fiih, 
Beef, Pork,d-c. forieveral parts of JEz/r<?/;? and Ameri- 
ca. Here the Governour commonly refides, the Gene- 
ral Court and AlTembly meet, the Courts of Judicature 
fit, and the Affairs of the Province are tran failed. In 
fhort, 'tis a very Hour ifhing City, and for the Beau- 
ty of its Buildings, and the Greatnefs of its Trade, 
gives place to few Towns in England. 

The Market at Bofton is kept every Thurfday. 

The Fairs on the firftTuefday in May^ and on the 
firft Tuefday in OBober every year^ &c, 

Q i Every 

S6 The Hifiory of New-England. ' 

Every year to hold three Days each. j^n<3. 
The County Court the laft Tuefday in April^ J^ht 
OEhoher^ and January^ in every year. 

Dorchefier is the next Tov^^n to Bofion for bignefs. 
Tis built at the mouth of two little Rivers near the 
Sea- fide : It has two Fairs *, one on the fourth Tuefday in 
Marchymd another on the laft Wednelday in OBober 
every year : Roxhury is noted for its Free-fchool. The 
Town of Weymouth is the moft ancient in the Province *, 
but is not of fo much confideration as 'twas in the In- 
fancy of the Colony. Here are no great Rivers in this 
Shire, but nuny little ones, which render it fo plea- 
Quam hu- fant and fruitful, that a famous Author fays it may not 
jus Tra- unworthily be term'dParadice. To the Weftward of 
£tus Para- this and A}iddleJ^:x ComtiQs^ bordering on the Colony 
difiim of ConneBicm^ from whence 'tis only feparated by the 
hand im- j^jyej. ^f ^j^^ f^j^^,. Name, lies. 



pgl^^ ' Towns Names. Minifters Names. 

'u ^Deerfeildj Mr, John Williams 

^ ] Enfeildj , 

g Hatfeildy Mr. W, Williams, 
Kamp- "^ oT J Hadley^ 

fhire, .^'^ ^ 1 Northampton^ Mr. Solomon Stoddard, 

'^ I Springfeildj Mr. Daniel Brewer, 

^ I Southfeildy Mr. Benjamin Ruggles. 

t^ \Weft}eild^ Mr. Edward Taylor, 

This County being within Land, and hilly, is not' 
fo fruitful as thofe that lie on the Rivers nearer the 
Coafts. Its chief Towns are Northampton^ where the 
County Court is kept the laft Tuelday in March *, 
and Springfeildj where 'tis held the laft Tuefday in 

We muft now proceed to the next, but eldeft Co- 
lony in New-England, 
Plimouth Tlimouth Colony, w^hich runs along the Coaft a- 
Colovy, bout too Miles, from Cape Cod in Barnfiahle County, 
Exum> to Manchefier in BrifioU County, and in Breadth, 
from Monvment Bay in Barnfiable County, to Scituate 
in Pli month County, nea^^o Miles. It contains the 
following Shires^ that of 


The Hifiory of New -England. 87 

Towns Names. 
^ Adiddlehury^ 
% ^ Plimouth^ 





Minifters Names. 

Mr. James Keith. 

Mr. WifwuL 

Mr. Edward Thompfon* 


Mr. John Cotton. 

Mr. Jeremiah Cvjjnng^ 

Mr. Deodate Lawfon, 


The chief Town of this County is New-PUmouthj 
the Capital of the Colony, and the oldeil in New- 
England. Tis fituated on the great Gulph of Patuxet^ 
and contains 3 or 400 Families. 

The next Town to this in Bignefs ^vas formerly 
Scititate-^ but.tho Plimotith has the Honour of being 
the Metropolis of the Province, Scituate has grown 
upon her fo much lately, that Ihe has two Churches, 
whereas Vlimouth has but one. There are two or 
three fmali Rivers in this Shire *, which, as to its 
Soil, is much of the fame nature with that o^ Suffolk, 
And paiiing by Sea, from this County to the next, 
we muft weather Cape Cod^ the higheft Promontory 
on the Coaft, and the moft Northerly Point of Land in 
the Province. The Country about it is barren ^ but 
the Convenience of Fifhing renders it as populous as 
moft in New-England. The Shire takes its Name 
from the Town of Barnfiabley lying in , a Bay which is 
alfo caird Barnftahle. 

Towns Names. Miniilers Naiii^s. 


iT \ 


^ 1 


U-f5 1 













Mr. John Ruffel^ 
Mr. Sam, Treat. 
Mr. Nath. Stone, 
Mr. Arnold. 
Air. Rowland Cotton, 
If Mr. John Cotton. 

ble County, 

Oppofite to the South Bay of this Shire, calFd 
Monument Bay, lies two Iflands ^ one of 'em is nam'd 
Martha's Fineyardj where Capt.G'^y^^?/^ firft landed, 
and in which is now the Parifh-Church, with two 
Minifters, Mr. Ralph Thatcher^ and Mr. Denhamy 
befides feverai Indian Preachers, thQ Ifland bein^ in- 

G 4. habited 

88 The Hifiory of New-England. 

habited moftly by Indian Converts, as is the other 
Ifland Nantucket^ where there are no Englifh Prea- 
chers, but Indian Paftors. The Streights between 
Martha's Vineyard^ and the Continent, ealFd Mala- 
bar^ are a very dangerous PafTage. 

The next Shire to this is Brif^^ol County^ in which 2 
are, • ,| 

Towns Names. Minifters Names. ^i 

JBriJioll^ Mr. John Spar hawk. i 

Brlftoll Swanfey, 

C^««ey^ Tamton, Mr,Sam.Danforthj 

Littte-Compton^ M^. Adams, 

Swanfey^ fituated at the Mouth o^ Providence River, 
is a Town of fome note in the Country^ but Brifioll ' 
is the place of moft Trade, and the chief of the Coun- • 
ty, of which Rhode I/land is reckoned a part. In this . 
Ifle there are two Churches, at 

Newport and Z Mr. Nathaniel Clap Mini- -^ 
Portjmomhj S fter. f^' 

Elizabeth Ifland, at the Mouth of Monument Bay, 
was one of thofe that Capt. Gofnold landed on. 

Providence and Patuxet Rivers, are the principal of ' • 
this Shire, but are neither of them very big. The 1 
Narragantfets^ the moft formidable Nation <5 all the 
Indians, inhabited the South Weft Parts of it. , 
There is nothing in this County fo extraordinary pr | 
different from the reft, as to defer ve to be mention 'd. *S ^ 
Conne£li- The other Two Provinces, which are now the ; 
cut and Joint Colony of Connecticut and Newhaven^ are in 
Newha- length from Stoniton in New-London County, to Rye ^ 
ven Pro- in Fairfoild County, on the Border^ of New-Tork^ Jj 
r'J'^^"^' 70 Miles, and in breadth from Saybrook in New-Lon- '; 
^xtein, ^Qyj County, to Windfor in Hartford about 50. The 
firft County we meet with in them on the Coaft, is • 

New-London County, ifl which are^ 

Towns Names. Minifters Names. 

Stoniton-^ Mr. James Noyes. , 

^f^brookj Mr, Thomas Buckingham, 


The Hijiory (?/New-Englao^. 







Mr. Sam, Iread. 
Mr. Jofeph Mors. 
Mr. Ja- Fitck 
Mr* Gordon SaltonfialL 
Mr. Mofes Noyes, 

Mr. Abraham Perifon. 




The Eaftern Parts of this Shire are pleafant and 
ruitful, the Weftern Swampey and Mountainous, 
which occafion'd a great Trade for Furrs and Lumber., 
Saybrook is the oldeft Town in the County, and is 
eated on the South fide of CotmeBlcut River, as Lime 

on the North, at the Mouth of it. This River is 
;rery large, divided into feveral fmall Branches, and 
lavigable as high as Hartford, 60 Miles within 


New-London is feated on a River call'd the Thames '^ 
:he firft Branch of which River goes by the Name of 
llafs River, the next Branch by that of Ruffeh Delight, 
:he third by that of Indian River ^ and the reft are fo 
mall, that they are not thought worthy of a Name. 
There's another fmall River, which falls into the Sea 
t Manchefier *, and thefe are all that are in this Coun- 
:y ^ next to which within Land, is 

Hartford CoMnt.^, in which are, 

Towns Names. 


Middle Town, 







Minifters Names. 
Mt.Sam, Hooker, 
Mr. Timothy Stephens^. 
Mr. Jeremiah Hobart, 
Mr. Timothy Woodbridge, 
Mr. Tho, Buckingham, 
Mr. No, RujfelL 
Mr, Dudly Woodbridge, 
Mi\ Jer,PecL 
Mr. Stephen Mix, 
Mr. Sam, Mather. 
Mr. Tim, Edwards^ 
Mr. Sam, Whiting. 



5© The Hijiory of New-England. 

Hartford is the moft confiderable Town in this 
Shire : It has two Parifh Churches in it, Old Ghjrch 
and New Church ^ the People of New-England not 
diftinguifhing their Churches by Saints Names. Near 
Hadham is an Ifland in ConneElicut River which wa- 
ters the Northern Sounds of the County : This Ifland 
is cali'd Thirty Mile Ifland^ being that diftance from 
the River's Mouth. In the Weftern Parts are feveral 
Ridges of Hills, and thick Forrefts, which afford 
plenty of Game and Traffick. 

The Two next Counties make the Colony of Nev^ 
^dti/f?i, and both of them are Maritime Provinces. 

In Newbaven County are. 

Towns Names. 
Newha= Bramford^ 

ven Coim- Derbyy 
t)'» Cullfordj 




Near Bralnford there is a fmall Iron-work on a 
Branch of alittle River that runs into the Sea there \ 
the Place is from thence cali'd Iron-MllL There's a- 
nother little River which runs into the Sea at Mdfordy 
and another at Ctm/Z/W. 

The Capital Town of this Province was Newhavertj 
which was firft built •, then Guilford^ ih^nMllfordj then 
Stamford^ and then Bralnford, The next County to it is 

Falrfelld County^ in which are, | 

'' Towns Names. Minifters Names. I 

Danbury^ Mx.Seth Shore. | 

Falrfelldy Mr. Jofeph Web, .'^ 

Falrfelld f^lllage^ Mr. Charter Chaimcy, i 

Fairfeild Greenwich^ Mr , Jof Morgan, ^ 

Coimy, Norwalky Mr, Stephen Buckingham. <1 

Rye^ Mr, Bowers, , J 

Stamford, 'Mr. John Davenport. 4: 

Stratford J Mr. Ifrael Chauncy,_ J 

Whodburyy \Niic. Zachariah Walker. -J' 


Minifters Names. 

Mr. Sam. RuffelL 


Mr. John James, 


Mr. Iho, Ruggles. 

Mr. Sam. Andrews. 


Mr. Ja, Pierpolnt. 


Mr. Sam. Street. 


The Hifiory of New-England. 91 

There's no navigable River in this County % that 
vhich falls into Hudfons River below Newark^ not 
leferving the Name, tho 'tis broad at the Mouth \ 
mt it does not hold fo above 5 or V Miles, nor run a- 
)Ove 15 or 20 into the Country. Moft of the Towns 
re built upon Creeks in Hudfon's River, and are of 

10 great note for Trade or Bignefs ^ the Northern 
»arts of New-England being the richeft and moft po- 
>ulous, not but that there is good Corn, Beef, Pork, 
nd other Provifions, in the Southern, tho not in 

great plenty as in Maffachnfet Colony. The In- 
^nd Country Eight or Ten Miles from the Shore is 

11 Hills and Swamps, and un-inhabited. Some of the 
livers and Harbours we have mentioned, as thole of 
Iderrimack and Bofiottj are capable of containing 500 
)r 1000 Sail of Ships, and are ftielter'd by about 200 
ilands, that break the Winds and the Seas. The 
A^oods are every where ftor'd with all forts of Necef- 
aries for building. 

Having gone over the four Provinces in their Geo- 
graphical Order, and given an Account of the feveral 
loils in each County, as alfo of the Climate in gene- 
al. We come now to the Produ£l and Animals of 

We (hall begin with the latter, and fpeak firft of the 
^iih, which is here excellent,and in abundance, both for 
^^ood and TrafEck, as well in the Rivers, as in the Sea. 
\s Cod, Thornback, Sturgeon, Porpus, Haddocks, The Ftp, 
klmon, Herrings, Mackerell, Oifters, Mufsles, 
Jmelts, Eels, Lampreys, Sharks, Seals, Crampus, 
Whales, and others fmall and great. 

1 Some years fmce, there ftranded on the Coaftof 
WeW'England a dead Whale, of the fort which they 

L^all TrumpOj having Teeth like thofe of a Mill, itsLow-^ 
Mouth at a good diftance from and under the Nole or ^^'^[? \ 
ifrunk, and feveral Partitions in the Nofe, out (^^^^ fr^^' 
Which ran a thin Oily Subftance, which candy'd ^ the J^^ff„ ' 
Iremainder being a thick fat Subftance, was fcrap'd VdI. 2. 
but, which is uiid to be the Sperma Ceti, Thele p^ g^^] 
Whales were to be met with between NewEngland 

d New-Torkj where they might be caught 8 or 9 

onths in the Year. 

The Whale Fiftiery was more common formerly 
han 'tis now ^ and the Newfoundland Trade engroftes 


9S The Hifiory of New-England. 

that of Cod in a great meafure *, but there is ftill vaft 
Quantities of that and other Fifti taken, falted and 
fent to the Sugar Iflands, for the fubfiftance of the 
White Servants and Negroes. 

The Sea is always full of Fifh on the Coafts oi New- 

England^ whether in fair Weather or foul , but the 

y^fejlo, beft time for fifhing is in March^ Apnl^ May^ and part 

rum ma- o^June, Captain Smith relates, that in his time there 

jorum he' were Alkermes taken worth 5 o or 40 /. which is now 

lecum. very rarely known, and few of 'em to be met. As is the 

Stellar FIJ}}^ of which 6 ox 7 were taken near the Shoals 

^id./». oi Nantucket ', and Mr. Winthrop Govemour oiCome- 

^ 3 3 • Bicut Col ony, gave the Royal Society an account of this 

elaborate Piece of Nature^ that divides it (elf into no 

lefs than 8ip2o fmall parts by Branchings, and is one 

of the moft wonderful Works of the Creation. 

Captain Smith fpeaks of feveral forts of Beafls, as 
well as Fi{h, which are feldom or never found in 
Bedfis, New-England^ fuch as Lyons, Musk-Cats, &c. but 
there are Bears, Foxes, Rackoons, Otters, Beavers, 
Deer, Hares, Rabbits, as alfo that admirable Crea- 
ture the Mofe *, of which we cannot give a better 
Defcription, than what Mr. Joffeyn has tranfniitted 
to us among his New-England Kdititi^s'^ ^Tis about 12 
Foot high J with fair Horns ^ and broad Palms ^ fome of 
1 2 Foot from the Tip of one Horn to that of the other. 

Another Author fpeaking of the manner of Hun- 
ting this Creature, fays. They commonly hunt it in 
the Winter^ and fometimes run it down in half a day j fome- 
times they ^re a whole one about it ^ the Ground being 
then generally covered with Snow^ theBeafl finks very heavy 
every Step he runs^ breaking down Trees as big as a Man's 
Thigh. When the Sport fmen get up with him^ they dart 
their Launces at him^ and he walks /lowly after he-s 
Xb. P437. wounded J till, fpent with lofs of Bloody he falls like a ru- 
in' d Building^ making the Earth fljake under him. His 
Body is about the bignefs of a Bull's ^ his Neck refenv 
blesa Stag's, his Legs are Ihort, his Tail longer than 
a Buck's, and his Flefh very grateful ^ he moots hi<' 
Horns every four years. 

The Beafts in New-England us*d to produce a pr(|( 
fitable Traffick with the Indians for Peltry, which % 
fince mightily decreas'd, as is that Trade in generalji 
pccafion'd by the dif- ule of Beaver and other Skins|i 
^ ■ ■ ■' ' n#' 

The H//?^?^^^?/ New-England. 9J 

lecefTaryin the Fell-mongers Ma nufa£lure. • There's 
ibundance of all forts of European Cattle, as Cows^ 
Sheep, GoatSj Hogs and Horfes •, the latter are a lit- 
lekind, not much larger than that of PF^/^j, but are 
fery hardy and ferviceable^ many of them are expor- 
ted to the Leward Iflands for Saddle-Horfes, and fome . 
:br Draught. The i\r^n?-£?;gte/fi? Merchants alfo fend • 
Heather thither, and vaft Quantities of Pork and. 
•Beef, as has been before mention'd. 

Of Creeping things, befides thofe in common with 
)ther Places on the Continent of America^ the Rattle- 
hake is the moft noted and dangerous. 

There are alfo feveral kinds of Flies, which are very 

Toublefome to the Inhabitants. There was fuch a 

warm of a certain fort of Infe^ls in New-England 

bme years ago, that they poifon*d and deftroy'd all the 

Frees for 200 Miles together. They broke forth out 

L']:>f Holes in the Ground like Maggots, and turned to 

;- Flie§, with a Tail or Sting, which they ftuck into 

:he Tree, and fb kill'd it with the Venom in the 

H Stinff. 

1 ! There is no Country almoft where there is greater 
i Variety of Fowl, wild and tame, than in New-Eng- 
Uand^ as Pheafants , Partridges, Turkies, Ducks, fuwl. 
Ipeefe, Herons, Storks, Cormorants, Swans, Widge- 
ons, Doppers, Black-birds, and Barndoor Poultry, 
which leads me to the Grain of the Country, as In- 
iian Corn •, and in a word, all Grains that^row ei- 
:her in Europe or America. They fend their Indian 
md Englilh Wheat, Oats, Peefe and Beans, Flower 
and Bisket, to B ar dadoes md, th^Carihhee Iflands. 
Flax and Hemp grow there, as well as in. the Baltick 
or Germany •, and there is hardly any advantagious 
Gram that they cannot and do not cultivate. 

The Indian Corn being that which is moft planted lb. 630. 
in this Country, and which was only uVd before the ^^^ Cul- 
lEnglifli came there, it will not be improper to de- ^^^^. °f 
Ifcribe the Culture of it, as we find it communicated ^^^"^"^ 
|to the Royal Society by Mr. J^/«/-k<?p. ^orn._ 

I The Natives call/d it Weachwy and in fome Southern 
Iparts o^ America^ 'tis known by the Name of Mails o^ 
^MaiTLe, The Ear is a Span long, composed of 8 Rows 
jof Grain or more, according to the Goodnefs of the 
i Ground, about 30 Grains in a Row. Tis of various 


94 Th Hifiory 9^ New-England. 

Colours, as red, 'white, yellow, blew, olive, gree» 
niifh, black, fpecki'd, firip'd, &c. fometimes in the 
,, fame Field, and the fame Ear ^ but the white and yel- 

\ low are the moft common. The Ear is defended from 

the Cold and Storms by ftrong thick Husks ', the 
^.j,A^£M:£^>tt<>in-g^j^l]^ grows <5" or 8 Foot high -^^ that of New-England 
Tu:[ll.l%T^is not quite fo tall as that of r/rg/;2i^^^ and at Canada 
uf"wa(f.«riM«</r«».«c)5^-g fijorter than ^t New-England \ 'tis jointed like a 
rTrr.r':;WCane, isfuHof fweet Juice like the Sugar Cane, and 
in(£ir£{uj£^;is'f«*^ a Syrup as fweet as Sugar may be* made out of it, as 
*''"^- m'icrs. jjj^g been often try*d. At every Joint there are long 
Leaves or Flaggs, and at the Top a Branch of Flowers 
like Rye-blofToms. Tis generally planted from the 
middle of April to the middle of y^^> In the Nor- 
thern parts the Mohauk Corn is not planted till June^ 
and yet is ripe in feafon *, the Stalks of this fort are 
fhort, the Ears near the Bottom, and are of feveral Co- 
lours! The manner of planting Maize, is in Rows 
at equal Diflance everyway, about y or 6- Feet ^^ the 
Earth is open'd with a How 4 Inches deep, and 4 or 
5 Grains are thrown in it, at a little dillance from 
one another, in the breadth of a How ', then they are 
coyer 'd vnth Earth: If 2 grow, the Crop will an- 
fwer : the Corn is weeded at a hands length, and the 
Earth is loofen'd about it with a How j this Labour 
muft be repeated as the Weeds come up-, when the 
Stalk begins to grow high, a little Earth fhould be 
drawn aljput it, and on putting forth the Ear, fomuch- 
as to make a little Hill, like a HophilL Tis ripe about 
the middle of September *, it mull be flripp'd alToon aS' 
gathered, unlefs 'tis laid thin, to prevent its growing 
mouldy or fprouting *, the common way is to move 
the Ear together in long Traces, by fome parts of the 
. Husk left thereon, which is call'd Traceing : Thefe 
Traces are hung upon Bearers within doors *, and 
will keep fo ail Winter good and fweet. The Indians 
thrafh it as they gather it, dry it well on Matts in thei 
Sun, and bury it in Holes in the Ground, lin'd with 
Mofsor Matts, which are their Barns: The Engliih 

lately plant it with the help of tl^ Plow ^ they turn 
tr/auDife^^^'^up ftngle Furrows 6 Feet diftant,T then plow a-crofs 
nc i\ou^,i^ u)Ueie tt^^ ^j^g l^j^^g dillance, throw in the Corn where thefe^ 
'^Z :iT^^" iiieet, and cover u v. iih a How, or run another Fur- 


The Hiftory 0f Ncw-England. 95 

The Indians boil it till it becomes tender, and eat 
it with Fifh or Vennifon inftead of Bread ^ fometimes 
they bruife it in Mortars, and fo boil it : The moft u- 
iiial way is to parch it in Afhes^ ftiring it fo artifi- 
cially as to be very tender, without burning^ this 
they {\k and^beatin Mortars into fine Meal, which • 
they eat dry, or mix*d with Water. TheEnglifh 
I mix it intoaftiff Pafte, make Bread of it, which they 
'bake all Day or all Night. The beft fort of Food 
which is made of it is calFd Samp ', to make It, the 
I Corn is water'd half an hour, beaten in a Mortar to 
khe bignels of Rice, fifted, boil'd and eaten with 
iMilk, or Butter and Sugar, which is a very pleafant 
Iwholefome Diet. The Ehglifh have alio made good 
^Bcer of it, by malting it, or making it of Bread: 
I When they malt it, it muft chil both ways. Root 
land Blade ^ to do which, they heap it np at a conve- 
nient time, then takeaway the top of the Earth in a 
|Garden-Field 2 or 3 Inches deep,after which they cover 
the Ground with the Corn, and the Corn with the 
[Earth ^ when the Plot is green all over with the Corn- 
Ifprouts, which will be in about 10 days, it muft be ta» 
|keh up, the Earth fhaken from it, and dry'd, then waih'd 
und dry'd again in a Kiln : This makes the Malt and 
jthat Beer^ which will be pleafant, wholefom, and of a 
|browi Colour. The Beer made of Bread, is more 
durable, and altogether as pleafant : To do it, they 
(cut the Bread into great Lumps as big as a Man's Fift, 
[marfh and manage it as they do Malt, adding or o- 
Emitting Hops, asisdefir'd. 

1 Befides Garden and Orchard Fruit-trees, and 
I Shrubs, of which there's fcarce any fort wanting, 
ithe Woods and Swamps here abound with Oak, 
[Elm, Afb, Cyprefs, Pine, Chefhut, Cedar, Alpin, 
I Beech, Firr, Safafras, and Sumach. 

Among the KmXiQsoi New-England^ is theSabina 
{Vulgar is^ or common Savin, found very often in the 
Hills, a fpontaneous Plant j Here, as well as at Ber- 
^mudas^ is that Berry to be met with, which breeds Low- 
Worms that turn to Flies, bigger than Cochineel thorp'i 
i Flies, feeding on the fame Berry ^ in which has been Vol. IL 
i found a Colour not at all inf^riour to that of the Co- 
j chineal Flie, and as to Medicinal Vertue much ex- 
ceeding it. 


9* The Hiflory of Isi tw-Enghnd. 

A certain Tree grows in the Eaftern Parts of New^ 
England^ on the Bark of which are little Knobs, 
wherein is a liquid Matter like Turpentine, of a very 
fanative Nature. TheDwarf Oak grows wild here, 
and was fent hence into England to be cultivated. 

But the Treafure and the Glory of their Woods is 
the Monarch Oak, the Spruce and Firr Trees, by 
which the Navy o^ England might be fopply'd. from 
hence with all manner of Naval Stores, at a cheaper 
rate than they are now imported from the Baltkh 
Pitch and Tar are made here, and as good in its kind 
as any from the iVorf/?^ and more Ships, as'has been 
hinted, built in this Province, than in afl the other 
parts of the Wejh Indies belonging to the Englifh, or 
perhaps to all the European Nations. ' | 

'Tis ea{y to imagine, that the Advantage of fo many 
Enelifh Hands thus employ'd, is of much more Service 
to me Crown, than they would be in England j where , 
there are already too many thoufands that are ufelefs. j 
Induftry is necefTary for Life in America^ where I 
Tra^, 'twas impoflible fgr a lazie Perfon to live at the firfl j 
Settlement of the Colonies *,' but there being no fuch | 
neceffity in England^ we have fo many idle infignifi- jj 
cant People, that 'twou'd be well if they were all in ji 
thofe Parts of the Englifh Empire, where their Hands 
muft provide for their Mouths, and I have no Notion 
of any more Difference between Old-England and' 
NeWj than between Lincolnjhire and Somerfetjhlre j 
neither can I fee, why the Englifh in America ihou'd 
not be fuffer'd to cultivate their Ground, and im- 
prove it as they think fit, any more than that feeding 
and grazing ihou'd be prohibited in Somerfetjhire for: 
the Advantage of L/?7co/;^/'r/"^. 

The People of New-England deal as much with 

Old-England a^ either ot thofe Counties in proportion 

to their Numbers •, and by their afiifting the Leward 

TheJdvf' Iflands with Provifions, are rather a Service to the 

ugsofiu pubiick Interefl than a Prejudice*, for without help 

from them, the Sygar Plantations cou'd not maintain 

- three hundred thoufands Mouths, Whites and Blacks, 

as they do at leafl , Provifions cou'd not be fent them 

from England with that Eafe, Speed and Certainty, as 

from this Colony. 


The Hifiory of New-England. 97 

I -. From the Iflands, the New-England Men receive in 
exchange for their Lumber, by which is meant 
; Boards, Mails, Pipe -ftaves and Hoops *, and their 
iProvifions, Sugar, Melafles,- Rum, Ginger, Indi- 
\ go and Cotton, more than enough to fupply their 
Jl home Conlumption ^ the reft they fhip for Eng- 
' land. 

, They have feveral Still-houfes in Bofion^ and make 
ij very good Spirits there ^ but the main of their Trade 
! for all forts of NecefTaries is with Old-Englandy from 
whence they have their Stuffs, Silks, Linnen, Bir- 
mlngham'V^z.r^^ Tools for Mechanicks *, and tho 
they have many Conveniencies of furnifhing them- 
felves with moft forts of wearing Apparel at home, 
yet they import fuch Quantities of that and o- 
ther Merchandife from England^ as renders their 
Commerce very beneficial, and worthy Encourctge* 

The Mines of Iron and Copper which are found 
there, do not produce fo much as was expefted, 'tis 
hop'd they will in time turn to a better account : Till 
then moft of their Iron and Copper- Wares will come 
\ from hence *, and we ought not to envy them the Im- 
jprovements they make of their Pafture and Tillage, 
\ fince we get fomuch by them otherwife : Which Ob- 
jfervation will, we believe, remove any ill Imprefti- 
I ons that fome late Arguments may have made on the 
I Minds of many, to the Disadvantage of this indu- 
I ftrious People •, Becanfe^ fays a known Trader, by ^^^ j^ ,, 
\XUlage^ Fifljingj ManufadureSj and Trade j they to -"^^^xhoinas 
{intents and purpofes imitate Old-England, and did for- ^{j}^ Jq^ 
merly much^ and in fome degree do now fupply the other of the W. 
Colonies with Frovtfions^ in Exchange for their Commo-hidh C©- 
i ditieSj as Tobacco^ Sugar j &:c. which they carry to lo?iies. 
j Foreign Markets, How conveniently for the Natio?is 
I Inter eft: I fhaR not determine^ being no Enemy to any 
\ kind of honefl: Induftry : But this cannot chuje but be al- 
1 iow^dj that if any Hands in the Indies be wrong em- 
^ploy*dj for Domeftick Interefly it mufi be this a?id thofe 
; other Colonies^ which fettle with no other ProfpeH- than 
I the like way of living *, therefore if any^ fuch only fljould 
\he negletled and difcouragdj who purfue a Methd 
j that rivals our Native Kingdom^ md threatens in time 
total Independency thereon. 


H Wc 

98 The Hifiory of New-England. 

We cannot omit doing fo much Juftice to the Co- 
lony of New-England as to repeat what we mentioned 
above, That they fhip for England the Commodities 
they import from the Sugar I/lands^ and do not carry 
them to Foreign Markets^ which, with what was 
{aid before, is, we hope, a fufficient Anfwer to this 
invidious Paragraph. Tho for want of Current Coin, 
fufficient for the Trade of the Country, the New 
England Men are forced to barter Goods, and ex- 
change one Commodity for another, yet they have 
Money coin'd in New-England at Bojion^ where 
there is a Mi^nt *, and the Mafter or Warden of it-is ob- 
lig'd to coin the Money of good Silver, of the Allay of 
Ntw Sterling Englifh Money- And there is enough 
of this and other Silver, to an(\ver ail Perfons Occafi- 
ons in a Retail Trade. 


I Of the Inhahitmts^ Englifh md Indian ; 

^ Their Religion^ Laws^ Cufloms^ Manner Sg, 

Language J Strength and Numbers : With a 
jhort Hiflory of the Vniverfitj in New- 

/^F the many Nations of Indians mention'd by Capt. 
^^ Smith ancl Mr. Delaet^ there are now few left, 
and of thefe fcarce any go by the Names they gave 
them. In thole Authors we find the Indian Kingdoms 
The hidim of Segetago^ pahthmtanuckj Pocojfnnh Taught an akgnet^ 
Nations, Wabiggan^ Naffaque^ Afafchecofqueek^ Wawrigweck^ 
* '"r''''?./'r'/:)'"^N Monmuen^ Wachogo^ Faffaranack^ and their Gonfe- 
Lf t ^(W: on/'.j ij'/yoi-^ derates yiucocijco^ Jlcoominticus^ rajjataquac^ -^gSP' 
i'-M^ tiv/i^.-p^.j ^,,.^^ Aia?\{ichi'{n\ Naemhk. Of all whom only the' 
^ n^ ^-;^^^ri£^^^ two latter '^are mention'd by the Modern Hiftoriani 
h^cj^j^ncn^^i: 6^<ijY\^Q, former Nations lay to the Eaft ward *, and the^ 
.oc.a,u. .^-i^coku,^ Enalifh fettrd in the Southern Farts of New-England,. 
. M'iMiiifiitrt«Mt«/of wnere C^.pt3.m Smith did not trade. 
fi^e^c...^e?iacei:A^ j^aemkek is that Country which now makes the* 
,o^.t..v,...ynt^ of Effcx'^ and the next to it was ±q Maffa- 

Ss t|^ LkJ ^o. i.o {• i c^iu e ck i\ n otx dc] Clio PC A . c«.«^ t|"^ Ci cf n t^ en-^y . i^ i)¥S 4kc JPljh*'' 

The Hifiory of New-England, 99 

ehttfetjy which gave name to the chiefeft Colony in 

New-England ; The People who inhabited thofe 

Parts that are now the Counties of Suffolk and 

Middlefexj were the moft Populous of any of the o- 

ther Indian Nations -^ they feem'd to be more civi» 

liz'd than the reft, which might be occafion'd by their 

Commerce with European Nations :, for all that came | 

to trade there generally dealt with them, and fifh'd 

off their CoaAs. 

As they differed very much in their Language, 
Manners and Cuftoms from the other Indians, fo they 
alfo difFer'd in (ome meafure from one another ^ ana 
the fame did the Nations more to the South, of which 
we find many mention'd, as the Ma[[^MSy* who r/&^Maflk- 
dwelt about Mount Hope m New-Briflol County^ the f ^ its. 
Tocajfets in Flimouth County, the Manlmoys in Barn- 
ftable County, the Nanfets, Mattachiefls, Namaskets,^^"^^ ^^^^^ 
who inhabited the Inland-Country between ^^^'^^"-^^\^oij",„,/(V^e 
dcnce and Merrimack Rivers *, the Narragantfets, ne com tHaii^^iPiti, 
who dwelt about New- London County^ the P^^^ots '^2]^j^'^'i'*^''^S 
and Wapenokes^ with whom they were almoll: always x|ik2!Mj£{S^ 
at Wars ; the Marchicans^ the Sequems in Hampffnre. '^'^tTu^-rr^. 
about 20 Miles from the Coalt, the Navafit and Ho-c<^ued6L^is''Loa>n] 
r^l^ji further within Land •- all thefe were Inhabitants f^^'^'ifi;]!'!"^ 
01 the Country about Connecticut River *, the Mora- (f*..rn7^(«^(ame 
tiggons to the Weft ward of the Mafafolts \ the Patux- *^'^,~^^'zil^\ 
ets between the Counties of iV^TP-^n/i-o/ and NewLp'ri- ^mS^kiett U (Wv,- 
don •, the Maquas towards the Lake of the Iroquolfe^ ^^^r^^^ir^it 
WciiwivdofConneBicutRiverj the Meneqlp^y and o- ^li^^^l^t^/ 
thers Eaftward. Thefe particular Nations had one m'-Uor^- 

more general Name, that of the Armonchiquoi^ •, and 
thoft of NoremheguawQti cdiWd Etechemms, Butev-e- 
ry Sachem or Segamore who was Lord of a Territory 
8 or 10 Miles in length, ere£led his Lands into a 
Kingdom, and gave a Name to his Nation. Thefe 
Segamores were their Captains, elefted out of the Se- 
niors of their Noble Families. The Extent of the ■^^^^^'^ ^^^ 
Government of each was commonly bounded by ibme "^^^^*^^^^^^ 
River or Bay. The Vote of the Segamore was defini- 
tive in their Publick AlTerablies j fometimes their 
Priefts and Wizzards, who were alfo their Phyfici- 
ans, were confulted, the Power of their Segamores 
was delpotick : Valour made a Man noble, and they 
had no Qther Diftindion among them^ but the Men 

Ha of 

I CO The Hiftory of N&w-Enghad. 

Clodthing^ of Courage and Po Itroom, They were cloath*d with 
S^c.' Bear-skins, Wolf-skins, and the Skins of their wild 
Beads *, which they threw off in S-ummer, and put on 
again in Winter. Their Fobd was Maize, Filh and 
Fowl *, their Weapons were Bows and Arrows, 
fharpen'd with FiHi-bones inftead of Knives*, their 
Boats were Canoo's wrought out of the Trunks of 
Trees, made hollow by Fire : Some of 'em had no 
fettPd Dwelling, but liv*d eight or ten Families toge- 
ther in a moveable Tent, for the Convenience of 
Fifhing alamode des Tartaresj from whom 'tis faid 
they are defcended : But this is only a Guefs, made 
from a fmali Agreement in the Manners between 
thefe barbarous People and thofe, which is harder to 
be prov'd, than how America came firft to be inha- 
bited. Some of them had fettl'd Habitations or Wig- 
wams in Towns, built with Pofts and Matts, and 
. •> covered with the Bark of Trees, large enough for fe- 
- - - veral Families to cohabit, they being great Lovers of 
' ' Society, and not quarrel fom. 

'J^Ugion, They had no Notion of Religion or God, they 

, , , worfliip'd a certain Devil, but not with Solemnity or 

regular Rites as the Negroes do ^ they were then, 

.' ' and flill are crafty, timerous, fickle, quick of Appre- 

henfion, revengeful, thevifh, have as many Wives 

' '\ as they can maintain, their Women fupporting the 

Pains of Child-bearing without the leaft Groan. 

" Their Fleih is fmooth, and their Complexions 

» :. good^ but they ipoil the latter, by painting them- 

ielves with certain Juices and Oils that render them 


Since their Commerce with the Englifh they are 
not quite {o btrbarous as before : Inftead of Bear- 
skins, &c. they wear Mantles of Cloth. Some of) 
their Segamores and principal Men have Houfes built 
after the Englifh FaQiion •, and many hundreds of 
them have been converted to the Chriftian Religion: 
Mr. Mayhewj Minifter o( Martha's Fineyard^ and the 
famous new Englilh Miiiionary Mr. John Elliot^ were 
very inftru mental in propagating the Chrill:ian Faith 
among them. 

But before I enter upon that Subje<rb, it may not be 
improper to let the Reader know the prefent State oi 
thefe B-^rbarians, as to the ie veral Manners, Cuftoms, 


The Hifiory of New-England , i oi 

Forms of Government, Drefs, Diet, and Language, 
abftra^led from an Author who dwells among them. 

Tho thefe People aie divided into fo many feveral Their pre- 
Nations, that there are above 20 of them within the/f»^ ^t^te. 
Limits of this Settlement, yet they feem by their 
Language to be originally of one Extraftion, for not- 
withflanding they can't underiland each other, 'tis 
occafion'd more from the variety of the Pronoun elati- 
on of their Languages, than the difference of the 
'Words. Nifpparv^ DuppaWj Ruppaw^ Wgmffmg ih^ 
Sim in three feveral Diale^ls. Wlnnk^ Wirritj Good ^ 
Tum^ Vumme^ Pim^ Oil. Their Language, if pof- 
fible, is more barbarous than their Manners ^ and one 
wou'd think has not been refin'd fmce t\iQ Confudon 
of Tongues at BaheL For inftance, 

NummatcheJiodtantamoongammnonaJb ^ is in En^ Lavgii^gs, 
glilh, Our Lvfls, 

JSoowomantammooonkannnnonaJJ} Our Loves, Cot, Mat. 

Kummogkodonattoottummoooetiteaongannunno' lib. 3, p. 
naff) . . Our Qaeition. 193 « 

There certainly will be occafion of no more Exam- j ^^ ^^' 
fples, to convince any reafonable Peribn of t}iQ Barba- QQy^rf^^' 
rity of the Indian Language. j^^^f^ 

Their Government is a little more polite ^ their Kin gs 
lare abfolute Monarchs, yet they eonfult their Nobles 
fometimes, and whenever they do fo, they behave 
themfelves with a becoming Majefty : Their own Opi- 
'aion defides all Matters of Council. The Emperors 
or greater Kings have their Lieutenants, who go- 
vern as arbitrarily as their Mafters *, the Crown aU 
•ways delcends to t\\Q Eldeft Son ^ their Nobles are fuch 
as are defcendcd from their Princes, or enjoy Lands by 
virtue of Grants from them. They have Teomen who 
claim a natural Right of living'in their Prince's Domi- 
nions, . and a common ufe of their Land', and Villains^ 
who are known to be defcended from Strangers and 
Foreigners, and are in fome meafure fubje£l to iYlQ Yeor 
nianry. The Prince's Revenues are Prefents, Wrecks, 
Furrs, Firft Fruits *, in time of War the People are at 
their difpofal : They have a Contempt of the limited 
Authority of the Englifh Governours^ and one of 
thefe Kings vifiting Mr. MayUv?^ Prieil; and Gover- 

H I nouy 

I02 The Hijiory (?/ New-England. 

nour of Martha's Vineyard^ defir'd lomething of hini>' 
which Mayhevp promis'd to do, adding afterwards, tf 
the Inhabitants confented'^ the Barbarian reply'd, What 
I promife or [peak is always true^ hut you Englijh Cover- 
flours cannot he triie^ for you can't make your Words and 
Intentions true^ hut mine are always true^ for Intake 
'em true, 
i/lo'i^'ey* Their Money they call Wampani, 'and is Beads 

niade of the Shells of Fifh. Their Houfes are a few 
Matts ty'd about Poles faften'd in the Earth. They 
lie a-nights round a fire vvithout any Covering, but 
the Turf or Bark on their Houfes. .Their Cloa thing 
is a Bead's Skin upon their Backs, with an Apron 
hanging before thofe Parts that Decency among 
Savages requires to be conceal'd. Their chief Diet 
isNokehickj parch'd Meal and Water boil'd up to a 
Confiilency, and the Flelh of Deer, Bears, Mole and 
Kackoons •, Fiih and . Fowl, when they can catch it 
Their Phyiick is fome few odd Specificks, a Hothoufe, 
or Charms us'd by their Priefts. The Men are lazy \ 
their Wives do all the Drudgery, plant, drefs, houfe, 
, and thrafh their Corn, and build their Wigwams. The 
Men hunt in Companies of Scores, and fometimes 
Hundreds together. They divide the Time by SleepSy 
Moons and Winters, They believe there are many 
Gods, that every remarkable Creature has a God in 
it, or about if, they facrifice to the Devil ^ and 
Dancing is one of their Religious Ceremonies : They 
are great Dancers, and will fpend whole Days, like 
fo many monftrous Scaramouches. Thofe of 'em 
that are converted, conform themfelves as near as may, 
be to the Engliih in every thing. 

And now 'tis time to fpeakof thefe Indian Chrifti- 

ans, of whom the firit that embrac'd Chriftianity, 

was one Jacoomes^ a Mean Man of Martha's Ifland, 

whom Mr. Alayhew perfwaded to renounce Idolatry;' 

.which he did, and profefs'd the Chriftian Religion 

before the Sachems of his Country, telling them, 

hiduns Ti'^^ God they worJ}np''d had great Power ^ hut limited and 

convsrud- fuhfervient to the God he had now Chofen. 

in I o or 1 2 years time this Minilter converted fei 
veral hundreds, and reduc'd them into the Form Qi 
Churches, over whom Indian Paftors were in tim<' 
fet •, after him, *^ Mr. Elliot^ Miniiler of Roxburgh 

'^ abou 

TheHiflory <?/ New-England. 103 

«^ about a Mile from Bojion^ undertook the m\^\om- Ahflrn^ of 
*^ ry Work, learn'dthe Indian Tongue, tranflated^ ^^«^^ 
<' the Bible, and feveral Treatifes of Pradical DiVi-/'^^^^^- 
'' nity, and Catechifms, in and about the year ^ ^70- ^^ Leuf-^ 
'' he form'd an Indian Church in a Town cali'd Nc^- j/^J ^^J^ 
*^ tuk^ baptized them, and firfl: adminifter'd the Lord's p^of. at 
" Supper to them. The Minifter of that Church utrechc, 
" i^ years ago, was one D^%V/ an Indian. Mr, Elliot 
" afterwards form'd four Churches of Indians in 
\*^ Majfachtifet Colony, 

'^ At Mafijlpangj 50 Miles from Bofton^ another 
^' Church of converted Indians was ellabliih*d, and 
*^ Jacoomes^ whom we have mentioned before, being 
*^ now become a Man of Piety and Knowledge, was 
^^ admitted to be Paftor of it. 

'^ There are 5 Aflemblies more of Indian Chrifli- 
'' ans not fat from Majhlpang^ the Preachers being all ^* ^' 
'' Indians. At Saconet in Plimouth County, is a great ?* ^^^* 
" Congregation *, and near Cape Cod fix AfTeniblies 
^ more, among whom there are fix Indian Preachers. 
" Mr. Treaty Minifter of Eaflham^ preaching to 
" them often in their own Language. At Nantucket 
" Ifland is another Indian Church, the Minifter of 
^^ which is an Indian Convert. 

" At Martha's Vineyard is the two moft famous 
" Churches of Indian Chriftians *, the Minifters be- 
" v^gjohn Hlacoomes^ the Son of the former /i/i^c^^?- 
^ mesy and y(3/??2 7^cfe<?y^, a converted Indian. They 
*' meet twice every Sunday •, the Paftor prays extern- 
** pore with them, then they fmg Pfalms, then the 
" Minifter expounds a Chapter in the Bible, gathers 
" Doctrines from it, proves them by Scriptures and 
f^ Reafons, and infers Ufesas the Englifti Presbyterian 
*^ Minifters do,by whom they were taught. They have 
*' no Holidays, but Faft-days. The Barbarians being 
" ignorant of the true God, had noword to expreis 
^' him •, wherefore in their Prayers and Sermons they 
" ufe Englifti Words and Terms, as Jehovah, or 
** God, or Lord. They teach their Children Pt'rK/^/s 
" a.nd the AfTembly's Catechifm. 

There are four and twenty Churches and AlTemblies 
of Indian Chriftians in New-England^ as many Indian 
Paftors, and four Englifti, who preach in the Indian /?7rf/4?ji'j;/^ 
Tongue. They have Apartments ^t Harvard Col- d^ts, 

H 4- lege 

1 04 The Hijlory of New-England. 

lege for the Indian Students, of which there are, of 1 
were lately between 20 and 30. 

At Nantucket Ifland there were 500 Indian Chrifti-i 
ans about i p years ago, who were wholly under then 
Englifh Government, having 3 diftinft Courts, witlif 
lib. 6. p. Power to hear and determine all Caufes below 400 /.' 
^o. in value. They choofe their own Magiflrates, and ap- 

peal from them to the Englifh. They are ambiti- 
ous of knowing and following the Englifh Laws, and 
keep Records as the Englifh do. They put their 
Children to learn to write and read. 

Within the Liberties oi Eajiham there were 5051 
Chriilian Indians 1 2 years ago, who had four Indian 1 
Pailors, as many School-mafters, and fix Juftices of 
the Peace. Their Deportment, Converfe and Garb, 
are more Manly and decent than any other Indians. 
214 Converts were about Sandwich : At the fame time a 
new Church of *em was ereded at Albany^ in the 
Province o{ New-Torh 
Chrlfiidnu Their Kings and Powaws oppos'd the Progrefsof 
ty opposed Chriftianity to the utmoft of their power, but they 
Bj their durfl not make many Martyrs for fear of the Englifh, 
^''gs, to whom the Chriftian Indians in all times of Difficul- 
ty prov'd very faithful. 

Of thcfe Indians there are about 15 or i^'oo in 
Martha's Fineyard^ the v>rhole Ifland being Chriftian*, 
and in all, 'tis computed, that the Number of Indian 
Converts, and their Children may amount to about 
4000 ♦, Q^v^homjaphet^ the Indian Paftorat Martha's 
Vineyard^ is a very famous Perfon for making 
Converts , tho not as the French do at Canada^ 
by preaching up Heaven as a fort of Mahometan of 
Earthly Paradice, and Hell as an horrible kind of a 
Dwelling, accommodating both to ths, Pleafure and 
Jhe^ Frey^ch Terror of their Senies. They tell the Hurons that the 
mfrsprs- EngUfh niurder'd our Saviour, and endeavour to make-' 
ff'^ Converts for their own Interell:, more than the Good ' 

thjErghIb ^^ ^^^ Indians. Thus the Catholick Indians to the 
^^ .^^^' Eailward of New-England have not got much by/ 

I ^ D 2oi.^''^^"g^^g ^^^i^" Religion. 

' ^* " * ' As to the Englifh Inhabitants of this Colony, who ) 
they were that went firfl: thither, wefhall beftbein*- 
form'd of by Perfons who liv'd in thofe days. The a 

lb, &, i3<. Lord Dighy-i a famo«$ ConfefTor for the Caufe of King^ 


The Hiftory of NcW'Enghnd. 105 

Charles I. faid in Parliament, That Men of the befl Con^ 

fcience were ready to fly into the Wildernefs for Religion ; - ■ ' ^• > 

and Sir Benjamin Rudyard^ That a great multitude of '^ '; 

the Kin^s Subjects firivlng to hold Communion with vs^ 

hut feeing how far we were gone ^ and fearing how much t 

farther we wou'dgOj were fore d to fly the Land^ very 

many into favage Wdderneffes^ hecaufe the Land woud 

not hear them. Do not they that caufe thefe things caji 

a Reproach on the Government, 

But tho *tis certain, many of thofe Gentleman and^ 
Minifters who firll went thither, were driven out of ^?>/?'^»^- 
England by perfecuting Rulers of high-flown Principles, ^(A inhabi- 
yet they were not all of them of fucn nice Confcien-^^^^,^'^^^ ^ , 
ces ^ for when a Minifter, foon after their Settlement ^, CVaw^t/- 
there, preaching to his Congregation, Vr^d them tQ c^^r^-^'-' ^^ 
approve themfelves a Religious People^ by endeavourrlng to T'if^«^^'*«c^*•* 
propagate the Cofpel^ or otherwije they woud eontraaUp ^y^^, ckta^ 

the main end of Planting, One of the AiTembly cry*d 4r,^ts^^w^ 
out, Sir you are mljiakm^ Our main end was tQ catch '^^l'lV\^^-^^j^ 
Fifl?, However, it appears by their Hiftory they were ^,,^!,^cL^\&t^ 

very bufie in fettling Churches, fummoning Synods, '^^'M 
and eftabiifhing a Church there, which had the Form 
of Godlinefs ^ and it does not become us to judge 
whether it was without the Power, ' , 

The firft Churches were Independents cr Congrega- ^'^^^^'^ ^^ 
tional *, feveral Presbyterian Minifters coming over af- ^^^'^^^"^^ 
terwards, there happened frequent Jars and Difputes schifms 
among them, till at laft they fign'd Articles of A-there^ 
greement as to Matters of Difcipline. They have had 
leveral Schifms, as they term them, among them, as 
the Hierarchal Church at" Weymouth^ the Anabaptifis at 
Swanfey2ind Boflon^ Mv. Roger Wi!iiams% whopreach'd 
up the Invalidity of King Charles's Pattent, and a- 
gainft the Sin of taking the Indians Lands from them, 
a moft pernicious Do(fi:rine, for which he was 

The Antlnomlan and Famillfiical Tenets were 
broach'd, and a dreadful Confufion in Church-Affairs 
threaten'd to ruin the Infant Colony, but they got o-, 
ver all Difficulties, and fettl'd their Church in fome 
fort of Order, drawing up Articles 9f Worlhip 
and Difcipline-, which being more tedious' than edi- 
fying, we fhall not fet down here, but refer the Rea- 
der, if he has any Curiofity to know them, to Cotton 
Mather's Hiftory 'of New-Englando The^ib^ ^5. 

io5 The Hifiory of New-England. 

t{^V^'«^^^ The Independents and Presbyterians having B.gti^^d 
^ri^SS^'^^ a Comprehenfion, 2ire the EftahUjh'd Church, and 
^^^V^^i^^^^the Church of England, Anahaptijis and Quakers ^hQ 
t,o {ucU fti^-'j^^Tollerated Dlffenters, Their Syw^j have>eferv'd to 
r,7unlT*v,XShemfelves foniuch Power, that the Government has 
V'^-^«^fiirlittleleftit in Ecclefiaftical Cafes, and theMinifters 
"^-B^c^-u.^, ^^ ^^^n^ T6wn are like fo many Governours within 
y. (.Uo\s. ci^iuvM^ their Precinfts. 

cln^^^'"^^ ^^' ^^^ ^^^^^ Government was at firft by Governours, 
^^yernment. Deputy Governours, and Major Generals, chofen by 
■^c^Vfj^cMiih' the General Court, who were the Deputies of the 
Towns, like our BurgefTes in Parliament •, but now 
thofe Officers are commiflion'd by the King. As to 
their Power, and that of the General and Inferiour 
Courts, their ways of raifing Taxes, and making 
Laws, we refer the Reader to the Laws of New- 
England, in the Abridgment fo often cited in this 
Hheir The Strength of thefe three confederate Colonies 

^ Strength, confifts in the number of their Militia and Inhabitants •, 
it being computed, that in all New-England there are 
above k^oooo Souls, and of them 50000 fighting Men , 
whereas the Indians, were they colle£^ed into one Body, 
ThdtBftheQo^*^ not make an Army of loooo Men ^ but as they 
Mtms, ^^Q divided into above 20 feveral Kingdoms, differing 
in Language, Manners and Interefts, 'tis impoilible 
for them to enter into fuch a Confederacy, as to be 
able to do the Englifh any confiderable Damage ^ and • 
the latter, when they pleafe, can difpofTefs them 
of the fmall Territories they enjoy in their Neigh- 
bourhood •, but either thinking it their Intereft that 
they fhou'd live as they do, to furnifh them with 
Teltry^ and help to till the Ground, or that 'tis an In- 
juftice to turn the right Owners out of their PofTefii- 
ons, or being afraid that the French, jealous of the 
Growth of the Englifh Empire in America, wou'd 
join with them, they let them alone, and are in no 
great danger of receiving much Difturbance by 
7h wa f ^^^ People of New-England, in their way of 
2^£^^-"^J^ Living, Manners and Appearance, refemble their 
the Mali- Brethren in Old-England, excepting that they are 
tints, more formal, preciie, morofe, and not To fincere as 
the Engliih Diffenters. They are very fevere in their 


Laws againft all forts of Immorality, and fo much, 
as if they thought Pleafure cou'd not be innocent \ 
but in the Execution of thofe Laws, there is fuitable 
Tendernefs had to the tefirmities of Humane Na- 

The moft commendable thing among them, is their 
Academy, and their Schools, every Townfhip of 5.0 
Families being oblig'd to have a School, to teach to 
write and read *, and every Town of 100 Families, 
to have a Grammar-School^ the Mafter of which, 
muil be qualify 'd to fit his Scholars for the Vrnver/ity^ 
which they began to eftablifh as foon as they were 
well fettrd in the Country. 

In the year i s^ o, the General Court advanced 400 /. [i c^csmi^i^' 
towards building a College at Newton in Mlddlefexj 
about 7 or 8 Miles from Bofion *, and the Town on the 
founding the College there had its Name chang'd to 
Cambridge'^ but the fmall Sum of 400/. would not Cani- 
have gone far in fuch a Defign, had not Mr. John Har- ^[^^Sc 
vard^ Minifter o{ Charles Town near Boflon, ^y'^founld 
foon after, and left almoft 800/. to carry on the'^ 
Work, as we have already mentioned. Then the o- 
thcr Colonies gave fome fmal] Contributions towards 
it *, and private Perfons finding there was a Probabili- 
ty of fucceeding in it, contributed much more than 
whole Colonies. 

The College being built and endow'd, was in ho- 
nour of their great Benefadlor Mr. Harvard ^ call'd Harvard 
Harvard College *, and Mr. Nathaniel Eaton was College, 
chofen Prefident: He was a Man of Learning, but T^fr.Nath. 
fo cruefin hisNature, and lewd in his Morals, that Eacon 
he was expelFd the Univerfity, and excommunicated. Prejident^ ^. 
Upon which he went to Firginia^ and from thence to lus^^cuX^^^ 
England'^ where he conform'd to the Church of^-c'c(c,^.c.-iJ- 
England^ was made Minifter of Blddiford in Devon- ^'^^^^'' '^'^'"^^' 
^ire^ after the Reftoration became a violent Per- 
fecutor of Non-conformifts, continued his wicked 
Courfes, and dy'd in Jail for Debt. 

In the year 1 6\o, The Magiftrates and Miniftcrs 1 6^,9, 
chofe Mr. Henry Dunbar to be Prefident of the Col- Mr. Hen- 
lege, to which the General Court granted a Charter^ ry Dun- 
and made it a Corporation, confilting of a Prefident, ftar Vre[^ 
2 Fellows and a Treafurer. The Governour, Depu- 
ty Goi^ernour, and the Magiftrates of the Colony 


I o8 The Hiftory of New-England. 

rkC(7%e being appointed to be the Viiitors. The Income of 
^venue, Charlton Ferry was fetti'd upon it, and its Revenues 
in a little time were fufficient to maintain the Ex- 
pence, with a very fmall Affiftance from the Treafu- 
ry of the ^Colony. 

*Tis obfervable that Sir George Dowmngy who was 
fo often employed by the R^mpy and afterwards by 
King Charles II. as their Envoy Extraordinary in 
Holland^ was the fecond Perfon that was entered a 
Student in this College : Sir Henry Mildmay fent his 
Son William Mildmay ^ Efq*, the Elder Brother of 
Henry Mildmay Efq*, of Shawford in Hampjhlrej to 
fludy here, as did William Stoughton Efq*, late Lieu- 
tenant Governour of the Colony, and Founder of 
Stoughton-Hdill in this Univerfity, Jofeph Dudley 
Efq*, the prefent Governour, and many other Gen- 
tlemen of the Province, who are of principal Note in 
this Hiftory. 

Mr. Dunfiar was a Perfon very well skill'd in the 
Oriental Tongues, and a Man of as much good Lear- 
ning as ever vifited the American Shore, but inclining 
to the Baptlfk [Opinion : The rigid Presbyterian and 
Independent Party got him turned put, after he had 
been lerviceable to them in helping titeir Miniftersto 
tranflate jDrft//^'s Pfalms. 

'Tis true 'tis a very mean Performance, and un? 
worthy the Spirit and Harmony of that Divine Poet, 
but Mufick and Eloquence are not to be expefted in 
New-England •, and till they throw off that wretched 
AfFe^lation which we commonly call Cant^ and which 
is of no manner of ufe, unlefs to deceive Fools, and 
amufe Hypocrites, we cannot fee what great ufe their 
Academy will ever be to them, for 'tis the main end of 
Learning to pleafe and inftru<ft *, and how formal 
Nonfenfe and miferable Jargon, tho 'tis larded with 
hundreds of leara'd Quotations, can have any EfFe£l on 
a reafonable Mind, is beyond Reafon to comprehend. 

The Hiftory of New-England written by Cotton 
Mather y a Man of Fame in his Country, as appears 
by the barbarous Rhimes before it in Praife of the 
Author, is a fufficient Proof, that a Man may have 
read hundreds of Latine Authors, and be qualify'd to 
conftrue them, may have fpent his Youth in a Col- 
lege, and be bred up in Letters, yet have neither Judgr ' 


The Hifiory qf New-England. 109 

ment to know how to make a Difcourfe perfpicuous, 

Bor Eloquence to exprefs his Sentiments fo that they 

may pieafe and perfwade, the eafieft way to Convi£):i- 

on ^ for of all the Books that ever came from the 

Prefs with the venerable Title of a Hiftory, 'tis im- 

poffible to ihew one that is fo confus'd in the Form, 

10 trivial in the Matter, and fo faulty in the Expref- 

iion, fo cramm'd with Punns, Anagrams, Acrofticks, Hoianotv^- 

Miracles and Prodigies^ that it rather refembles ^/^^ "^ "^ 

School Boys Exercifes Forty Years ago, and Romijh 

Legends, than the ColIe8:ions of an Hiftorian bred 

up in a Proteftant Academy. 

The Reader will excufe this Digreffion, which 
hardly can be call'd fo properly, it ferving to give an 
Idea of the ufe the New-England Men make of their 
Univerfity, and to fhew how far an Humour or AfFe* 
Elation may prevail to the Prejudice of the moftufeful 
and reafonable things. 

That Hiftory of Cotton Mather's is enough to give 
one a Surfeit of Letters, if all the Schools in the 
World were like Harvard-(Zo\\t^\ for that the 
Eloquence and ^legance of all that School is the fame 
with the Hiftorians, will appear from his Father 
Inc, Mather^ Letter to the Church o^ Cambridge^ and C. M. fi 
a thoufand Quotations of other New - England Kxxxhots i$p« 
fcatter'd up and down in the Hiftory. 

This is not faid to refle£l on the Defign of their 
Univerfity, but if poffible to make them fee their 
Error in t\iQ Execution of it, that they may leave off 
mean Cant, which was in Fafhion a hundred years 
ago, add the Purity of Language to that of Doftrine, 
and let th.Q Scoffers fee that Religion needs no little 
Shifts and Arts to fupport its felf, and that the Force 
and Harmony of the Divine Truths are never fo con- 
vincing and moving on realbnable Souls, as when they 
are exprefs'd in elegant and apt Phrafes, free from the 
Poverty and Tautology of the prefent New-England 
Diftion *, let their own Dr. Bates inftru^l them bet- 
. ter in his beft Pieces, if they think themfelves too 
pious to learn of our Tillotfon and Calamy, . 

There was a Prefs kt up at Cambridge^ and the ^fV^ ^ 
Pfalms fitft Printed there, about the time oi Uv/J^^l^^^ 
Dwfiar's being eleded PrefidenL £>idpnmei 

in New- 

no The Hifiory of Ncw«Engknd. 

This Verfion, tho 'tis abominable as to the Mee-, 
ter, has the Commendation of keepin? clofer to thci 
Text than any. The Excufe the Tranmtors gave for 
C. M. lib. their bad Verfes, That God's j^t^s need not oitr Vo* 
|./. 100. hflnngs^ is of the fame ftrain with their other Argu- 
ments, as if they had affeded to be fiat and roagh, 
and cou'd have done better, or that we ought not to 
fing the Creatbf^i Praife in our beft Language and 
fweeteft Melody, according to the Example of the 
Holy Pfalmift whom they pretended to tranflatc. 
If they wanted a faithful Tranflation, why did they 
not do it in Profe *, for among all their Gifts, they 
might with a little Modefty have feen that they were 
not endow'd with that of Poefy. 

!n Mr. Dmfiar's time the Library was fet up at 
The Libu' Harvard CoWtgQ J and fevcral Gentlemen of Old 
ff there, and New-England contributed to it, as Sir Kenelm Dig- 
by^ Sir John Maynard^ Mr. Baxter^ Mr. Hill^ and 
Mr. Gale : And many others became Benefa£lors to the 
College Revenues, as Alderman Afijhurfk^ Sir Rkhard 
Saltonftall^ Edward Hopkins^ Eiq^ and the Moft Reve- 
rend Arch-Bp. Vfljer. 
Their De- Xhe Students began to take Degrees of Batchelour 
f*"^^- and Mafter of Arts ^ but tho the College have a^ 
Right to beftow that of Doiflor, they never exercis'd 
it, except in the Cafe of the Prefident Mr. Increafe 
Mather^ as will be fhewn in its due place. Mr. 
Dvndar having been 14 Years their Prefident, not- 
withftanding all his Learning and Merit, was expelFd 
by his Brother Non-conformifts, for not conforming 
Mr. with them in all things ^ and Mr. Charles Chamcy 

Chauncy (born in Hartford/hire^ M'mijler of Scituate^ was ele^ 
Trefidm. aed Prefident in his place. 

He had been Greek Profeflbr at Cambridge in Eng' 
land^ was skili'd in the Oriental Languages ^ and, fays 
my Author, the Hifliorian fo often quoted, wrote a 
Witty Latin Toem on the Death of Queen u4nne^ Wife 
to King James I. Printed in the Lachrym<z Cantabrigi- 
enfis. He was intimately acquainted with Dr. Vfl^er^ 
and a Man oft good Senie and Learning according to 
the Times, but was forc'd to retire to New-England 
. for not coming up to Bp. Laud's Heights in Matters oi; 


The Hifiory of New-England. - tit 

I 1^ ^ovQxWi Harvard College with Piety, Care 
land Judgment feventeen Years, and then dying, was 167%: 
focceeded by Dr. Leonard Hoar^ the firft Prefident Dr. Leo; 
? who had his Education in the fame College. After HoarPre/. 
c^r ^^.^^averd to England^ and commenced Doftor 
of Phyfick in Cambridge, He marry'd the Ld. Li/le/s 
Daughter, and returning with her to NewEndand 
was deftedPrefidentof th^ College-, but fome great 
Men m the Country taking a difguft to him, the 
Scholars, countenanc'd by thofe Gentlemen, were 
very difobedient, and made him live fuchanuneafy 
Life, that after he had been Prefidentfour Years he 
refign'd his Office. 

While he governed the College there was a new 
Sublcription taken to enlarge it, and near 200 L fub-- 
icnb d and paid, of which Sir Thomas Temple gave 
100/. With this Money there were To many Edifices 
built, that It looked like a new College, which ftill 
went by the Name of the Old. Several Indians were 
admitted m tU time of his PredecefTor, and in his 
own Prefidency, The firft who took his Batchelours 
Degree was Mr. Caleb Cheefihaumuk i Since that, o- 
thcrs have proceeded as far-, and many Indians e- ' 
ducatedhere, are Preachers to Indian Churches. 

Mr. Vrtan Oakes^ Minifter of the Town of Cam- ^^75- 
bndge^ was chofen to fucceed Dr. Hoar, He was^^'^^^a 
born in Old-England, but brought over young to^^^^^^'f- 
New-England^ and educated in Harvard College ^^^ a t^^M^^.fu/^ 
where he took his 1 Batchelour and Mafter's Decree' '^*<^'*^"- ^*" ^' 
This Man, excepting that he was very relilious*"" "/Tr^"" 

nave had any extraordinary Qualities '"'worthy '^"'^^^'"'"^'''"H 
ifciS^feVi^r^^^^' ^^' ''^''''''^' and in which J^'Sjtf 
, On his Death Mr. Increafe Mather^ one of the ^tf"--''f»?^ 
Mmifters of ^.y?,;,, was elefted Prefident, but \us ^^^^^'^!^"Z 
Congregation refufing to part with him he declin'd y.o^ 
it i and Mr. John Rogers was chofen into that Place : m, Tohm 
His Father came to New-England when he was about Rogers 
, '^ Years old^ he ow'd what Learning he had to pref. 
I //^rW College, and is commended for abundance 
i 01 good ISature. 

i In his time the College was like to have been burnt to 
: the Ground, but was pi evsated by his accidental fhor- 


1X2 The Hiftory of New-England. 

tening his Prayer ^ it being the Cuftomof the Prefi- 
dent of the College to pray in the Publick Hall with 
the Scholars. Mr. Rogers^ like the reft of his Brethren,, 
us'd to be ibmewhat long •, but on the Day that the 
College took Fire he was ihorter than ordinary, and 
the Scholar in whofe Chamber it was, returned time 
enough to have it put out. 
^g He dy'd after he had enjoy'd his Office two Years, 

Mr Inc ^^<^ ^^^ prefent Re^lor Mr. Increafe Mather^ was 
Mather' chofen in his Place, to which he was now promoted 
Tref, with the Confent of his Congregation. This Man 
was the firft Prefident who was born in New-England^ 
whither his Father Mr. Richard Mather ^n2.s driven 
by Perfecution in 16-35. His Son is the Author of 
jf rfia luci cjie^^ the New-England Hiftory *, and the Father , when he 
^,'e>u.^cUrc^uM^Yas in England to follicite the Affairs of the Country 
eu«ri^; Tc. ^g ^T^g-j. j\aent, preach'd often in the DifTenters 
^i:::fllffN^Meeti^ ^ his Stile being more agefted and quaint 
el c. c^i^ai^^cu.ijthan thofe of the Non-conformijt Teachers who are 
^r'Wwl\ o^^ ^^oft famous in that way, and wou'd confirm all 
l^\^'y.M>\i ^xc<i^-t\i2X has been of the Harvard Eloquence, if any of 
r" ^"'\"|'^ J^is Sermons had b^ee nPrjnted.t. 
irrrcv'v^ ^-i*^ - On the taking of the Charter from this Colony, ^ 
Col. Dudley^ whom the King had made Prefident or 
New-England^ chang'd Mr. Mather's Title of Prefi- 
dent into that of ReElor, 
J. y While Mr. Mather was in England^ Mr. Leveret 

ret ^7^'^^*^ Mr. Brattle^ two of the Fellows, governed the 
iMr.Brat- College •, and when he return'd with the New CW- 
tle.* ter granted by King William and Q}iQQn Mary^ the 

1692. Univerfity had a New Charter granted them alfo by 
the Government of iV^TP-E??g/W. 

After this the Academy began to thrive, Harvard: 
College or Colleges being too little for the Students, 
Mr. Stonghton built a New one, with more Expence 
than the Benefaftor of Harvard was at *, it is from 
Stough- him call'd Stoughton Hall, and in both of them there, 
ton mil, are near _iooJjStudents Englilh and Indians. 
\\c,^ciki^'^uc.[i jhis Univerfity has produced ieveral Writers, who,. 
'h« t(ic^^c3.i ^^oi ^^^^ publiih'd Sermons and other DircourfesiniV^Ti7-£.^-' 
\"ul\\ " J -< M gland and Old-England^ but they have had no great Cur-: 
T^MC L^sori rency or Reputation, tho it mull be confefs'd that feme 
' ^ '' ^ ' of the Authors feem to be what is generally underftood 

bythePhrafe Good Sc hollars ^ and we know norea-^ 


The Hifiory of NeW-England, x 1 5 

foil why they fhou'd not be fo, having the lame 
Advantages of Books and Brains, as other Men in 
other Univerfitiesj but 'tis in Stile, as in Painting, 
ev'ry Nation has a Manner, by which *tis known, 
md which will be more or lefs Polite^ according to 
the Genius of the People, 

In return for the Services Mr. Inc. Mather had Mr, Incj 

done the Country and College by his Agency in Mather 

England^ the latter prefented him with a Diplojnaj ^^^^ ^ 

I for a Dolor's Degree, Signed by the Fellows, with -^^^^^ ^f 

' the Vnherfity-SQ^\ annex'd to it. The Power they -^^^^'^'V^ 

had to do it appears by the Words of the Diploma^ 

Quum gradus Acade?ni€as^ tarn in Iheologia quani in 
Philofophia^ pro more Academiarum in Afjgliay 
conferendi Toteflas^ ah amplijftmo Guhernatore^ & 
a fumma Majfachufettenfis Provincla Curice^ fecun- 
dum Sereniff, Regis ac Regm^ Gullelmi & Mari<z^ 
illis conceffum Diploma fit ad nobis commiff. & 
quoniamvir clarijfimus^ dec. 

Notwithftanding that the Charter granted by King 
William and Queen Mar)f had impower'd the Gover- 
:nour and General Court ($ MaSachufet -Colony to grant 
a Charter to the College^ with Power of conferring 
Dolor's Degrees, as is expreft in thQ Diploma -^ yet 
Mr. Mather himfelf never made ufe of the Title nor 
the Univerfity before nor fmce thought fit to beftow 
|it on any other Man. We fhall conclude this Ac- 
jcount of New England^ and its Univerfity, with a 
Lift of all the Prefidents and Fellows from the Foun- 
idation of Harvard College to th^ year, 1 60^^ 

A Lift of the Prefidents and Fellows af Harvard 


Mr. Natk Eatony Prefident,- expellU H. ^^-^'^ ^^^ ■^,j^\uU<^i 
Mr, Henry Dunfiar, Prefident, turn'd out ^ ^^^"''^ 

Mr, Charles Chatmcy^ Prefident. - - "^ ^^+°- 

Dr. Lfo^^^r^ //w, PreOdent, refignU -- ^ "^ ~" ^^^^* 
Mr. -Z^n^;^ 0^;^^, Prefident. -^ -^ ^ - - Kfzi- 

Mr. J^/?;^ i^^^^r^^ Prefident ^ "^ ^^l^' 

Dr, /??r, y^^fkr, Prefident and Redon ,^ ^ ^^^tl^' 

^ Yeaj^ 

i 14^ Tk Hiftoryof New-England. 

Years in which they took their Batehelors Degree. 

Mr. Samuel Mather. 1^ „ . 
^^^^' Mr. Samwl Da^orth, F^^^^^'^- 

1^47. Ut.Con.Star, ^Fellows. 

Mr. Sa?jmel Eaton^ 'j 

I ^4.^. Mr. Vrian Oah^ >FelIows. 

Mv,JohnCoIlmSy 3 

2-ii» Ut.rioomas Dudley^ JbeilOAS. 

Mr. Thomas Shepherd^ -^ 

Mr, Samuel Nowelij f 
^ . Mr, Samuel Hooker^ V„ ,, 
^^^5- Mr. Samuel Bradfireet, f^^^^"^"^^' ' 

Mr. y<?/;wi^ Moody y \ 

Mr, Nehefniahu4r,-ibrofey'^ 
1 555. Mr. Gerftwm Bulkley^ Feiiow. 

Mr. Increafe Mather^ ? ^ „ 
i^5^. xMr. r^.;;.^. 6>^7;,./ ^^Feliows. 

Mx> Zachariah Sy^nms^ Ir- ^ 
^^57. Mr. ^.^rk^W..^ /r.^^4 1 '^d\o^Ns. 

1^58. Mr, Samuel Shepherd^ Fellow, 
j^^^-p^ Mr. Samuel Willard^ Fellow. 

Mr, Samuel Elliot^ Zt- 11 

Mr, Peter Buikley, l^^ilows. 

M^r, Nathaniel Chauncey^ ?Tr „ 
Mr. 7^/^/..^ M/7./f.>.g, ^^ ^Fellows, 

1 6'6'2. Mr, Sohmon Stoddard^ Fellow. 

^^.-.. Mr, Alexander NowelL ?^,, . 

'^'^' Mr. ?-^/.>^ P/?..H fFellowSo 

1 666, 'f^' If i^^/^^^^;, ^ Fellows. 
Mr. John Rtchardfon^ S *^ ciiuwb. 

i6'(T7. Mr, Nehemiah Hohart J Vq\\oV{, 

1669' Mr. Daniel Gookiny Fellow. 

1670, Mr. Ammis Ru-Corbet^ YqWo^, 

I d'rj o. 


Mr, i/^^-?^ F^^r, 

Mr. Samuel Sev ally C.T-. n 

Mr. 5.^/?/^.-^/ Danforth, r ^^'-^^W^- 

Mr. P^firr Thackery "^ 

h\r, Samuel Andrew J ?t: n 

I (?75* ^ Mr. Nathaniel Gookm^ I *^^^^^^'^' 

The Hifiory of New-England 1 1 5 

Mr. John Danfoxtb^ Fdlow. ^(^77^ 

Mt.JohnComrf ^Fellows. 1578. 

Mx* Cotton Mather^ S ■ ^r -. r 

Mr. John Leveret^ 7 Fellows, Vice Preii- i(?8o. 

}At.Willia?n Brattle^ 5 dents, 

Mr. Samuel Mitehel^ Fellow. ^ ^ " 

Mr. Neh. Walter, Fellow. ^^,f 

Mr. John White, Fellow, ' ^^ ^" 

Mr. P^z./ 2)^;^/^j/, Zpellows. '^^^" 

Mr, Ben], Wadjworth^ 3 j^p^ 

Mr. Ehenezer Femherton, Fellow^ isgZ 
Mr. J ahez. Fitch J Fellow. ^' 

f^^l^rnes Allen iFdlows. 

Mr* Charles Morton J b 

The two laft were bred in England, and Mr. Mortm 
taught Academical Learning at Nervington, betore he 
was forc'd to fly to New-England^ by the Pertecution 
in the late Reigns. 

Twas impoffible to publiili a Work of this Nature 
with that Expedition as was expeded, the Author 
being oblig'd to flop longer for Informations from A- 
merica than he at firfi: imagin'd •, by which means 
this Treatife has remain'd unpublilh'd till the prefent 
Year, 1708. 

We left Colonel Dudley in PofTeffion of the Govern-^ 
inent \ and he began the Exercife of his Power with 
vigoroufly entering into the War with Erance on that 
fide: He fitted out 4 Sloops, put 200 Men aboard, 
and order'd them tocruife on the Erench Coaft , froii;i 
j whom they took 9 VeiTels *, and at the fame time, tli^ 
New-England Privateers, who have been very fuccelP- 
ful, took ? Ships bound for Canada. Sometime be- 
fore this C onfi amine ? hips J Efq^ and WiL Faugh an ^ 
I Efq-, prefented a very loyal Addrels, to congratulate 
i Her Maiefty's Acceffion to the Throne, in tlie Name 
ojf the Province of New-HampJInre, 

There has happen'd no material Events fince rela- 
ting to this Colony •, the fame Governour continues in 
, his Poft, and we fhoold have added a Lift of the Coun- 
I oil ofMaJfachufets • but t^e People, by Virtue of their 
Charter, choofmg the Members therafelves,. we could • 
I not procure their Names, which are not ^^§^^^^^ 
I traofmitted to England. It feems the Province of Eaft 
■ I 2 , ^^ 

1 1 6 The Hifiorj of New-England. 

or New Hampfiire^ which we have jboken of, deliver 'd 
«p their Rights entirely into the mnds of the King 5 
who by the new Charter that was granted tolt, re- 
ferv'd to the Crown the Power of naming the Coun- 
cil. Tho Nem Hampjhire is incorporated with the 
QovQmm^ntoi New-England^ yet the Counfellors are 
not eleded by the Inhabitants, as thofeof ^^^JT^c^w- 
fets^ but nam'd by the Government in England. Be- 
ing at prefent, 

Colonel Jofeph Dudley^ Governour. 
John VJJjer^ Efq*, Lieut. Governouro 

WiL PartridgCy Efq, 1 

Peter Coffiny Eiq^ ! 

Robert Elliot ^ Elq j I 

JohnGearifi^Eiq'^f j 

JohnPlaifledj Efq, 
Richard Waldron^ Efq°, 
Winthrop Hilton^ Efq'^ 
Jofeph Smithy Efq^ 

t H £ 

C"7 ) 





An Account of its Dilcovery, Settlement,^' 
Revolution, and all other Events, to this 
Time • Of the Climate^ Soil, Trader 
Inhabitants, Englijh and Indians. 

HIS Country was at firft caird Nova Bel^ 
gia \ and the Butch^ who pretended to the 
Propriety of it, included Martha's Vineyard^ 
_„ and Eltz.abeth-1/land : The former of which 
they caird Henry Chrifiiatis liland ^ and the latter. A- 
drian Block\ from the Name of two Mafters of Ships, 
who, they fay, difcover'd them: But it does not ap- 
pear they had any Right to thofe Illes, or indeed to 
the Continent on Hudfon's River, till they bought it of 
Captain Hudfon^ who difcover*d it, and fold it to 
them about the Year ks'oS. which Sale being 
without the Kind's Licence, was excepted againlt 
by the Englijh\ but there were no Attempts made 
by them to fettle h«;re themfelves, or hinder the 
Hollanders, '■ ■ - - ■ 

I n The 

ii8 The Hiftoryof NtW'Yovk. 

The Englijh^ who faiFd from Holland to the Weji^ 
Indies^ and fettled Plimomh -Colony^ intended to take 
PoiTertion of the Territories lying on iht Coaft of the 
Bay- form'd by Newhaven Colony, and Long- I/land ^ 
but the Mafter of the Ship being a Dutchman^ was 
brib'd by fome of his Countrymen to betray them, 
and land them farther Eafiward ^ which he did ac-^ 
cordingly, and prevented their fettling in Nova Bel- 
J^^ Dutch ^/^V where the Hollanders had begun to plant, but' 
Ssnkmcm had been driven "therxe by Sir Samuel Ar gall j Gover- 
noar of ^^Vg^W^. They then apply 'd themfelves to 
King Jamesl, who gave them leave to build fome 
Cottages, for the Convenience of their Ships touching 
there for frefli Water and Provi lions, in their Voy^ 
age to Brazen, Under this Pretence, they incroach'd: 
by little and little, fo much, that they built Towns,' 
fortify'd them, planted, and became a flourifhing 

They, built, the City of New Amfterdam^ in an Ifie' 
C2i\Y^ Manahanan^ at the Mouth of Hudfon's River 5,; 
to which they gave the Name of the Great River *, and 
the Bay to the Eaft of it, they calFd by that of Naf 
p?// . They buiit a Fort about 80 Miles up the River, 
which they nam'd Orange Fort ^ and from thence 
ns'd to drive a profitable Trade with the Indians^ 
who came over Land as far as from jg^^^^c, to deal 
with them. Henry Chrifllan^ and after him, Jacob El- 
• Un^ v>^ere the firft Dutch Governours here, for the 
Wefi-India Company in Holland j to whom the States 
General had granted this Country, 
.;"?; Bsm^ds. The iiril Bounds of New-Tork^ were Maryland on 
ihQ South'.^ the Main Land, as far as could be difco* 
ver'd, iVeftward \ the Great River of Canada^ North- 
njard ^ and New-England^ Eafiward, It now is re- 
duced into a much narrower Conipafs ^ for King 
Charles IL having given this Tra£l of Land to the 
Duke of York^ by a Charter, dated the 12th of 
Marchj 1 66 \, the Duke made a Grant of part of it 
to Under-Proprietprs, who call-d it Eafi and Wefi- 
Jerfey^ which are now its Limits in the IFefi and 
South : On the North *tis bounded by Long-Ifland ^ 
and on the Eafi by New-EngLmd : Hiidfon's River di- 
vides it from thejerfeys \ and a Line drawn between 
Rys z.v^d^^Greenwicb'^i^^'i^tdXQS'xt (torn New-England z 


The Hifiory of New- York. 119 

5o that the whole Province on the Continent is not a- 

bove 20 Miles over, but 'tis 120 in Length ^ and what 

was properly call'd Nova Belgia : It lies between 40 

and a half, to 42 Degrees, 50 Minutes, Northern 

Latitude. The Climate is more temperate than that 

of New'Englandy and the Soil fo fruitful, tint OT[)Q'^hcClmass 

BuQiel of Engiijf) Wheat has produc'd a Hundred, '^^^ '^o/V. 

which v^ras a fair Temptation for the Englljl) to de- 


, Accordingly in the Beginning of the firft Dutch'^f^^'^^^' 

jWars after the ReftGrationy King Charles the lid, who !'^ ^^^«^« 

ad beftow'd it on his Brother, fent a Squadron of^^* 
IMenofWar, and fbme Land -Forces, under the Com- 
mand of Sir Robert Car^ to recover it. Sir Robert 
arriv'd there in the latter End of the Year id'54. Ian- "^^^^^l 
ded 3000 Men uipon Manahattan l(\2ind^ and march'd 
directly to New-Amflerdam. The Governour of the 
ijjTown was an old Soldier, and had loft a Leg in 
the Service of the States •, but being furpriz'd at the 
[unexpe£led Attack of a formidable Enemy, and not 
I knowing th.Q certain Numbers of the &^i//^, he was 
I prevailed upon by the Inhabitants to furrendsr. Sir 
j Robert Car^ by Order from the King, had proclaim'd, 
ithat all who fiibmitted to the Crown of England^ 
ihould be receiv'd into his Prpte£lion *, and the Citi- 
1 zens of New- Amsterdam fearing to be plundered, and 
outed of their PolTeiiions, if they refiiled, perfwaded 
tki^ Governour to deliver up the Town •, vy^hich they 
could not have defended againft the Befiegers, if they 
had brought their Artillery to bear: And thus this 
Place fell into t\it Hands of the EngliJJ} \ *Twas hand- 
fomely built by the Dutchy of Brick and Stone, co- The Tom 
ver'd' with red and black Tile*, and the Land being ''(New? 
high, it affords an agreeable Prorpe£l tothe Spefta-"^'^^^* 
tors at a Diilance. Above half the Dutch Inhabitants 
remain'd, and took an Oatii of Fidelity to the King 
of England, Thofe that remov'd, had Liberty to car- 
ry off their EiFefts, and their Places were foon fup- 
ply'd by EftgliJ}}. There are now above 800 Houfes, 
the meaneft worth ico /. in this City, which for the 
Strength and Pleafantnefs of its Situation, may com- 
pare with any in the World. Tis governed by a 
Mayor, Recorder, Alderman, and Sheriff, Common 
Council, GonihbkSj and other inferioiir Officers^ in 

I- \, laiita- 

120 The Hipry of New-York. 

Imitation of the Government of the Corporations in 
England. It has but one Parifh Church, but that is 
large and beautiful, and the Minifter has loo/. a 
Year fettled on him. The Council-Houfe is a fair 
Edifice. James-Fort is a ftrong, regular Fortification,^ . 
and commands the River. Befidesthis, it has a Wall 
to the Land, mounted with Ordnance, andfeemsto. 
siefy the Power o^ French or Indians, There is a Prin- 
ting-Prefs in this Town. The Ifland it ftands in, is 1 4. 
Miles long, but is not of a proportionable Breadth. 
It was inhabited by a Nation call'd the Manhattes^ who 
were more feirce and barbarous than the other Indiam. 

Thefe the Hollanders difpoilefling, had an Appear- ' 
?nce of Right to lucceed them \ but Arms decided the^; 
Difpute much more to the Advantage of the Englijh:^^ 
who IS Days after the Surrender of New-Amjier' 
dam^ to which City was now given the Name of 
New^Torh^ marched under Colonel Nicholls^ up.the 
Country to Orange Fort, which flood on Hudfon\. 
Kiver, 5 Miles below where the Eaftern Branch parts^ 
irom the Southern, and runs up almoft to the Lake of 
the Iroquois^ 200 Miles wdthin Land, This Fort 
Colonel A^/cW/j eafily reduc'd, and calFd it New At- 
hany^ the Duke of York's Scotch Title. Here is always 
a Garrifon of two Companies of Soldiers. 

About 50 Miles above New-York is KingfloHy a very 
pretty Town^ containing 200 Families, Englijh and 
Butch. Tis well built, and popular tor its Bis- 
nefs. ^ . ^ ^ 

Twenty Miles ^hovt Albany^ is ScheneBada^z Town 

^^ijiint^^jcmumfc^ {.o wnicn It nas Deen orten compar „ 
Here _are hear 100' Houfes. The Inhabitants are 
part tngltfi, and part Dmck This Place was dellroy'd 
m th^ beginning of the l^te Vv^ar with France^ by th^ 
French Indians^ who mafJacred the People, fparing nei- 
ther Age nor Sex ^ {ixiz^ which thereVa Fort built to 
prevent a Surprize. - 
Indian ^ ^ Between this Fort and NewYorl feveral Indian ' 
Nmscts^. Nations dwelt :^ as the Machmowomij the PachamL^ 
thQ Wcoran^' thQ Mankikamy '^nd next them, th^] 
Maguasj WeflwarcJ gf Fort Orange, The Country 
all along is very fruitful Th^' Indians^ who are not'; 

The Hiftory of New- York. 1 2 r 

very induftrious, polTefs it all, ^xcspt Sopors- Kiii^ on 
the Weftern Shoar of Hudforfs River. And the Dutch 
had no Plantations there, as the Englifl? have Once, tho 
the Inland Country is flill thin of Settlements. 

On the Coafts is the County of Wefi-Cheflery in 
which are the Towns and Parifhes of We^f^ and 
Eaft-Chefter^ Tonkers^ Be Cham^ the Parifh of Rye^ 
StonehrooL Mmeremck and Bedford, The County 
Town and Parifh of Richmond. Sir Robert Car having fowns 
reduced all on the Eaft Side of Hudfon's River, took 
in the Town and Fort of Arafapha and Delaware-- 
Caftle, on the Weji Side, without lofing a Man. 
Staten I/land^ at the Mouth of Raritan River, and 
Long J/land^ followed the Fate of the other Towns. 
Thus the Engllfi oblig'd the Dutch to fubmit every 
where to them. Col Nkholls vfSis appointed Gover- Cofoftel 
nour of the Province of New-York^ and he conclu- Nicholls 
ded a League between the Inhabitants and the Jn'<^ovsrnoK 

Before we enter further into the Hiftory of this 
Colony, 'twill be requifite to fay fomething of Long 
Jjfland^ which is part of the Settlement. Tis 100 Long 
Miles long, but 12 broad, and was inhabited by thQlfland. 
Englifiy before Sir ^^^^r^ C^r came thither ^ for King C. Mat. 
James having made a Grant of it to William Alexander^ 
harl ot Sterltng^ Proprietor of New-Scotland^ the In- 
habitants ot Xj/^^ in New-England^ finding themfelves 
Itreighten'd m Ground, refolv'd to remove thither by 
Confent of the Lord Sterling-^ with whofe Agents 
they made an Agreement, for a Part of the liland to 
plant and fettle in. They then went thither, about 
100 Families m all, with Mr. Pierfon their Minifter 
and began to plant at the Wefi End of the Ifland :, but 
mii Dutch of New Amfterdam gave them fuch Diftur- 
bance, that they deferted their firft Plantation, and 
fettled at the £^^ End, entering into an Ecclefiaftical 
and Civil Combination, for the Gqvernment of their 
little Colony. They built a Town, and call'd it 
bouthampton j where it remains ftijl, and is part of the 
Province of NewM, being annex'd to it when the 
Enghjh recover d the Dominion of this Ifland, and the 
Adjacent Continent. Out oi Southampton the Parifn of 
^ndge^ Hampton was lately taken. The Weji. End of 
file iiiand is now Queens County in ^ this Province: 


122 TkHiflory of New-YorL 

The Town and Parifh of Jamaica^ the Town and 
Parifli of Hempjied^ Confiahle Town, Vtrecht^ and Ci- 
thers of lefsNote, belong to Queens Coxxnt^. 

The whole Ifiand is furnifh'd with convenient Har- 
bours j and off the Coaft, particularly the Eafiern^ 
lie feveral Iflands, but none of them inhabited. Sta- 
ten liland, at the Weft End, is i o Miles long, and $ 
or 6 over. The chief Plantations upon it are Billops^ 
at the South End \ and Palmers at the North : On 
the Eafiern Point is Dover ^ another fmall Settle- 
\ In Long Ifiand there were alfo fome French Inhabi- 

tants;^ but now they are either remov'd, or fubjeft to 
the i^ngUfl) Government. The Dutch made as good 
Earthen Ware here as they do at Delft \ and fome 
write, that it did not fall ihort of China -^ but the 
Englijh do not come up to them in that Manufafture, 
2/^^ rr<?iei The Trade driven by them, is Fufs, Skins, Tobac- 
co, as good as that of Mar^jland •, Horfes, Beef, Pork, 
Oil, Peafe, Wheat, and all forts ofEf7gli//jGnm^ which 
they fow, and have very good Increafe of it. All other 
t'ruits and Herbs thrive there, together withFlas, 
Hemp, Pumkins, Melons, &c. The Soil being moft 
of it very good. Towards the Middle of the Ifiand 
lies a Plain i6 Miles long, and four broad *, where 
there grows very fine Grafs, which makes extraordi- 
nary good Hay, and is exctllent Pafture for Sheep or 
other Cattel. There is no manner of Rubbifh, Stick 
or Stone to be found upon it ^ and the Place is fo fit for 
Races, that twice a Year the beft Horfes in the Ifiand 
are brought thither to try their Speed, and the Prize 
is a Silver Cup to the fwifteft. 

There are two or three other fmall Plains of about r 
a Mile fquare, which are very beneficial to the neigh- ^ 
bouring Towns.. 

On the South Side of Long I/land^ in the Winter 
lie Store of Whales and Grampujfesj which the Inhabi- 
tants catch in their fmall Boats, arid drive a confidera- 
Me Trade with the Oil. An infinite Number of 
Seals lie all -'if Winter on fome broken' Marfhes, 
Beaches and Bars of Sands. They m^ke an excellent : 
C)il, and wou'd be very advantagious to the People of 
the Cooatryg. if the| fell into an eafier way of, coming 
•at them/ ' ' 

The Hiftory of Ncw-York. I2| 

. The Englifij and others, on the Continent of New-- 

Torky deal with the Indians for the Skins of Elks, 

'\ Defer, Bears, Beavers, Otters, Raccoons, and other 

j rich Furs ^ and in Summer are iupply'd by them, 

\ with Venifon, Fifli and Fowl very cheap. Their 

! other Trade is to Barbadoes and th^ Sugar lilands, 

I with Horfes, Beef and Pork, for which they receive, 

I in Return, Sugar, MelafTes, Rum, &c. They alio 

! have a very profitable Commerce from New-York to 

Madera and the AiLores^ with Pipe Staves and Fifh, 

for- which they load their Ships back with Wine and 

j Brandy ^ and there is fcarce a more advantageous 

I Trade iri all the Englifi Commerce. \ have known a 

j fmall Ship imploy'd in this Voyage, backward and 

forward from New-Tdrl to Madera^ clear the Owners 

above 3 000 /. in lefs than two Years ^ when the firft 

Adventure was not a fixth Part of the Neat Proceed of 

the \^oyage. 

The Proda£lions of the Soil of this Country are 
1^Q fame with that of New England, It has nothing 
peculiar to it felf, and we fhall therefore refer the Rea- 
I cier to that Hiflory concerning this Article. The Soil is soih 
i richer, and the Climate milder ^ lying 2 or 3 De- ' 
! grees more to the -South *, but 'tis here alfo colder in 
Winter, and hotter in Summer, than in th.Q Euro- 
pean Countries of the fame Latitude. 

The Animals, Beads, Birds, Fifh and Fowl, the AnimaK 
creeping Virmin and Infers, are the fame as thofe in 
: New England^ and the Savages fo little different, that 
'tis needlefs to repeat the Defcription of them, but 
becaufe every Nation of the Indians vary in iome- Indians, 
' thing or other ^ we fhall give a fhort Account of , 
thole of New-Torh 

! That their Language is as barbarous as that of thQ 
I New England Indians will appear by XhQ following Ex- 
amples, as, 

The Neck, Nequoykangen^ 

A' Lyon, Synquonmackrggh^ 3cc. And of this dread- 
lul Speech, there are feveral Diaie£ls, according to the 
Difference of the Kingdoms. As for the Perfons of 
thefe Indimsy they are generally handfom and well 
linib'd. By dying or painting their Skin, they ipoil 
their Complexions, which are all Tawny. Their 
Hair is black, Th^y are tx^ld and dextrous in hand- 

124 y^^ Hijiory of N^w-York. 

ling their Bows and Arrows, which are their chief 
Anns. They keep a friendly Correfpondence with 
the Englifi^ whom P^r^ Hennepin^ owns they love 
much better than the French *, and never gave them 
any fuch Dili urbance, as our Countrymen have met 
with in New England and Virginia, They are apt to 
learn all things, and willing to be inftrufled in the 
Chrifiian Religion^ but their PawawSj or Priefts, who 
live by Idolatry, hinder them from embracing it, as 
nmch as poilible •, and by Perfwafions and Threats, 
keep *em in their Diabolical Worfhip. As to their 
Wives, no People in the WorlS make themfelves fo 
eafie in Wedlock, if a Man difiikes his Wife, he turns' 
her off for the leaft Offence that is, and takes another. 
The Woman, in Revenge, carries away her Children 
with her, and the Houfe is rid at once. The Wife, 
while fhe lives with the Husband, may Cuckold him 
without Crime or Scandal *, but then fhe muft ac- 
quaint her Husband, or her Parents , that Ihe has a 
Gallant. They have a very indifferent fort of Maids 
among them, it being lawful and reputable enough 
for their Virgins to be as generous to Mankind as they 
pleafe, before Marriage, provided they keep con- 
ftantly to one Man after it. "When a Woman is 
vnth Child 5 fhe never admits of the Conjugal Em- 
braces till fhe is delivered, and never while fhe gives 
fuck. Belle Confittmey fays a French Author, Onauroit: 
honne grace de Vouhlr prefcher cette doSirine auxfentr^ 
mes de L Europe, Comme on enferoit Ef couth ? Which.' 
becauCe it refle£ls on our European Ladies in this Mat- ; 
ter, I fhall leave in the Language I found it.^ ; 

The Indians pay a great Refpeft and Obedience to 
tKeir Kings : They believe the Tranfmigration of 
Souls, and know as much, and talk as learnedly of 
the Creation of the World, as their Neighbours. 
They are everlafting Dancers, given to all manner of 
American Sports and Gaming, and will play away all" 
they have at Cards. They have certain Feftivals, or 
Times fet apart for their Paftimes. They don't take ; 
much Care in their Drefs, in which they differ little 
from the New-England Indians. Their Lodgings and i 
Way of Living, are very homely. They are almoft 
always at War. They feldom give any Qjarter but 
to Women and Children, whom they keep for Slaves. 

■■■■•■ :Tis 

The Hijiory of New- York. 125 

'Ti$ a bloody Battle with 'em, if 8 or 10 Men are 
kiird ; and a mighty Prince who has a hundred Sub- 
Jeds fit to bear Arms, of which there are, in all, 
fcarce 1000 Indian Men in the Territory of New-Torkj 
whereas there are 7 or 8 times as many Englijh, We 
muft now give an Account how the Colony advanc'd 
from its its prefent Maturity, 

Colonel Nicholls cgntinu'd Governour, till about sir Ed- 
the Year 1583, when Sir Edmund Androsy of whommundAn- 
we fhall have often Occafion to fpeak, was appointed dros Go- 
his SuccefTor. The Reputation of this Settlement en- '^smour. 
creafmg with its Trade, it became a populous and 
thriving Plantation, in which Condition it remains 
to this Day. CoL Dmgan fucceeded Sir Edmund f. . ^ 
Andros^ in the Government of NewTorL This * 

Gentleman was a ^^j«^« Catholick, and King James^Znu^^ 
the lid put him into this Place : He was an old Soldier, 
having been long in the King of Spam*s Service, and 
that gave him fuch an Averfion to the French^ as 
hindered his betraying the Province to them, ei- 
ther in King Jameses Reign, or after the Revolution. 
Before the late King abdicated the Government, he 
confented that French Priefts fhould come from Qulhec 
m Canada^ and have free Leave to make what Converts 
they could in the Province ofNew-Tork : Accordingly 
they came •, but Col. Dungan immediately ordered them 
to be gone, faying. Their Defign wastogain over the Eng- 
iilh and thepr Allies to the French Inter efi^ and not to the 
French Religion j wherefore, like a Man of Honour, he 
drove them out of his Province. The French King 
complam'dof him to King James, who was highly di^ 
pleas'd ^ and 'tis thought, CoL Dmgan would have loft 
his Government, if his Highnefs the Prince oWranss 
had not been declared King. This Governour was 
afterwards Earl of Limerick, and is frill living in 
Ireland. There happened nothing extraordinary ia 
his Time: Vox XhQ Indians giving th^ Inhabitants no 
Dilturbance, there were no Wars to create Aftion, 
and difturb the peaceable Commerce of tht People 

After the Revolution, Col. Dmgan was recall'd it 
being inconfiftent with a Protefiant Government' to 
jfemploy Fopijb Officers. The War broke out in thofe 
i^arts almoft as foon as in Europe, between the Endifb 
m(X French^ and their Confederates, We find mention 


t26 The Hifiory of ^tw^York. 

made of an Expedition, undertaken by the Englifl? a- 
gxinik thQ French^ hy La Homan-^ but that Author ha5 
not done us Juftice •, neither muft we exped that ever 
the French will own they were beaten : He fays, the 
Englifi came within a Day or two's March of Quihecy 
and then returned without doing any thing. The 
Truth of the Fa6: is : In the Year 1 699. Col. Feter 
Schuylery with 300 Englifij and^soo Fndians^ niarch'd 
from Fort Albany up to. QuiheCy 400 Miles from New- 
Torkj and the French Governour oppos'd him with no 
lefs than 1$ Companies of regular Troops, and as ma- 
ny Indians : Notwithftanding the Inequality of their 
Numbers, Col. Schuyler charg'd the Enemy with equal 
Bravery and Succefs, routed them, kill'd s o Officers,: 
and 300 Soldiers with little or no Lofs ^ but being not 
ftron^ enough to attempt the Forts, he contented 
himfelf with his Vi£lory, and retreated, A full Re- 
lation of this A£lion was printed at New-Tork, The 
Fr^?7£r^airo made an Expedition againft the Englijhy 
furpriz'd ScheneBada^ burnt the Town, and murder'd 
the Inhabitants. 
Colo'/Jd King William appointed Col. Fletcher to fucceed tli^ 
Fletcher Earl of Lifnerick in this Government, and he held it 
^(iy&rmur.^.^-^^^2l Years. He had a Garrifon of regular Troops, 
in the City of NewTork, to prevent any Surprize 
from the French and their Confederates the Hurons, 

In his Time, A,D. 1696-, the Count de Fromenac^ 
Governour ot Canada^ having a Defign againft 5ck- ^ 
neBada and Albany^ in this Province, and intending 
to dra\^ off the five Nations of Indians^ inhabiting, 
the neighbouring Parts, from the Friendfhip they 
liv*d in with the Englifl)^ left Qmbec about the 1 6th of I 
Jme^ and coming to Mount-Real^ met there ^000 French^ 
and Canada Indians^ and being provided with Canoos,!, 
Stores of all forts, and other NecefTaries for this Ex- 
pedition, he advanc'd by the River of the Iroquoife. 
towards New-Tork, After a long March of above i oo- 
Leagues, he came into the Country of the Oranda- 
giiefe^ one of thofe five Nations, and furprifing them, 
with fo great a Power, deftroyM one of their Caftles, 
burning their Corn and Provifions. Colonel H^/-c/:7^r^ 
having Notice of this Invafion, march'd with thee 
Engliflj Soldiers, then in Garrifon at New-Tori^ a Bo-' 
dy of the Militia, and fomeof the Indian Allies, to- 

The Hifiory of New-York, i gy 

put a Stop to the Progrefs of the French. The Count 
d€ Frontenac hearing of his Approach, made a hafty Re- 
treat. Upon which, a Party of the Upper Nations of 
jthe Indlam^ Friends to the EngUjh^ who were 
i coming to their Relief, attack'd his Rear, and kilFd 
I feveral of the French ^ who were not only difap- 
j pointed in their Projed, but fuffered a great Lofs« 
\ The Iroquoife were all exa{perated againft them, by 
I this Invafion, and defir'd Col. Fletcher to nieet the 
: Chief >f their Nations at Albany^ to concert Meafures 
I with them, for carrying on the War againft the Com- 
mon Enemy, and revenge themfelves on the Count 
de Frontenac for invading their Country, CoL 
Fletcljers SuccelTor wbls CoL Slaughter, 

*Twas in the Interregnum^ if we may be dXloWd Cohvel 
toufe that Word, between this and CoL F/e^ci[7fr's Slaughter 
Governments, that Col. Z^y?0^ took on iiim tha.t^ovsrnom 
Office, without any Commiilion from England. He 
was of the Fadion that always pretend to be more 
Zealous for the publick Good than others. And fuch 
Pretences never want Partizans. The Number of 
the Magiftrates of this Province, who lided with him, 
were equal, at leaft, to the other ^ and cou'd he have 
maintain'd the Power he had ufurp*d, till he had 
procured Remonftrances and AddrelFes, to be fent 
from them to England^ he doubted not he fhould be 
able to get his Authority confirmed. His Hopes, in- 
deed, feem'd vain and chimerical. F'^i^j^o Prince 
will ever think that Perfon worthy of Pwer, who 
aflumes it without his Confent, let his Caufe, or his 
Merit, be what they will. My. Jacob Mtlburn was 
his great Friend in this Affair, and very inftrumentai 
in Securing the Fort. But when Col. Slaughter ar r iv'd 
with the King's Commiffion, he got into the Fort by 
a Stratagem, feiz'd LeJIey the Governour, and Mllburnj 
and order'd them to be try'd for High Treafon, for 
holding the Fort out againft him, and killing one of 
his Men ^ he being the King's Lieutenant, The 
Judges and Jury made no great Difficulty* of condem- 
ning them, and they were accordingly condemned, 
and executed as Tray tors. The Governour, Slaugh- 
ter^ proceeded a little too haftily in this Aflkir, and 
no doubt would have been fent for to England^ and 
perhaps ferv'd as Le/ley was, had he not dy'd in New- 
Tor k^ 

128 The Wfiory of New- York. 

ICorky where hisFatlion was but too much encourag'd, 

efpeciaUy after the Lord C—'s Arrival. Slaughter dying, 

Jofeph Jofeph Dudley y Efq*, o^ Ne^-England^ held this Govern- 

. Dudley ment till the Arrival of the Earl of Bellomont^ whom his 

Govefnour.Mz^Q^y^ King Williamj had madeGovernour of-Nifn?- 

England and New-Tcrk, The Lord Bellomont intended 

to rgfide at New-Tork, it being the pleafanteft City in 

the Englijh America •, but when he arrived at l^evo^ 

England^ the Affairs of that Province required his Pre- 

fence, and he appointed Col. Dudley to be his Deputy 

at New-Tori^ and after him Mr. Nanfan, 

Inthe Year 17005 the Deputy-Governour fet up a 
Poft-Office in Long I/land^ which runs twice a Week, 
form Northfleet to Nmlehedj Egerton^ AJhford^ Hun^ 
tingtony Oyfler Bay^ Fluflnng^ Newton and * Bedford^ 
Mr. Nan- where the Mail is carry 'd over in the PalTage-Boat 
fani z><j-to NeW'Torh He alfo appointed a Packet-Boat, 
putf Go- to go from Northfleet to StonitoUy in New-England^ ve-^ 
'nefnour^ ry convenient for the Trade and Correfpondence be- 
tween the two Colonies. About the fame Time, 
1000 of the Scots J who had fettled at Darien^ put 
^nto New-Torkj and took their Paflage Honiewards, 
after they had abandoned that Settlement, but the De- 
puty- Governour refus'd to ailift them, pretending he. 
cou'd not do it in the Abfence of the Earl of Bellomont^? 
who was then at Bofion. A Library was eredled, this 
year, in the City of New-Tork : And the Dutch Inh^r} 
bitants built Mills to faw Timber^ one of which^ 
wou'd do ifiore in an Hour, than 50 Men in 2 Days.f 
The Earl of Bellomont fent over a very Loyal Addrefs, ; 
from this Province, which wasprefented to the King, 
by Col. Byard^ their Agent, in London^ who had the 
Honour to kifs the King's Hand. His Majefty, in 
Jmiej 1700, appointed William Atwoody Efq*, to be 
Chief Juftice of the Province of NewTork ^ and he>' 
held that Office till the Arival of the Lord Cornbury^, 
Son of the E. of Clarendon^ who was made Governour' 
of this Province, on the Death of the Earl of Bellomont, 
In the Year 1701, His Lordfhip remov'd thither, 
with his Lady and Family, and has refided there ever 
fince. He remov'd Mr. Atwood from being Chief 
Juftice, and made other Alterations in the Govern- j 
ment. The Party that efpous'd. Col. Le/ley'% Caufei 
continn'd itill, and Mr. Atwood fell in with them, as 


The Hifiory of New-York. 129 

indeed did many good Engliflmen, They were charged 
iVith favouring the Dmchj and they charg'd their 
Enemies with the fame Partiality for the French \ but 
we will not enter into this Difpute, which caus'd a 
great deal of Trouble both in New-York and Eng- 
land. The Lord Cornbury treated all Le/leys Friends 
roughly enough, and carry'd it with a high Hand 
This Lord was afterwards Governour of New- 
Jerfey^ for he had not been long at New-Tork before 
he received Advice of King William's Death, and Let- 
ters from the Lord Commiirioners of Trade, with 
one inclos'd from the Privy Council, containing Di- 
reaions to proclaim her preient Majeily, which v/as 
;done with great Solemnity, the izth of Jime^ 1702. 
His Lordihip was, on this Occafion, attended by the 
Mayor, Aldermen and Common Council •, the Clergy, 
Gentlemen and Merchants ofNewTork *, and the next 
Day having alfo receiv'd a CommiiTion from Qaeeti 
Jnne^ to be Governour of the Jerfeys^ he went over 
the Water to fee the like Proclamation made there. 
My Lord continues in the Government of thefe Pro- 
vinces to this Day. 

It was impofiible at this diftance from the feve- 
u\ Places we write of, to keep exaaiy to the Me- 
thod we propos'd to our felves •, and having, fmce 
the Writing the above Account of New-Torky re- 
ceiv'd further Information from a Gentleman of 
good Credit, we now communicate it to the Rea- 

The City of New-Tork is thoagKt to contain near 
1000 Houies, moil of them very well built. The 
Great Church was built .in the Year isg^. Col. 
Fletcher being Governour, by the charitable Con- 
tributions of himfelf, Col. Nkholfon^ Governour ol 
Virginia^ and other weli-difpos'd Chriilians. This 
Church is dedicated to lh.Q Holy Trinity. There 
J are alfo a Dutch Church, a French Church, and a Lu- 
\thcran Churchy and a Free-fchool procured to be ere£l- 
Ud by the prefent Governour. The Minifter of the 
j EngliJI) Church is thQ Reverend Mr. V/illiam refey. The 
I City has a County belonging to it. Forthevvhole 
I Province of iV^ip-r^r/^ is divided into lo'Counties f, five 
i of them, 'vi^.Albany^Vlj^er^Dutchefs^Orange^ and King's 
f County, are inhabited by xh^ Dutch, and Perions 
' K of 

ijo The Mifiory of New-York. 

of Dutch Extraction. The five other Counties are^ 
Queen's County, Sufolk County, Chefter County, 
MichmQnd County, zxidi New-Torh 

The Walls before-niention'd in the Defer iption i 
of this City were {landing when *twas call'd ^fn?- - 
Amjlerdanij but its chief Defence now is Anne Fort, , 
and two new Batteries, one on each Side of th^ '. 
Narrowsy to fecure the Place by Sea. The Fort is in i 
good Order*, and there are now two' Companies of J 
Foot in Garrifon in it, the Governour^s and Captain 
T^ter Matthews's, 

We have before made mention of the Town of ( 
Albany, There is a ftrong Stone Fort begun by the \ 
Lord Cornhury^ in the room of the Old Fort, which^ l 
was only ftockado'd. • The Town of Albany is moftf 
ly inhabited by t\\Q Dutch '^ it is near 150 Miles front i 
New-Torh The Province being above 170 Miles m 1 
I^ength, our former Computation was too fhott. 4 
Her Majefty has been gracioufiy pleas'd to fend a Mi- * 
nifter here *, and the Reprefentatives for this Couri- f, 
ty in the AfTembly, defir'd they might have a Churchr 1 
oL England Pallor there, tho the Inhabitants are ge- 
ner?viiy JJvtch, Here the Governour often has Con- 
ferences with the Indian Kings ^ and a famous one 
was holden in the Year 1 702. my Lord Cornhvry being ^ 
prefent, as alfo Col. Feter Schuyler^ Major Di^' 
Wejjels^ Commiilioners for treating with the Indians^ 
John Bleecher^ Efqj Mayor of New-Tor k^ J. Aheel^ , 
Efq, Recorder, John Roofeboom^'ECq:,, Alc^erman,, 
David Schuyler J Efq*, Alderman, John Schtfyler^ EfqVi 
Alderman, and Mr. Richard Levingfion^ Secretary fotc 
Indian Affairs. Hllletie van Olinda^ an old Dutcy,? 
Woman, was Interpreters. The fiifl that had Audi- 
ence were 2 Sachems of tht Canada Indidns^ fiveSa-; 
chems of the Iw^ghtwights and Tionondade Indians jihQn;^ 
the^ms of the five Naiions, in Confederacy witk.-j 
the Englifi^ the Oncydes^ the Onomages^ ihs Cayovges^,,, 
the S'.nnekss^2S\A the Alaqua^ •, where mutual Prefents,* 
were made, and Affairs of Trade fettled. Here are* 
two Companies in^jarriibn, Lieutenant Governour ' 
Richard 1(1 goldshyh^ and Captain /'F^t7?zj'sij and ihe, 
Garriion is ofteiV rcinfgrc'd by Detachments from ; 


The Hijiory of New- York. t j i 

At ScheneHaduy of which we have already fpoken, 
is an old Fort, out of Repair, and th^ Pallifadoes ve» 
ry rotten. The Garrifon here is Part of that at 
AlharTy- This Place is much more populous than be- 
fore the French deftroy*d it. Other Forts are on 
the Frontiers, as the Half^moon^ Nefiigatm^ and 

Indeed the Englifi? cannot be too careful of th^ 
Defence of their Frontiers here, confidering what a 
powerful Enemy they have at Canada'^ and 'tis faid the 
Expedition lately undertaken by Monfieur Herher- 
ville againft Nevis^ &c, was intended againft New^ 
York : For when Mr. Nanfan was Deputy Go- 
vernour, a French Man of War, as w^e are informed, 
ivas fuffer'd to enter th^ Harbour, which the Captain 
Drder'd to be founded, and gave Information of it 
to the Court of France, The Stores at Nem-Tork 
were in {uch a Condition, that the Inhabitants were 
irery glad they had no want of any ^ for had they 
been put co the Trial, they doubted whether they 
fhould have been able to have made fo good a Defence 
is they would otherwife have done. 

We muft defire the Gentlemen of NewTork not 
:o expeft that we fhould efpoufe their Faftions : If 
Are have been betray'd by ibme Perfons to {p^k too 
favourably of Lefiey's from their MiCreprefentations, 
ive fhall not rake into the Afhes of the dead, and 
ifFront my Lord Bdlomonfs Memory, out of Com- 
plaifance to others. 

We have been informed, lince the lirft Part of this 
Account of Nem-Tork was written, that Col. Le/lefs 
tlfurpation happen'd before" Col. Fletcher's Govern- 
ment, and confequently that my Lord Bellomom fuc- 
ceeded Col. Slaughter ^ but the Fa£l is true, and as 
to Chronology, if we fometimes err, 'tis the Fault 
of fuch as undertook to furnifh us with Memoirs : 
We fpar'd no Pa;ins to have the bed J and ths 
World will fee, by the Names of the Gentlemen, 
from whom we had our Informations, that we could 
Bot have better Authorities. 

Kingston lies between Albany and New-Tork^ oxi 
i^he Weft- fide of t}iQ River. The Houfesare ftragling, 
bxcept aboul loo, which compofe the main Town. 
M the County of If^efl-Chefier^ we muil note one 

K 2 PariSi 

IJ2 " The Hifiory of Ncw-Yovk. 

Parifh at leafl, that of Decham^ is not yet laid out, " 
and perhaps the Name is miftaken. There's but one^ 
Church in this County, at Wefi-Chefler Town, butj; 
there's a fettled Maintenance for two Minifters, at.l 
50 /. yearly each y one for IVcJi-Chcfier^ of which 
Mr. Bartcn is Reftor, and one for Rye, 

We have .nothing more to fay of Richmond Coun-. 
ty and Town, but that it has an Allow^ance for a Mi- 
nifter at 40 /. a Year. h 

If we take another View of Long-Ifland^ we muft 
correft an Error in its Situation, which is a Print- 
Fault, for 'tis South-Eaft from New-Tork^ as New^ 
^ England is North-Eall. The Uland is 150 Miles: 
long, and contains Queens County, Svffolk County, 
and Richmond County. 'Tis fometimes call'd NaJJau'- 
Ifiand. In Qveen'% County are two Churches, fup- 
ply'd with incumbants. Jamaica^ of w^hich the Re- 
verend Mr. William Vrquhart is Miniiler, he has 50 /. 
a Year, by Subfcription, from the Torkfinre Clergy, 
and 15 /. foi* Books^. The Town confifts of about 
40 Houfes. Thg other Church is at Hempftead^ o£i 
which the Reverend Mr. John Thcma^s is Re6lory^ 
vmo has the fam.e Income from England^ rais'd by 
the Society for propagating the Gofpel, as Mr. Vt" 
quhart has, and both of them are allow'd 60 L a 
Year a piece in New-Torh, 

Tis in the Plain near this Town, caird thence 
Hempftead Plain, that the Races are generally run ^ 
and the Breed of Horfes being famous here, the. 
Militia Regiment in this County is Horfe. 

Svffolk County has two Towns in it. Oyjhf) 
Bay, where are 50 Houfes •, and in Huntington as* 
many, but no Church built. There are abundance 
of DilTenters, Independants ^v^^ Quakers. 

Having nothing more to lay of the Hiftory of A^<?rp-' 
Torli^ we fhall proceed to that of the Jerfeys^ havingj 
iirft given- a Lift of the Chief Officers, Civil an3( 

The Right Honourable Edward Lord Vifcount 
Cornbury^ Governour, 


The Hijhry of New -York. 



y Counfellors. 

Peter Schvyler^ Elq*, - 
. William Lawre'ace^ Eiq^ 
, Gerardus Beckman^ Eiq^ 
Rip van Dara^ Elq:, 
Caleb Heathcot^ Efq^ 
Thomas Wenham^ Efq, 
Willian van Ranflau^ Efq^ 
Ro^r Mompeffon^ Efq, 
John Barb arie^ Efq*, 
Adolphus Phillips^ Efq-, j 

Chief Juftice and Judge h^vozit^^Roger Mompepn^Ef% 
Second Judge, Robert Mllward^ Efq*, 
Attorney General, Sampfon Shelton Broughton^ Eiq^ 
Secretary, George Clark j Efqj 

The Names of the ASSE M B LY. 

'William NlcollSy Efq-, Speaker. ^ 
Stephen de La^^cey^ Efq^ Kilian van Renfalaer^ Eiq, 

'Henry Beekman^ Efq, 
irhomas Carton^ ECq'-y 
^ynderp Schuyler^ Efq°^ 
Ihomas Codrington^ Efq'^ 
^ohn Jackfon^ Efq*, 
Matthew Howel^ E{q°, 
JohnAbeel, Efq*, 

y^/?^ Stillwell^ Efq*, 
Abraham Lakeman^ Efq^, 
Jofiah Himtj E(q^ 
7tfj%>^ Purdy^ Efq*, 
l'Fi!7//^;?3 J^/V/^f, Efq, 
Daniel White head j E fq ', 
y^/?;^ ^'^;^ Cortlandp^ Efq*, 

£^i/^rr Banker^ Efq^ 

Clerk of the AfTemblyj Mr. Gabriel Ludlow. 

The Militia Regiments are commanded by the follow- 
ing Colonels. 
New-Tori County, CoL W.Paretree^M^^yox of the City. 
Suffolk County, Col. Smith. 
Kings County, Col. Beekman, 
I Albany County^ Coh Schuyler, 
\^Queens County, a Regiment of Horfe, Col. Willet. 

j - Regular Troops, 4 Companies, 100 Men each. 
\j Company, commanded by the Lord Om^z/ry. ^ 
^: 2 Company, by the Lieut, Govern. Ric, Ingoldsby^ Efq, 
J 3 Company, byCap. ]tl^^f/;?.f. 
'' 4 Company, by Cap. Peter Matthews, 
Engineerj Mr* Reldknap, 






O F 



HIS Country, before the Surrender made byj 
the late Proprietors of the Government, inji 
to Her prefent Majefty's Hands, was divided! 
into two dillin^l Provinces, but as 'tis now under one^ 
Governour, and one Council ^ fo we give it but one 

The firft Difcoverersof this Country were the £»g»i 
lijh ^ and the firfl of them Captain Hudfon, Tis in- 
cluded in Nova-B^lgla^ by Mr. Belaet. The Indi* 
g€n<z^ or firft Inhabitants of this Territory, were the 
Naratkongij on the North Side of Raritan River \ 
The Minquaas^ the Capitanaffes^ the Gacheos^ and th§ 

^1; Senneaas on the South. The latter inhabited the 
Country up almoft as high as the Falls of the River, 
The firfl E-urcpsam that letrled here were the Swedes^ 

Robbi. who had three Towns, Chriftma^ call'd by hdians^ An- 
dcficliaj Etfimburgh and Cottonvurg. Their Settle- 
ments were chiefly on ih^ South fide of the River, and 
on th-Q Frontiers of Tenpdvania^ oppcfite to 
which Province there's a Place, to this Day, caiVd 
'roit Elfimhyrgh, But t)riZ Svcedes mnde very little of 
their Plantation. And ilit Dutch^ always induftrious,^ 
in their Trade, work'd them fo far out of it \ XhsXX 
Berghe?2^ the Northern Part of New-Jerfey^ was almoft : 
entirely planted by the Hollanders, King Charles 11. . 
whoj like his PredecefTors, iook'd upon the Continent : 


The Hijiory of New- Jerfey. 135 

of America^ from Canada to Florida^ to be his Right, 
incerted this Traft in the Grant he made to the Duke 
of Tork^ the 1 2th of March^i 66i^. But the Engliflo never 
^ttled to the South of Hudfon's River, on that fide 
Maryland^ till feveral Years after the Dnke had in-^ 
vefted this Province in John Lord Berkly^ and Sir 
George Cartarett^ by the Nan|^ o^ Nova C^^farea j their 
Charter bears Date the 24.?^ of June^ 166 j^ : The 
Lord BerUys Aflignee, Sir George Cartarett agreed to 
divide the whole Country into two Parts. Eaft New-^ 
Jerfey^ or that Part which borders on New-Tork^ fell 
to Sir George Cartarett iy 2J\^Weft-Jerfey^ or that Part 
which borders on Penfylvania^ to the Lord Berkly« 
But before we enter farther into the Hiftory of thele 
two Provinces, it will be convenient to give a Geo- 
graphical Defcription of them, that the Reader may 
have a better Idea of the Places we fpeak of. 

NeW'Jerfey contains all that Country, to ufe the 
Words of the Patent, lyl/7g to the Wefiward of Long- 
Ifland ^«^ Manliattas-Ifland, or New- York, and bound- ^q^^^.^ 
?d m the Eafty Part by the main Sea^ and ptrt by Kud- 
FonV^^V^r, and extended Southward to the mam Ocean^ 
U ft^r as Cape May, at the Mouth of Delaware River \ 
mi to the NorthwardjOs far as the Northermo ft Branch of 
the f aid Bay or River of Delaware, which is 41 Degrees 
and 40 Minutes of Latitude^ and croJ]ing over thence in 
a flreight Line to Hudfon*^ River ^ m 41 Degrees of La-f 
titude ', which faid Trdh of Land was then caiPd Nova 
Caefaria, or New-Jerfey, by all •, and thus we fee it 
has the main Sea on the South Eaft^, the KivQtDelaware 
to the Weft, Hudfin's River to the Eaft, the main 
Land to the North, and lies between ^9 and 40 Degrees 
of North Latitude : It extends it felf in Length on 
jthe Sea Coafts, and along Hudfon's River about 120 
(Miles 5 and is almoft as broad as long where *tis broad- 
eil:. We muft now take fome Notice of the two Pro-? 
vinces diilinftly. 

The bigged and beft inhabited of thefe was Eaft- „ 
Jerfiyy which extended Eaft ward and Northward, all T^^Lr 
along the Sea Coaft and ii/^^^Tt^^'s River, from Little •* ^^ 
fyg Harbour to that Part of Hudfon's River, which 
'is in 41 Degrees of Northern Latitude •, and South- 
ward and Weftward is divided from Weft-Jerfey by a 
line of. Partition J paffingfrom Eg^ Harbour to Cr# 

K 4" - -^^'^ 

536 The Hijlory of New-Jerfey. 

wick River, Smiy Brook, and the South Branch of ^^* 
ritan River. It extends in Length along Hudforis Ri- 
ver, and on the Sea Coafts 100 Miles. In Breadth 
"tis very unequal, being in fome Places crowded by- - 
Weji-Jerfey •, but 'tis however the moft valuable Part 
of this Country. It was divided into Counties *^ as' 
Bergen County J on Hudjgn^s River ^ Effex County, 
Middk^x County, on the North Side of Raritan Ri- 
ver -, and Monmouth County on the South. We Ihall 
begin with ' 

Berghen Berghen County. It lies on Hudfon's River over a- 
Ciun^. gainft New-Tork^ and was the firft planted of any part 
of this Traft. This, as w^ell as the other Parts of the 
Jerfeys^is extremely well water'dwath Rivers \ befides 
that ofHudfof7j there are Hackinfack River, Pafatck Ri- 
ver, and feveral lefs Streams. The chief Town is 
Berghen^ and indeed the only Town in the County,. 
for the reft of it is 0^/^Plantations. Within the 
Precinfts of this Townfhip, are loooo Acres of Land' 
caft out*, that is, aHign'd over by the Proprietors to 
Tenants in Fee :, and in the County are loooo Acres 
cafl out;* The Town is not very large, however it has' 
3 50 Inhabitants, moll of them Dutch^ who have been- 
lettled there' above 40 Years. In the County are 
reckon'd a like Number of Inhabitants, by which we 
underftand Men,Women,and Children. BerghenTovfn 
ilands on thQ Weftern Point of the Neck of Land, 
which, with States Ifland, forms a Sovnd, 
Ene:£ Effex Cciioty is of Note for Eliz^abeth Town, which 

Cmrt^, lies three Miles within a Creek, oppofite to the Weft 
End of Staten lijand. Here the EngUjh fettled fir ft, 
and this Place lias thriv'd mofr, notwithftanding the 
Endeavours that have been us'd to make a Capital of 
Terth, It has 250 Families in it, and 40000 Acres of 
Ground caft out. Here the Proprietors have a Planta- 
l;ion, v^^hich goes by iat Name of their Farm^ the 
Government of the Provinces raanag*d. Courts kept, 
AiTemblies held, and xki^ greateft Part of the Trade 
of the Colony carry'd on. 

Newark is the moft conipa£l Town in the Jerfeys\ 
it lies 6 or 7 Miles Northward from Ellz^aheth Town, 
confiftsof abca; 100 Families, arid has 50000 Acres of 
Land laid out to be cultivated. The Weftern Parti 
of this ^Connty is water 'd by Baway River ^ upoiw 


The Hijlory of New-Jerfey. i jy 

which is a Saw-Mill \ and Northward is a Ridge of 
Mountains, cali'd the Blew Hills. The next Coun- 
ty, is 

• Mlddlefexy the nioft populous and flourifhing for Middlefex 
its Om Plantations, tho the Capital of the Country, County, 
Terth City, which ftands in it, does hardly yet deferve 
the Name of a Village. In this Divifion of the Pro- 
vince are two Towns : 

Fifcattaway^ which lies about ^ Miles up Raritan 
River. It has 80 Families, and 40000 Acres of 
Land caft out. Seven or eight Miles from hence is 

Woodbridge^^ goodTown on aCreek within xhtSomd^ 
form'd by 5f^ff?/ Ifland and this County. It has 120 
Families, and 30000 Acres of Land laid out for Plan- 
tations. The Weftern Part of Mlddlefex County is 
water 'd by Milfione River, which runs thro' a very 
pleafant and fruitful Country, belonging to Mr. Will. 
Dockwra of London^ to whom that City owes the ufe- 
ful Invention of the Penny-Poft. The Proprietors 
confidering the happy Situation of Terth City, or- 
dered their Agents to ufe their utmoft Endeavours to 
procure Inhabitants t^ remove thither *, hu.t Eliz.abeth 
Town kept them, as 'we fhall hereafter again ob- 

Perth Amhoy takes its Name from James Drvmmond^ 
Earl of Terth^ and ^mhoy Point, on which it ftands, 
'Tis a fweet, wholefome, and commodious Place, at 
the Mouth of the River Raritan^ which runs into San- 
dyhook Bay, able to contain 500 Ships, and is never 
frozen. According to the Proprietors Proje£V, they 
were to fet out fuch a Spot of Ground there, and di- 
vide it into 150 equal Shares, for Purchafers to build 
upon. They referv'd 4 Acres for a Market-Place, and 
three Acres for publick Wharfage. A Town was 
accordingly fet out, and the Scots Proprietors were 
very induftrious to have it built. The Governour's 
HoLife^was one of the firft, and there are now about 
40 Houfes morefcatter'd up and down *, to which is 
l^iven the pompous Name of Ferth City. Two or 
three of thele are Stone Houfes. The whole Plan of 
the Town confifts of 1070 Acres *, and there are two 
good Roads from it to Fifcattaway and Woodbridge, 
But notwithftanding 'tis fo commodious for Tradej^ 
that Ships in one Tide can com^ up to the Port, and 

IjS The Hifiory of NcW'jQvky. 

lie at the Merchants Doors, tho of 3 00 Tun Burthen j 
yet we do not find that Perth City deferves that 
Name better than St. James City in Flrgimay which 
is not Co big as Kemtfi Town in Middlefexj in Eng" 
land, Twas intended there fhould have been a Mar^ 
ket here, but there is now no Occafion for one. All 
alon^ the River Rarltan^ the Country is thick of 
Plantations •<, the chief of which were let out to two 
of the Proprietors, Mr. Robert Barclay^ and Ms, Will. 
Doclwra. From hence v/e crofs the River, and come to 
Monmouth County : Where we firft meet with 
^*^*^ M'iddletcn^ a pretty good Town, conflfting of 100 
^^^ Families, and 30000 Acres of Ground, in what they 
^^^' call here O^^ Plantations- Tis about 10 or 12 Miles 
Qver Land, to the Northward of Shrewsburyy and 2<f 
Miles to the Southward of Pifcattaway, Not far oiF, the 
Shoar winds it felf about like a Hook ^ and, being 
iandy, gives Name to all the Bay. 

Shnvpsbury is the moft Southern Town of the Pro-- 
vinee, and reckon'd the chief Town of the Shire. It 
contains about 160 Families, and 5ocao Acres of Out* 
Plantations belong to its Divillc«i. Tis fituated on 
the Sideof afrefli Water Stream, thence call'd Shrews^ 
bury River, not far from its Mouth. Between this 
Town and Mlddleton is an Iron Work ^ but we da 
not underftand it has been any great Benefit to the ^.• 
Proprietors, Co^, Morris is building a Church at the'' 
Falls. There's a new Town in this County, call'd. 

Freehold^ which has not been laid out, and inha- 
bited long. It does not contain as yet above 40 Fa-^ 
nsilies :^ and as to its Ow^-Plantaiions, we fuj^fe they 
are much the fame in Number with the reft, and may 
confift of about 30000 Acres. 

We have not divided the Counties into Parifhes, 
and that for ^ very good Reaibn, there being none, 
nor indeed a Church in the \vhole Province, worthy 
that Name. But there are feveral Congregations of 
Church of England Men* as at Shrewsbury^ ji?nhoy^ 
]Eliz.rcbeth Town, and Freehold^ whofe Minifter is Mr« 
John Beakj his Income is 6-5 /. a Year \ and a Church 
i^ building at Salem. As for, 

Wejt-Jerfey^ We can only give a general Account 

of it J for it is not divided into Shires, as Eafi-New- 

Jerfey is '^ tho Dr. Cox^ when he was Proprietary, or- 

: ^ ■ - ' '■ •• ^ der'd 

The Hiftory of New- Jerfey. i j 9 

cler*d feven Counties to be laid out*, as Cape-May 
County, Salham County, Gloucefier County, &c, but 
his Succeffors did not go on with his Proje£l. Tho 
Wefi-J^rfey has not fo many Towns, nor is fo well 
planted and inhabited, the Number of its navigable ' 
Creeks renders this Province as commodious for Trade 
as the other. They lie at a convenient Diftance, and 
fonie of them run up a good way into the Country* 

The moft Eafterly Point of Land in Weft-Jerfey^ is 
Cape-May , at the Mouth of Delaware Bay, and over 
jagainft Snffex County, in Penfylvania* The Tra6l of 
Land between this and Little Egg Harbour, which di- 
vides Eaft and Weft New-Jerfey^ goes by the Name of 
Cape-May County ^ but we do not underftand, that 
there is now any other Divifion of this Province ho- 
noured with the Name of a Cowity. 

Here are feveral ftragling Houfes on this Neck of 
Land, the chief of which is Cox'^ Hall \ but there's 
yet no Town. Moft of the Inhabitants are Fiftier- 
jnen, there being a Whalery at the Mouth of the 
Bay, on this as well as the oppofite Shoar. Next to 
Cape-May is Maurice River, between that and Cohen^ 
VLy : 'Tis the biggeft in all the Country. Next to it 
is Cohenzyj a fniall River, but deep and navigable fop 
fmall Craft. Ten or twelve Miles up this River, is 
Cohenzy Town ^ where are about «o Families. From 
Maurice River, the next Stream to Cape-May^ the 
Bav and River of Delaware waters all the South-Eaft, 
South, and South- Weft Part of Wejhjerfey. The 
Plantations, fonie of which are fo clofe, that they 
have afTum'd the Name of a Town, lie all along oa 
that Bay 2iVi^ River ^ and moft of them on Creeks, 

Antioch is a fort of a Town, and has a little Creek 
belonging to it. Next to it, nearer the Mouth of 
Delaware River, is Gibbon's Creek", next, Allowafs 
Creek j and then YottElfimhnrgh^ at the River's Mouth, 
and over a gain ft New-Cafile County, in Peii[ylva?da : 
It formerly belong'd to the Swedes, Near it the Ri- 
ver Salham falls into the Delaware, There's a Town 
about half way up this River towards its Head, from 
whence it takes its Name. *Tis 20 Miles from Cohen- 
zj/j and contains about 120 Families. One of the 
Counties, laid out by the former Proprietary, was 
from this Place call'd Salem^ 

140 "The Hifiory of Nev/-Jcrfey. 

F/;;/'s Point and Town, if it maybe focalFd, lies 
over againft New-Caftle Town. Next to it is Namen 
Creek, then Racoon Creek, then Almon Creek, Low 
Ifland, and Wafs Creek :, the latter oppofite to Chefier^ 
'InFerifyhania •, then 6'r^^f Manto Creek, then Wood- 
berry RivQYfireen Bank^and then Gloucefier Creek^and 
Cooper's Point,over dignnRPhiladelphla on thcDelaware, 
Gloucefier is a good Town, and gave Name to a Coun- 
ty in the above- riiention'd Proprietary's Divifion of the 
Province. It contains near too Houies j the Country 
about it is very plea fan t. Above this is Panthakin 
Creek, then Northampton or Rancocos River •, and then 
BwUngton Town, the Capital of this Province •, above 
thirty Miles from which there are few or no Planta- 
tions. In this Town the Courts and Affemblies of Wefi- 
Jerfey us'd to be kept. It contains about 200 Fami- 
lies, and has an anfwerable Number of Acres laid out 
by the Proprietary to the Under-Ssrvants. The Hou- 
fes here are well built, and a'lmoft all of Brick. The 
Market affords Plenty of all forts of Provifions. It 
gave Name to one of the feven before-mention*(l 
Counties. Above this Town is another, caird Mai- 
denhead^ below the Falls alfo, containing 40 or 50 
Families \ 'tis built on Dr. Cox's Lands : And there's 
another fmall Town above the Falls. About 4.0 Miles 
higher is the Coufitry of the Minifinch^ an Indian 
Nation. The Soil being very fertile thereabouts, 'tis 
expelled this Tra^fV will be next inhabited, it border- 
ing upon NewTork^ and has Communication with it, 
by Means of the River c^^%^^- *, which having wa- 
ter 'd it, flows into Hudfons River, near King^on^ 
This Province has alfo an eafy Communicatioh with 
^ Maryictnd^ there being a River within its Limits 
which^runs not above eight Miles from the Bottom of 
Ckefeapeak Bay ^ and there was once a Projeft on Foot 
to cut thro' that eight Miles, but Klrginia and Mary- 
land oppos'd it fo vehemently, th'at it did hot fuc- 

-' The Trade of }V^fl New-Jerfey^ and Eaft-Jerfey^ as 
alfo the Soil and Conveniences of Rivers and Creeks^ 
are much the fame^ except that Wefi-Jerfey^ by iti 
Situation on Delaware River, abounds more in the 
liattcr. ' ■ ' - 


The Hiftory of New-Jerfey. 141 

Both thefe Provinces, as to the Soil and hit ^The Soil, 
have a near Relation with that of Fenfylvania v '''^«^> ^^' 
as alfo to its Trade and Produds. The Coun- 
try yields Plenty of all forts of Grain •, and the 
Inhabitants are faid to have been fo fcrupulous, 
that they vs^ould not enter upon it, before they 
had given the Indians (ome Satisfaftioa : But 
there needed not fo much Nicety *, for *tis cer- 
tainly very lawful for any Man to pofTefs him- 
felf of any Land that is deDrt and uninhabited, as- 
this wa'5, towards the Sea-Coafl: efpecially. The few 
Indians that are to be met with in the Jerfeys^ are ra- 
ther a Help than an Injury to th^ Inhabitants, who 
\^?i(h their* Number was mvKh greater. The Englijh 
are fo numerous in comparifon of the Indians^ that 
if it was in the Nature of the latter, they 
durfl: not offer the kaft Injuftice to the New-Comers, 
for they might foon be extirpated by them, it being 
computed, that there are 10 or 12000 Souls of the 
Englifl) in this Province, and of thefe about 2000 
Men fit to bear Arms, and not 200 Indians in 

'Twill be needlefs to enter into the Particulars of 
the Products of thefe Provinces, fince, as we have 
faid, it has fo much Relation to Fenfylvania, Pro- 
vifions are the chief Trade here, which are thence 
exported to the S^g^r Iflands. They have alfo fome- 
Furs, Skins, and Tobacco, for an Englifh Market^ 
and Oil, Fi-lh, and other Provifions for Portugal^ 
Spam^ and the Canaries, Ships may be built here 
cheap and conveniently at Perth Amhoy : But Nexv- 
England carries away that beneficial Trade from all 
the reft of the EngUjh Colonies, on the Northern 
Continent of America. This Place was at fir ft as 
liMl^ to be foon inhabited as any, but its Pro- 
gms has not been as promifing as its Begin- 

New-Tor k and Penfylvania have much the Advan- 
tage of it for Populoufnels and Trade *, and in- 
deed NewVork is its beft Market, for buying or 
filing any confiderable Qaan titles of Goods of any 

We have already hinted concerning the Smith- 
ing Forge that is fet up near Middleton, Tis cer- 

t4^ The Hijiory of New-Jerfey. 

tain, Iron has been made there -^ but that Project 
has lately fail'd y and notwithftanding all that is 
faid of the Iron and Copper of New-England^ and 
the Minerals all over that Continent, we do not 
find that any of the Mines of America have been 
v;orth working, except thofe of Mexico and Tent. 
We fhall now return to the Hiftorical Events relating 
to the Beginning, Progreis, and prefent State of iVen?- 

^ifiorj^ The Lord Berkley^ about twelve Years after th^ 
Duke granted this Province to him and Sir George Car- 
f^raf, affign'd his Right to M 

The firft Proprietary in '^erfey^ under the Lord Berltley^^ 

who were, 

Will. Ven^ Efq-, 

Mr. Gawen Laurie^ of London^ Merchant^ 

Mr . Nicholas Lucas^ and 

Mv, Edward By llyngj * 

Thefe not long after agreed upon the Partition of the 
Province with Sir George Cartarett: And this Proprie- 
tary dying, the Earl of Bathj and others his Execu- 
tors, with the Confent of his Widow, the Lady Car- 
tarett^ allign'd over his Share, which was the Northern 
Divifion, Feb, 2. ks'Si. to 

FirfiPro^ The Firft Proprietaries of Eajl-New-Jerfey. 

prietaries i 

m Eaft- ^ Will. Ven^ Efq-, Mr. Thomas Wilcox. 

Jerfey. Rob. Wefi^ Eiqv Mr. Amhrofe Rigg, 

^ Mr. Tho. Rudyard. Mr, Hugh Hartfiorn, 

Mr. Samuel Groom, ^ Mr. Clement TlunfttSi' 

^ Mr. Tho, Hsirt. ^ Mr. Too. Cooper 7^ 

* Mr. Rich. AisW' Mr. John Hayward, \ 

And from this Time the two Provinces have had 
their diftin£l Governours. The Proprietaries foon af- 
ter fold Shares of Eajl-Newjerfey to the Perfons fol- 
lowing, fit. 

The Hipry of New-J@rfey, 143 

^fames^ Earl of Fenk Mr, Gawen Lawrle. 

John Drummondj Efq^, Mr. Edward Byliyng. 

Sir George Mackenzj)/, Mr. Will. Gihfon. 

Rob. Barclay^ ? of Vry^ Mr. 1 ho. Barker.^ 7 Me&» 

David Barclay^ 3 Efqrs. Ux Walter Bemhall^^ch^^ 

Robert Gourdon^ Efq, Mr.Rob,TMrner^7of Dub^ 

Mr. Robert Burnet. Mr^Jho, Narne^^Un^ M.^\ 

J Mr. Peter Sonmam^ oiLon- ]^x, Thomas Cox^ 

don^ Merchant. Mr. Will. Dockwrd, 
Mr. James Braine, 

' Who, with the fix Proprietaries diftinguifh'd in 
the lecond Lift by the Ajiracifms^ procur'd a Confir- 
mation of their Patent by another from the Duke of 
Torkj dated the of March^ i<582. by which they 
were invefted with all the Powers and Privileges, 
which the Duke had granted to Sir George Cartarett ^ 
or indeed, which the King had granted to his Royal 
Brother himfelf. And we by thefe Lifts perceive, 
that ail the Pattentees of the Lord Berkleys Divifion, 
or Wefi'New'Jerfey^ were Proprietaries of Eafl^ 
New-Jerfey, except Mr. Nicholas Lucas *, yet they did 
not procure any Conjunction of the two Provinces ^ 
on the contrary, Separate Governours were appointed 
over each of them *, and the firft Governour of Eajl- ^r. Bar* 
New-Jerfey \N2iS Robert Barclay^ Efq^ by Commiflion,clay G^* 
dated the 17th of July. His Deputy was Gawen vsmow* 
y Laurie J Efq*, 

I The Scots were at that time as. much perfecuted for 
i<their Religion as the Englijh *, and Mr. Barclay^ the 
I Head of the Quakers in that Kingdom, and alfo in 
England^ thought fit to remove hither with his Fa- 

" We muft note, that moft of the firft EngUflj Inha- ^i^fl. ^^^^ 
ibitants in this Country were DijfemerSy and nioft of lif^^ /^l,^, 
them Quakers and Anabapttfis. Thefe People are ge- kmms. 
nerally induftrious : Be their Hypocrify to themfelves 
if they are Hypocrites*, but we maft do them the Ju- 
iilice to own, that they are the fitteft to inhabit 9 
ittew-difcover'd Country, as profefiing Induftry, and 
fhunning thofe publick Vices which beget Idlenefs and 
Want. Their Enemies drove great Numbers of them 
out of England^ and the J^rfeys had their Share of 

them : 

144 The ir^fiory of New- JQvfQy. 

them : The People here are for this Reafon Dijfenters 
to this Day, there being but two Church of Er.gland 
Miniftersin both the Provinces *, and this may be one 
Reafon why there are no Parifh Churches^ which 
the Inhabitants may be afraid to build, leaft it might " 
be a Temptation for more Orthodox Divines to come 
among them. 

A Gentleman asking one of the Proprietaries, If 
there were no Lawyers in this Country ? Was anfwer'd^ 
No : And then, If there were no Phyjicians f The Pro- 
prietary re ply 'd, No : Nor Parfons^ adds the Gentler , 
man ? iV<?, fays the Proprietary : Upon which the o- ; 
ther cry'd. What a happy Place muji this be^ and hoxQ 
worthy the Name of Faradice ! We do not perhaps- 
differ more from this Gentleman than we agree with 

The Proprietors, in the fame Year, made Mx^Geo, 
Lockhart Marfhal, and Mr. William Dockwra Regifter 
and Secretary, in which Office he continues to this 
Day ^ and 'tis to him the Writer of this Hlflory owes, 
in a great meafure, the Memoirs relating to this 

The Proprietaries made a Deed amongft themfelves 
to prevent Survivorfhip, and agreed upon ConfiitutionSy 
or general Conceffions^ for the Management of the Pro- 
vince, as to laying out Land for Counties^ IribeSj^ 
Towns^ and Parijhes, They referv^d one part in feven 
for themfelves, and reiblv'd to difpofe of the reft on 
the following Terms : Every Mafier of a Family was 
to have 50 ^cres of Land fet out^ and 25 for his Wife^ 
and each of his Children and Servants^ paying 1 2 d* 
a Head to the Regifter^ or his Deputy^ for regifiring 
them as foon a^ landed. Servants^ when their Times 
expired J were to have 30 Acres, All Perfons t(^ 
pay 2 d. an Acre^ Quit- Rent *, or pur chafe their Free* 
holds at $0 s. for every Lot of 2$ Acres fo t alien tipj andi 
^ fo in proportion for a greater or lefs Number of Acres*. 
All Perfons were ohligd to fettle in fome Townflnp^ andi 
to have Land afftgn'd there for Hovje and Garden^ every j 
one being ohligd by the Conceilions to build a Houfet 
01 feven Years time. The Rate of any Parcel of J^andi 
was ten Pounds for 100 Acres \ and none were to pur-" 
chafe above 1000 Acres : But this Part of the Confti-^. 
tution Hs not^ we fuppofe, been pundlualiy kept^; 


The Hijiory of New-Jerfey. 145 

peither has Land always continu'd at 10 /• the 100 
sAcres ^ for *tis certain, Land has been Ibid here for 
120 s, an Acre, and very often for ^o, 70, and 80 /. 
jthe 100 Acres, as it lay convenient forTownfhips and 
JTrade, and as it was in Goodnefs. 

Mr. Barclay^ the fir ft Governour of Eaji-New- 
ferfey^ had made his Name famous among his Bre- 
thren the Quakers by his Writings : he did not go 
pver immediately, (b the Government was exercis'd 
by his Deputy, Gawen Lawrie^ Efq*, who had a Court- q ^ - 
:// nominated by th.^ Proprietaries to ailift him: Butj^^^^.^^ 
Lt feems he did not pleafe his Principals *, whether j)eputyGo- 
3r not it was, that being a Proprietary of Weft-New- ysrnon 
Jerfey^ he was not willing the Province he goyern'd 
hould thrive too faft, or whether he did not think 
Ihe Orders he received from the Proprietaries were 
for the Advantage of the Colony^ is not determinable 
3y us 9 but fure we are he difobey'd them in an Ar- 
dcle,which was of the laftConfequence for the Good of 
:he Province. September 14. 16^^, the Proprietaries 
wrote to Mr. Lawrie and the Councilj to remove the 
Seat of Government, and the Courts from Eliz^abeth 
Town to Amhoy Point, and there to fettle, that by 
:heir Prefence People might be encourag'd to build 
Perth City, which was then laid out, and great Ad- 
vantages proposed to all fuch as would inhabit it. It 
ay fo commodious for Shipping, that the Concern 'd 
iid not doubt, if their Orders were obey'd, they 
hould in a few Years fee a City there, which would 
itleaft have been a Rival to New-Tork and Philadel- 
)hia, Mr. Lawrie^ by difobeying the Proprietaries, 
zave thofe two Cities an Opportunity to get the 
lart of Perth'Amhoy fo far, that the Inhabitants of 
Eaft-NeW'Jerfey defpairing ever to come near them, 
lave difcontinu'd their Building •, and^ this Town, 
which was intended to be the Capital of this Colo?2yj 
ies now among the Number of its Villages, 
' We find Mr. Barclay continu'd Governour till the 
S?'ear 1 6^ 5. when the Right Honourable the Lord Nealfj^s iq^^ 
Vamphelj Uncle to his Grace the prefent Duke of-^r-Neal 
\^lej was appointed Governour : In whole time George Campbsl 
'Keith came over to Eaft- New-Jerfey^ and taught diGovsmor^ 
School there. He was alfo appointed Surveyor Gerie- 
, oil Account of his Skill in the Mathematicks. 
- ■ L He 

. 1^6 The Hijlory of New-Jerfev, 

Pie (raid there tv-^o or three Years, and tiisn went to 
fonie other American Colony : This is the iMan, who, 
when he returned to Englandj renounc'd his Enthv-fi- 
afiick Errors, and enibrac'd the Orthodox Religion 
of the An§J.icane Church : After which he became a 
regular Minifler,^ was prefented to a Benefice*, and 
has niade hiaifelf talk t off by his Difputes with the 
QuaJzerSj^ and theirs with him *, for they have not 
ftuck to charge him with deferting them for a world- 
. ly Inter eft. When he left Jerfey^ Mr. John Reed was 
made Surveyor General. Since this he was fent over 
by the Society for propagating the Gofpel, as a Miffi" 
onary to convert the Indians^ and make Profelytes to^j 
thz Church of England : 'Tis faid .in the Society's^ 
Paper, That he has brought great Comfort to the Church.' 
-There is now a Minifter of St. Marys Bwlington^ wh^ 
is^ Mr. John Talbot^ Affiftant to Mr. Keith in his Mil- 
fion : He has 60 L a Year from the Society. 
-, In the Year 1.69^' Qo\. Andrew Hamilton was ap- 

_m1^^' pointed Governour of this Province : In which Poft 
Govnnor, ^'^ *^*^ ^^^ continue long *, tor m 1697* we nna ^^- 
Jeremy ^'^^'y ^^.If^^ ^^% vs^^s fent from England with that 
Bdffe, ffa; Chara£ler, which he alio kept but a little w^hile ^ 
Governor, for Col. Hamilton procured Mr. Baffe to be recall'd, 
Col. Ha- and himfelf re-infeited in his Government •, which 
mi Iron was of as fhort Duration 3.s Mr. Bajfe'Sj for the lat- 
^if'^n^^ ter in a Year's Time or lefs v/as reilor'd. 

*, '^ i^^s Succe^^r, and the lad Governour of Eaft-New" 

SrAn- ?''^''-A)'3 ^'^s Col. And.rew Bovone^ who continued in 

^j.^°^. that Poft as long as i}fi^ Proprietaries power lafted. 

Browne '^^\^s OfEce, conjidering the Cheapnefs of the Coun- 

GGvenwr, try, v/as as good as the fame in fome other Colonies, 

w^here the Sallery and Advantages are greater, for the 

Governour cannot here make tairly above 500 /. a-i 

Year of his Government. 

This Colony continu'd to thrive under all thefe 
Governoars *, and notwithftanding the Majority of 
tiiQ Proprietaries and Proprietors were Quakers^ a Peo- 
ple vvho afleft a peculiar Tameneis of spirit, and de- 
clare againil: Fighting, yet a Militia has been form'd^!, 
and at a late "^.Mufter 14.00 itoat Men appear'd iti-^ 
Arms, CoL ThomO'S Cox\ Son of Dr. Cox^ commanding! 
t\iQm» The Number of Souls ii this Province is 
coaiput-ed to be 12000, and VVefi-^Neiv-Jerfey 8000. 


The Hiftory of New-Jerfey. 147 

We muftnow take {bme Notice of thofe Events We ft- 
tliat relate to the latter : 'Tis true, we do not meet Jerfey, 
Jwith many, and thofe not very important^ butiuch 
las they are, we ihall communicate them to the 

I Governours were fettled in this Province much 
[about the fame time that the Proprietaries of the o- 
ither appointed Perfons to aovern Eafl'NexvJerfey.ThQ 
■fir ft Governour ofWcft-New-Jerfey wdi'^EdwardByllyng^ Edward 
Efq", one of the Proprietaries -y who was put into that Byllyng, 
Office, A. D. 16-83. and continu'd in it feveral Years. ^/'?5 Go- 
I After which the greateft part of thQ Province was "'^^^'^^^'* 
ifold to Dr. Daniel Cox^ one of the Members of the ^y^ p^. 
j College of Phyfitians, v^ho took the Government intoniel Cox 
his own Hands', but being then in very great BufinefsG^^-ym/or. 
I in his Profeffion, he did not think fit to leave it for 
\ihQ Profits of his Province, and governed the Colo- 
jny always by a Deputy. In the Year 1690, his Pra- 
I £lice diminifhing in England^ he refol v'd on a Voyage 
ito \m Ajnerican Territories, and was aftualiy gone 
las far z.s Salt^hury^ in his way to Viimouth^ to em- 
bark there for this Country, but he was difTwaded 
by a Friend from his intended Voyage-, and returning 
to London^ fold the beil: part of his Propriety to Sir 
*Thom(U Lane^ and others, tor above 9000 L a Sum of 
Money which has not often been known to be given in 
London for an Eftate in either of taQ EngllJIj Colo* 
nies on the Continent Oi America, What tat^t Pur- 
chafers did with their Province, we have not heard 7 
but. we find they thought it convenient, for t\\^ Good 
of the Colony, to make a Surrender of their Pattenr7-;,^P^j^<.„c 
to the Queen, referving all their Rights to them Pelves, ri^'j^I^j^-i.^'i, 
except the Sovereignty, which was reftor'd to the'' 
Crown. The Proprietaries of Eafi-New-Jerfcy did 
the fame*, for on the 226. of Aprdy 1702. Mr.lVi!/. 
Dockvpra^ in their Name, and Sir Tho?7za.s Lai'^e in the , 
Name of the Proprietaries of Weji-^Neiv-Jerfey^ waited 
on her Majefly, and made a formal Surrender of the 
Sovereignty to her. The Queen immediately ap-p^^^,j 
ponted my Lord Cornbtrry to be Governour, and thiS(2Qi;nhai-v 
Lord made the late Governour, Mr. Jeremy Baffe^ GcvoTio/* 
his Secretary. 

The Tv/o Provinces, which had been diviled 2^ 
'■ Years, became united, and now go es by tliQ Nam of 

L 2 i^'fW" 

The Hiftory of New- Jerfej^. 

New-Jerfey ^ the Government being by a GaverffoWj 
Qmcil^ and Affemhly : The Governour choofes 
his Council out of each, and appoints a Lieutenant- 
Governour. In the Year 1703. Mr. Sergeant Hook 
made a Pur chafe of 3 750 Acres of Land, in Wefi-Jerfey^ 
Upon Delaware River, and gave the i oth part of it as 
a Glebe to the Church. The Names of the prefent 
Officers are, 

The Right Honourable the Lord Vifcount G?mW/, 


Jikhard Ingoldshyj Efq^ Lieutenant-Governour. 

Lewis Morris^ Efq^ 
Col. Andrew Bowne^ 
Thomas Revely Efq*, 
Francis Davenport^ Efq; 
William Tinhorn^ Efq*, 
George Deacon^ Efq*, 
Daniel Leedsy Eiq^ 
William Sandford^ Efq^ 
Co). Robert Quarry j and 
feterSonmanSy Merchant,^ 

^ CounfelIors« 


'Tis remarkable, that Col. Robert Quarry^ is not f 
only a Counfellor here, but alfo at Newl^ork^ Penjylz 
z, Maryland^ and Virginia, 


Secretary and Regifter, Mr. William Dockwra. 
Secretary to the Governour, Mr, Jeremy Bajje, 






O F 


H I S is not the leaft confiderable of our A- 
merican Colonies ^ and for the few Years 
that the Trad of Land^ which goes by this 
Name, has been inhabited, we believe 
none has thriv'd more, nor is more rich and po- 

I The Proprietary^ William Pen^ Efq*, is the Son oiUs Vropr, 
I Sir William Pen^ who commanded the EngliJI) Fleet, m&Ur^^ 

I Conjundion with other Admirals, in the time of the 
\ Rump ^ whom Oliver fent with Col. Fenahles to Hifpa- 

niola ^ and tho that Expedition fail'd through the ill 
! Cpndud of Venahles^ Mr. Pen^ for he was not then 

II Knighted, was generally faid to have behav'd himfelf 
I with equal Wildom and Courage. He aftervsrards 
Sfell in with the ^^^/i/?^ upon the King's Refloratio?/^ 

\ and commanded the Fleet under the Duke of Tork^ 
•in the firfl Dutch War, having Ibmetime before re- 
rCeiv'd the Honour of Knighthood ^ and dying not long 
\ after, was bury'd in Reddiff-Chmch in BriJhL For 
i| the Services.he had done the King and Nation, his Son, ' 
I the ingenious William Pen^ Eiq^ follicited a 6'r^;/^of 
ithis Province*, but having declar'd himfelf the //d"^^ 
■ of the People in England^ call'd Quahrs^ he niet with 

1 50 The Htftory of Penfylvania. 

great Difficulties in obtaining t)x\%?anent *, which he^ 
at lafl procur'd, bearing Date the 4th oiMarch^ 1 ^Sf.l 
and gave his Name to the whole Country, which is 
from him called Penfylvania in the Original Grant^ 
by the King's Authority. But before we proceed fur- 
tiier in its Hiflory, we mufl give the Reader fome 
Idea of the Province, 

Fenfylvania coniiils of all that TraEh of Land in Ame- 
rica, with all Ifla'ads thereunto belonging'^ that is to fay^ 
frjom the Beginning of the fortieth Degree of North Let- 
tltude^ mito the forty third Degree of North Latitude-^ 
whcfe Eaftern Bounds^ from 12 Englifh Miles above 
Newcaftle. (alias Deiavs'are-ToiP??^ runs all along t'pon 

'Bounds. the Side rf D sldi\N 2^ Q- River. So that 'tis bounded on 
the Eafi by the River and Bay of Delaivare^ and the 
Eaftern Sq2. J on the North, by ¥/eji New-Jerfey^ or 
rather New Tork; for it goes a great way above the , 
Jerfeys :, on the VsfQitj by the Indian Nations about the 
l^eads of Sifijuahanaugh and Delaware Rivers *, and on ^ 
the South by Maryland ;, and reaches from Pensberry^ , 
near the Falls of Delaware River, to Cape Hinlope, . 
at the iMouth of Delaware Bay, near 150 Miles : But 
it runs along like a Strip of Land, being very much i 
. crowded in Breadth by Maryland. 

We (hould have made mention of the firil Inhabi- 
tants of this Country, and the firfc Difcoverers *, but 
what we have particularly to fay of either the one .or 
the other, we fhall relate in the further Profecution of 
this Hiilory, and continue our Geographical Defcrip- 
tion of it. 

The River Delaware is navigable 300 Miles at leaft, 
in fmall VeiTels -, fo high Mr. Fen has gone up it him- 
felf, as he was pleas'd to acquaint the Writer of this > 
Treatife. It rifes in the Mountains, in the Weftern ; 
Parts of this Continent, near the /rc^j£(?//f, and runs i 
parallel with Sufquahanaugh River in Aiaryland ^ the^' 

I^jvcrs, latter falling into the Bay of Chefeapeak^ not fir from.i 
v^'here Delaware River difcharges it felf into the Bay/ 
that bears its Name, Some Ships bound for Pe-nfylva^' 
fila iail through Chef^apeak Bay, the Head falling with- • 
in this Latitude, They both divide themfelves, nearf 
the Falls, into two great Branches ^ and between them.i 
flows the Schoolkiily which runs into the Delaware at t 
Fhiladclphiao Thefe are ihi only Rivers of Note in 1 
• c, : • ./ . ; ; . : -. -^ ■. '.: this 

The Hijiory of Penfylvaaia. 1 5 1 

lliis Province •, the reft are rather Cr^^-Z^i than Rivers-^ 
:he Southfide of t\it Delaware abounding with them^ 
IS well as the North ^ of which we have fpoken in the 
aft Article, 

We da not find any Counties in the Wefie-ni Part of 
:his Country :, the firft Town w^e come to below 
the Fails, is Newton *, and next to it is Pemberry^ over 
igainft Burlington^ in Weji New-Jerfey. Here's a 
jnall Creek, but never a one at Newton. This part of 
:he Delaware is call'd thQ Frefies, The next Creek is 
Nefhimenckj then Portquejfmj then Pemmapeka-^ hQ- 
Iv^^^iv which and Towcamy-C^^xkj is FranFtford'^ 
which feems to be a Dutch Village, or a Swedifr) j 
for both Swedes and Dutch inhabit feveral Places in 
Penfyhania. The Swedes feated themfeives moftly in 
the Creeh I have been fpeaking of, about the FreJJjes. 
The Dutch planted near the Bay. This Place is alfo 
caird Oxford^ and here is a Church of England Con-^ 
gregation, fupply'd by the Minifters of Philadelphia^ 
there being none yet lent to the Town, which confirrs 
of about 150 Houfes. From Towcauny^ having paft 
JM- Creek, we come to 

Philadelphia^ the Capital of this Colony, dignify'd Philadel- 
with the Name of a GVj/. 'Tis indeed nioft commo- phiao 
dioufiy fituated between two navigable Rivers, the 
Delaware and SchoolhlL It has tv/o Fronts on the 
Water *, one on the Eaft-fidej facing the SchoolkUl , 
and the other on the Wefl^ facing the Delaware, 
The Eaftern Part is moft populous on account of the 
SchoolkUl , w^hich is boatable 100 Miles above the Falls, 
Each Front of the City, as it was laid out, v^as a Mile 
long, and two from River to River. TheStreet that 
runs along the River SchoolkUl is threeQiiarters of a 
Mile in length. The Houfes are very ftately \ tlie 
"Wharfs and Warehoufes numerous and convenient^ 
And as Philadelphia liourilli'd fo much at iirft, that 
there were near 100 Houfes and Cottages within kfs 
than a Years time, fo fince the Foundation of this^ City^^ 
A. D,i6S2, it has made anfwerable Progrefs^ the 
• Nun^ber of Houfes being computed to be 1200 ncWs. 
They are generally well built, and have large Or- 
chards and Gardens. The Land on which it ftands is 
high and firm, and the Conveniency of Coves, Docl^Sy 
and SpfingSj has very much contributed to tlie Cc m- 

L 4, iiKrۤ 

1 52 The Hifiory of Penfylvania. 

nierce of this Place, where many rich Mercliants now \ 
live ^ and we have been informed, fome of them are 
fo wealthy, that they keep their Coaches, The Town 
was laid out, and a Draught taken of it by IMr. Tho, 
Holme^ Surveyor General of the Province, which lies 
now before me \ it feems to be a very fair Plan, and, 
if it was all built, would make a great and beautiful 
City ^ the Streetfhtm^ broad, and fo long all of them, 
that they reach from River to River \ a Compafs of 
Ground which is large enough to make a City for all 
x}ci^ Inhabitants of the Northern Colonies, perhaps 
not excluding New-England, Ships may ride here in 
iS ot 7 Fathom Water, with very good Anchorage. 
The Land about it is a dry, wholefom Level. AH 
Owners of 1000 Acres of Ground and upwards, have 
their Houfes in the two Fronts, facing the Rivers, 
and in the Hlgh-flreet^ running from the Middle of 
one Front to the Middle of the other. Every Ow- 
ner of 5000 Acres has about an Acre in Front *, and 
the fmaller Purchafers, about half an Acre in the 
backward Streets. By which means the leafl has 
Room enough for a Houfe, Garden and fmall Orchard. 
Th.^ High-jireet is 100 Foot broad \ fo is the^rW- 
ftreet^ which is in the middle of the City, running 
from North to South. In the Center is a Square of 
so Acres, for the State-houfe,- Market- houfe, School- 
houfe, and chief Meeting-houfe for the Quakers : The 
Lord Proprietary being of that Profeliion, 'tis not 
ftrange, that moft of the firft £;7^///?) Inhabitants were 
of the fame Opinion. The Perfecution rais'd by the 
FopiJ/j Faftion and their Adherents in England^ a- 
gainft Trotejiam DiJfenterSy wsiS very hot when Mr. 
Pen obtained a Grant of this Territory, and the 
Quahrs fiock'd to it, as an Azylum^ from the Rage of 
their Enemies. But fince the glorious Revolution.^ 
People have tranfported themfelvesto the Plantations^ 
to enrich, and not to fave themfelves from Injuftice 
and Violence at home. 

Men of all Principles have fettled in this Place^ as 
well as others *, and there are fo many Orthodox 
ProfefTors, that there's a great Church in Philadelphia^ 
for the Exercife of Religion, according to the Difci- 
pline of the Church of England *, and fome of them 
have clamour'd lately very much for an Qxgan^ to the 


7he Hifiory of Peafylvania. 153 

great Offence of the Brethren, We do not ufe this 
Word out of Contempt, but to avoid that o^DifiinBl" 
en J which is too fcandalons for a ferious Hiftory. The 
Church here is call'd Chrift-Church^ and the Congre- 
gation is very numerous. His late Majefty was pleas'd 
to allow the Minifter 50 /. per Annum^ befides the vo ■ 
luntary Subfcriptions of the Inhabitants. The School- 
mafter has alfo an Allowance of 3 o /. per Annum. The 
Pattent for them was taken out at the Charge of the 
Society before-mention'd. Here are befides this feve- 
ral Meeting-houfes, as a Quaker's, Presbyterian, A- 
nabaptift, and a Swedijh Church. The Reverend Mr. 
Evans is now Minifter of Philadelphia. His Afliftant 
is Mr. nomas 'j Schoolniafter, Mr. Club, There are 
at leaft. 700 Perfons of the Orthodox Church, 

In each Quarter of this City is a Square of 8 Acres, 
to be for the like Ufes as Moorfields in London : And in 
the Plan there are Eight' Streets, that run from Front 
to Front, parallel vath High -fire et, and Twenty 
Streets, that run crofs the City from fide to fide *, both 
of which are 3 o Foot broad. But we cannot fuppofe 
that near a tenth Part of this Ground is taken up, con- 
fidering all the eight Streets are 2^Miles, and the 
Twenty, one Mile long,] befides the Fronts, and 
High-jireet and Broad-fireet, The Dock is formed by 
an Inlet of the River Delaware^ at the South Corner 
of the Front, and has a Bridge over it at its Entrance. 
Several Creeks run into the City out of the two 

Here the AlTemblies and Courts of Judicature are 
kept, and the Trade and Bufinels of the Province is 
chiefly managed, as in all Capitals. Here is a beautiful 
Keyjabove aooFoot fquare *, to which a Ship of jooTun 
may lay her Broad-fide. Here are moft forts of Trades 
and Mechanicks, as well as Merchants and Planters^ 
and confidering 'tis the youngeft Capital in our Eng- 
liff) America.^ 'tis far from being the leafl conr2de- 
rable. It gives Name to the Country about it ^ for 
the remaining part of Philadelphia is divided into 
Shires, there being 5 moxQh^MQs Philadelphia Coxxn- 
ty, as Buckingham^ Chefier^ JSfewcaflley Kent^ and 

At a little Diftance from Philadelphia^ is a pleafant 
Hillj very well Wooded^ on the Banks of the School 


54 The Hifiory of Penlylvania. 

Ml^ caird Fair Mount. Wioco^ half a Mile from the 
Town, is a 5rr^^//^ Settlement ^ where the People of 
that Nation have a Meeting-hovfe for religious Wor- 
ihip: They have another at Tenecum. Bat whether 
thefe Places 2iXQ in Bt^ckingham or Philadelphia Coun-^ 
ty, we have not learn 'd. Indeed where there are fo 
few Inhabitants, there's more Vanity and Oflentati- 
on in dividing the Country into Shires, than real life 
and Neceility ^ and if we doit,, 'tis purely out of Com- 
plaifance to the Humour of the People. 

Within Land lifis Radr.or or WelfiTown^ finely fi- 
tuated, and well boiit, containing near 50 Families. 
In this Place is a Congregation of Church of Er?g- 
tei-Men, but no fettled Minifter. In thefe 
two Counties are feveral other Creeks ^ as Darby 
Creek, &c, Amor/la77d lies between that and Another 
namelefs Creek. From whence, pafling by^/^/oj/r/-, 
we come to Chefier Town, which alfo gives Name to 
a County. The Number of Families in this Divifion, 
as well as in the others, I have not heard *, bat by the 
Computation of the Number of Souls in all the Pro- 
vince, they cannot exceed 200. This Place is alfo 
caird Vplands^ and has a Church, dedicated to S> 
Taul^ with a numerous Congregation of Orthodox 
Profeflbrs, whofe Minifter is Mr. Hen. Nicholls •, his 
Income paid by the before-mention'd Society, 50 /. a 
Year. They are about erefting a School here, de- 
pendent on the Minifter. There's another little 
Town at the Mouth of a Creek, call'd Cbichefie?% 
Below that is a great Creek, which we may be fujre 
belonged to the Dutchy by the Name that is given it, 
Brandfcvtne. Here's Room enough to lay up the 
whole Navy Royal of England^ there being from four 
to eight Fathom Water in this Creek. Between 
^randywine and Chrifiinaj is an Iron Mill: W^hat Ad- 
vantage it has been to the Pr6>/?n>m*^ we know not, 
and fuppofe we ihould have heard of it, had it been 

Next to Brand^vpine is Chrifiina Creek *, where, 
v^hsxi the Swedes inhabited this and the other Side or 
the . Delaware^ they had a Tov^rn which ferv'd them 
inilead of a Capital^ and t\iQ Governour refided, 
if w^ may give Credit to Monfieur Rohhe^ in his Ac- 
count ofj La Nouvelle Swede^ v;hich induded part of 
%■ . ■■ ' ' •■■^■' ■ •■ ■ this 

The Hifiory of Penfylvania. 155 

this Country, and part of the Jerfeys. This is a very 

large Creek :^ bat the Village is inconfiderable. The 

Swedes had however a Church here not long ago^ 

Between this and the next Creek is Newcafiie Town ', 

from whence the adjoining County takes its Name. 

'Tis inhabited by Englljb and Dutchy and is the next 

j Town for Bignefs and Trade to Philadelphia^ contain- 

I ing 300 Families. Here's a Church built, and a Con- 

! gregation, moft of Jwhich are Weljb, Mr. Rofs was 

1 lately Minifler. The Dutch have a Church in this 

I Town. 

' , Next to it is St. George% then Blachhird Creek ^ 
and over againft it lies a little Ifland, call'd Road Ifland, 
in thQ Delaware J where there is in that Place 10 Fa- 
thom Water. Jlpaqtiamany Creek is honoured with 
the Name of a River. There's another Creek, fo call'd, 
and they are diftinguiih'd from one another by the 
Name of North and South. The Inhabitants have built a 
Church, but 'tis not endow'd or fupply'd with a Mi- 
nifler- Palling hy Bomb ays Voint^ and Duel CxQok^ 
we come to Kent County :, in which are Crambrook^ 
Dover^ Murderij and Mifpellivin Creeks. At Do" 
ver is a Church o^ England Congregation-, the Mini- 
fter, Mr. Thomas Crawford^ who has 50 /. a Year, 
paid by the Society. In the Bay of Delaware^ which 
is here about 7 Leagues over. Cedar Creek is by fome 
dignify'd with the Name of a River. 'Tis the firft 
in Svffex County, where we find Flum Point and Lew- 
is Creek. 

The Villages hereabouts are very thin, the Englifi 
inhabiting that part of the Province that lies on the 
upper Rivers *, and fince their Settlements in Penjyl- 
vanlaj the Dutch and Swedes have made very little or 
no Progreis in their Plantations, whereas the Englijh 
have encreas'd fo much, that there are now above 
25000 Souls of that Nation in this Colony, and their 
Numbers are yearly augmented. About three Miles 
htlow Lewis's Creek is t?ie Line of PartitlonyVfhich di- 
vides Penfylvania from Maryland, The Society of Ad- 
venturers we ihall have Occafion to fpeak of hereafter, 
had 3.Whalery no^v Lewis's Town, but this will more 
properly be mention'd, when we come to treat of the 
Trad© of the Place, 

^ ' ■ We 

1 1^6 The Hijiory of Penfylvania. 

We fhall avoid needlefs Repetitions *, and when \Nt 
have given the Reader an Idea of the Indians in any 
one Part of America^ of the Soil, Climate, and Trade, 
jf that Idea will ferve for any others we fhall be 
glad to fave him the Trouble of reading it under an- 
other Article. But tho 'tis probable, the New^Tork 
and Virginian Indians have a great deal of Agreement, 
as to their Language, Manners, and Cufloms, with 
thofe of Tenfylvania^ as the Climate and Soil of the 
latter agree with thofe ofp^rginia and New-Terk *, yet 
we having a very particular Account of thefe things 
written by Mr. Ven himfelf, in a Letter, dated the 
i6Xh oi Augufi:^ 1^85. at Philadelphia^ 'twill not be 
unwelcome to the Curious, to fee what he has faid of 
this Country. To which we fhall add, what others 
have alfo written, or told us, as far as we could de- 
pend on their Authority. 
CVmAte We fhall begin with the Climate and Soil, and treat 
piiSeih firft of the Climate. We fee by its Latitude that 
'tis at a like Didance from the Sun with Naples in Ita- 
ly^ and Montpelller in France. The Air is fweet and 
clear, the Heavens ferene, and Mr. Fen^ who had feen 
the Southern Parts of France^ compares the Face of 
them in Penfylvania to that in thofe Provinces. The 
Fall begins about the of05iober^ and lafls till tho 
Beginning of December^ being like a mild Spring in 
England. Frofly Weather and extream cold Seafons 
have been known there, as in the Year 1^81. but the 
Sky was always clear, and the Air dry, cold, piercing, 
and hungry. The River. Delaware was then frozen 
over, tho it is near two Miles broad at Philadelphia, 
From March to June the Spring lafls, without d^fis of 
Wind, refrefh'd with gentle Showers, and a fine 
Sky •, but the Weather there, as well as in England^ 
is more inconflant than in the other Seafons. The 
Heats are extraordinary in the Summer Months, Jvly^ 
Augufly and September ^ bat mitigated by cool, 
ThetWind is South- Weft -during the Summer, but 
generally North- Wefterly, Spring, Fall, and Winter. 
If Eafterly or Southerly Winds raifes Mifts, Foggs, 
or Vapours, in two Hours time they are blown 

The Soil of this Trac^ of Land is yarious : In fome 

places 'tis. a yellow and black Sand, poor and rich^ 

- ■ ' ■ ■ ^ ' ■ ' ' in 

The Hijlory of Penfylvania. 1 57 

in others, a loomy Gravel ^ in others, a fafi: fat 
Earth, like the P^ales in England^ efpecially by Inland 
Brooks and Rivers, where the Lands are generally three 
to one richer than thofe that lye by Navigable Rivers. 
There's alio another Soil in many parts of the Pro- 
vince, as a black Ha.2el Mould on a Stony bottom. 
The Earth is not only fruitful and fat, but eafy to 
be clear'd, becaufe the Roots of the Trees lye almoft 
on the Surface of the Ground. 

We have already obferv'd how Tenfylvania abounds i^Ven. 
in Rivers, the Waters of which are good, both the 
Rivers and Brooks having gravelly and ftony Bottoms. 
There are alfo Mineral Waters, that operate in the 
fame manner with thofe of Barnet and North-halL 
Thefe Springs are about two Miles from Philadel- 

The Natural Produ(^ of the Country, of Vegetables, Profff^^, 
are Trees^ Fruits, Plants, Flowers. The Trees ourees, 
mofl Note are the Black Walnut, Cedar, Cyprefs, 
Chefnut, Poplar, Guiliwood, Hickory, Saflafras, Afb, 
Beech, and Oak of feveral forts, as Red, White and 
Black, Spanljf) Cheftnut, and Swamp, xhQ mofl; dura- 
ble of all. Here are fome excellent Shrubs, as Shu- 
mack, Snakeroot, SafTaparelia, Calamus Arramatkm^ 
Jallop and Spruce Cranberries. 

The Fruits that grow naturally in the Woods, arefraiw, 
; the White and Black Mulberry, Cheftnuts, Wall- 
nuts, Plums, Strawberries, Hurtleberries, and Grapes 
i of feveral kinds. The great Red Grape, call'd the 
! Fox-Grape^ is commended by Mr. Ten •, and he thinks 
: it would make excellent Wine, if not fo fweet, yet 
I little inferior to Frontlni^c ^ it taflis like that Grape, 
I but differs in Colour. There's ?iWhlte kind of Muf- 
ji cadel, and a \itt\Q Black Grape, like the Clufter-Grape 
i in England, Peaches are prodigioufly plentiful in this 
I Province, and as good as any in England^ except ths 
t Newlngton Peach. 

The artificial Produce of the Country is Wheat, ^'^^■''^» 
Barley, Oats, Rye, Pe?Je, Beans, Squafhes, Pumkins, 
Water-Melons, Muf-Melons, Apples, Pears, Plums, 
I Cherries, Apricocks, Carrots, Turnips, Parfnips, 
; Cabbiges, Colworts, Potatoes, Radifhes as bigg as 
: Parfnips, Onions, Cucumbers^ as alfo Quinces, Cur- 
rants,' Indian Corn, Henipj Flax^ and Tobacco, of 
which more hereafter As 

iS8 The Hijlory ofVtn^Y\v2i\ml 

As to the Fertility of the Soil, this Inftance of it is 
fufficient to prove it : One Mr, Edward Jones^ whofe 
Plantation was on the Schoolkill in the Infancy of the 
Colony, had, with ordinary Cultivation, for one Grain 
oiEnglifh Barley, feventy Stalks and Ears of that Corn. 
'Tis common from one BaOiel fov^rn here to reap 
40, often 50j and fometimes 60, Three Pecks of 
Wheat fows an Acre. 
^AnmAl$. Of Living Creatures, Fifb, Fowl, and Beafts of 
^^ Wood, there are divers forts, Ibme for Food and 
Profit, and feme for Profit only. For Food as well as 
Profit, are the Elk, as big as a fmall Ox, Deer bigger 
than ours in England^ Beaver, Racoon, Rabbits, 
Squirrels *, and fome eat young Bear, and commend 
it, but 'tis likely their Tafts are as barbarous as their 
Eood, Here's Plenty of Oxen, Cows, and Sheep, in- 
fomuch that fome Farmers have 3 and 400 .in a 
Flock. The Creatures for Profit only, by Skin or 
Fur, or for Carriage and Sale^ are the Wild-Cat, 
Panther, Otter, Wolf, Fox, Fifher, Minx, Musk- 
Rat", and, to name the noblefi: laft, Horfes, fome 
' very good and fhapely enough, which are exported to 
JBarbadoes y and is one of the beft Merchandife 
fhip'd off from hence for that, or the other Sugar 
^otpl Of Fov/l. Here is the Land-Turtle, (40 or 50 

Pound Weight) Pheafants, Heath-Birds, Pidgeons, 
Patridges, and Black- Birds in fuch Flocks, that they 
See Will, ^ven darken the Air. A certain Inhabitant of the j 
Bradford'^ Province writes^ That Pidgeons fettle in fuch prodi-.[ 
Letter, gious Multitudes, they make the large Arms of Trees i 
p'intei in bend ready to break^ and more have been kill'd at a ■ 
*'^^5' Shot J than there were Corns of Shot in the Peice, Of 
Water-Fowl, here are Swang, Geele, White and Grey, , 
Brands, Ducks, and Teal, Snipe, and Curleus in I 
great Numbers •, but the Duck and Teal excel any of i 
their kind in other Countries,. 
^^fi' This, as well as other y^/?^mf^;2 Provinces, abounds? 

with Fifh, which the Bay and River of Delaware, 
nioft plentifully fupply them with. Sturgeon, Her- 
rings, Roch, Shat, Catshead, Sheepshead, Eles, 
Smelts, and Pearch are caught in Abundance 
in the Bay, and in the River below thQ Fre/Jjes ', smd: 
Trout in the Inland Rivers. Oy iters, Cr^ibbijCocki es, 


The Hijlory of Penfylvama^ 1 59 

Conks, and xMufcles are plenty here. Some Oyilers 
are 6 Inches long, and Cockles as big as Stewing- 
Oyfters, with which a rich Broth is made *, bat we 
hope the Labour, Temperance, Continence, Health 
and Virtue of this People render the ufe of fuch Broths 
very rare. Whale-Viihrng has been attempted here 
by the Society, of which I fhall lay more in its due 
Place : A Company of Whalers were employ'd, Whales 
caHght, and Oyl made ^ but that Trade was of no 
long Continuance, it being found to be expenfive and 

There are divers Medicinal Plants to cure S^^tl- TUnts, 
lings. Burnings, Cuts, c^r. and feveral that fmell 
very pleafantly, as the Wild Mirtle and others. 

The Woods are adorn'd with Fiow^ers, t^ctl- flowers^ 
lent both for Colour, Greatnefs, Figure, and Va- 

The ancient Inhabitants of this Territory come Indians, 
next to be treated of. The Indians are generally 
tall, ftreight, w^ell-built, and of lingular Proportion^ 
Of Complexion black, but by Defign, as the Gypfies 
in England' They anoint themfelves with Bears Fat 
clarify 'd', and ufing no Defence againfl t\iQ San or 
VV"eather, their Skin's are fwarthy. Their Eye is 
little and black. As to their Faces, Mr. Pen fays, 
The thick L?p and flat Nofe^ fo frequent with the Eaf!;- 
Indians and Blacks, are not common to them *, for I have 
feen as comely European- /?'^e Faces among them of both 
SexeSy as on our Side the Sea j and truly an Italian Com- 
plexion has not much more of the White ^ and the Nofes 
ef feveral of them have as much of the Roman. 

Their Language is lofty, yet narrow ', the Accent 
and Emphafis of fome of their Words are Great and 
Sweet, as OElorockon^ Rancoca^y OriB-on^ Shakameron^ 
foquelfmy2A\ Names of Places, and very foundings 
Then for Sweetnels, there are their Anna Mother, 
Jfjlmrn Brother, Netap Friend, Vfque Oret very good,, 
Tone Bread, Metfe Eat, matt a no, hatta to have, pay a 
to come. Tamane^ Secane^ Menanfe^ Secatereus^ the 
Kames of Per fans. Their Phrafe for / have not^ is 
Metta ne hatta^ not I have. 

As to their Manners and CuilomSj they wafh their 
I Children in Water as foon as born, and plunge thzxn 
\ often in the Rivers while they are youngs to harden 



i6o The Hifiorjf of Fcnfylv^inh. 

them. They wrap them up in a Clout, and lay them 
on a flreight thin Board, a little more than the 
Length or Breadth of the Child, which they fwaddle 
faft on the Board to make it ftreight : This is the 
Reafon that all Indians have flat Heads, Thus they 
carry them at their Backs. At nine Months End 
t}iQ Children commonly go. They wear only a fmall 
Clout round their Waft, till the^^ are big. The Boys 
fifh till they are fifteen, then they hunt *, and ha- 
ving given fome Proofs of their Manhood by a good 
Return of Skins, may marry, elfe 'tis a Shame to 
think of a Wife. The Girls live with their Mothers, 
help hough the Ground, plant Corn, and carry Bur- 
thens *, and, fays my Author, They do well to ufe them 
to that youngs which they mufl do when they are old ^ 
for the Wives are the true Servants of the Hmbands^ 
ctherwife the Men are very affeBionate to them. Wo- 
men marry at 15 or 14, Men at 17 or 18. Their 
Houfes are Matts, or Barks of Trees fet on Poles, like 
an EngliJI) Barn, out of the Power of the Winds, for 
they are hardly higher than a Man. They lye on 
Reeds or Grafs. When they travel, they lodge in 
the Woods, about a great Fire, with the Mantle of 
Duffils they wear by Day wrapt about them. Their 
Food is Indian Corn, which they drefs feveral ways, 
Beans and Peafe, Fleih and Fifh out of the Woods 
and Rivers. They treat the Europeans^ vfho come 
among them, very civilly, and give them the^ beft 
Place and firft Cut. They fit moftly on the Ground, 
clofe to their Heels, their Legs upright ^ and after 
having faluted their European Vifiters or Vifiter with 
an Itahy or Good be to you^ perhaps fay not a Word 
more, but obferve all PafTages. They are pleas'd if 
you give them any thing, but never beg ^ and if 
they are not ask'd to eat, go away fuUeuly. 

They conceal their Refentments as much as they 
can, and are fuppos'd to do it on Account of the Re- 
venge that has been pra£lis'd among them *, for in both 
their Refentments and their Revenge they are not ex- 
ceeded by the Italians '^ an Inftance of which happened 
while Mr. Fen was in the Country : A King's Daugh- 
ter thinking her felf flighted by her Husband, in luf- 
fering another Woniiin to lie down between them, 
rofe up, went out, pluck'd a Root cut of the 


The Hifiory of Penfy Ivank. 1 6 1 

Ground, and eat it, upon which fhe immediately 
dy'd. Her Husband made an Offering to her Kin- 
dred according to Cuflom, for an Atonement, and 
Liberty of Marriage. At the fame time two other 
Husbands did it to the Kindred of their Wives that 
dy*d a natural Death : For till Widowers have thus 
aton'd, they muft not marry again. Some of the 
young Women fell their laft Favours before Marri- 
age, to raife Money for a Portion *, but after they 
are marry'd, they remain chaft, and never admit 
their Husband's Embraces when they are with Child* 
In the Month they touch no Meat, and eat with a 
Stick, left they fhould defile it, nor admit their Huf- 
bands till that Time is expir'd. 

May not {om^European Wives learn of thefe Barba" 
tians '^ and is it not Vanity in any one People to call 
another barbarous, becaufe their Cuftoms differ^? 
They are very liberal, infomuch that if an European 
gives any of them a fine Gown or Coat, it may pals 
twenty Hands before it fticks. They are the merri- 
eft Creatures living, feafting and dancing perpetu- 
ally. Wealth circulates like Blood among them ^ 
all Parts partake ^ yet they are exa(^ Obiervers or 
Property. They covet little, becaufe they want but 
little. If they are ignorant of our Pleafures, they 
alfo know nothing cf our Pains. Their Hunting, 
Fiftiing, and Fowling feed them, and their Sporrsare 
their Subfiftance. They eat twice a Day, Morning 
and Evening. Their Seats and Tables are on the 
Ground. They, have learnt Drunkennefs of the Eu* 
ropeam, and are wretched Objefls when drunL 
When they are iick they drink a Teran, or Decofti- 
on of fome Roots in Spring- Water ^ and if they eat 
Flefh, it muft be of the Female of any Creature, 
They have a great Opinion of Cold Baths and Sweat- 
ings : An Inftance of whicK we fhali report, it being 
very extraordinary, and the Truth of it is not to be 
queftion'd j for the Gentleman who told it to us^ 
was the very Perfon that faw it. Mr. Pen^ in the 
Year 1583. travelling into th^ Back Countries, to 
make Difcoveries, came to a Wigwam, where the 
Captain General of that Nation liv'd , for they have 
fuch an Officer, befides their Sachem or King, who 
commands the Army, and leads them to Battle t 

M The 

i62 The Hifiory of fcnfylvdinu. 

The Captain General happened to be at that time ill 
■ of a Fever, and was about to try their ufual Remedy 
to cure himielf. His Wife to that end had prepared 
a little Bagnio upon the Ground, without Doors, 
into w^hich he crept. This Bagnio was like an Oven ^ 
and his V/ife, to heat it, put Several great hot Stones 
on each fide of it, which gave the Man an extream 
Sweat, while he fat or lay along in this Oven or 
Bagnio. She made a Hole througti the Ice of the Ri- 
ver, it being frofty Weather, and the Bagnio on the 
River's Bank. This Hole or Paflage fhe dug with an 
Axe, the Ice being very thick. When the Paflage 
was prepared, the Man came out of his Oven, the 
Drops of Sweat running down his Face and Body^ 
leapt into th@ River, and duckt himfelf twice. He 
then crept through his Oven, and fo went to his 
Wigwam, where laying himielf down by a Fire, 
he gradually cool'd himfelf, and was afterw^ards as well 
as ever. 

Thus far we have told this Story, to fliew what 0> 
pinion the Indians have of Sweating and Cold Baths : 
The remaining part of it is to give the Reader 
an kka of their Manners and Underilanding ^ and 
being affur^d by Mr. Pen himfelf, that the following 
Relation is true, we recommend it as fuch to the 
(World, for we cannot have better Authority. 
^ While the Captain General was in the Bagnio, he 
lirft (ang all the kdis of th^ Nation he w^as of, to divert 
him from the Troublefomenefs of the Heat ^ then 
thofe of his Anceftors, who were Nobles and Gene- 
jals in the Country ^ and laft of all, his own. After 
which he fell into this Rhapfody : What is the Matter . 
mth US Indians J that we are thus Jick in our own Air^ 
and thefe Strangers well <" "'TIS as if they were jent hithsr 
to inherit our Land in our fieeds ^ but the Reafon is plain^ 
they Icve the great God^ and we do not, A Reflexi- 
on very forprizing in a Barbarian *, but Mr. Fen 
heard it, and atteiled it to be Matter of Fafttothe 

If they die, chey are bury'd. Men or Women^ 
with their Apparel *, and the neareil of Kin throw 
foQie valuable Thing into their Graves, as Tokens of 
their Love. Their Mourning is blacking of their 
Facesj vvhich they continue ^ whole Year. They 


The Hiftory of fcn{ylv2inh.' 163 

are nice in the Choice of the Graves of their Dead j 
for, left they fhould be loft by Time, they pick oft 
the Grafs that grows upon them. They, believe a 
God and Immortality, -faying, There is a great Kingj 
who made them^ who dwells in a glorious Country^ to the 
Southward of them '^ and the Souls of the Good Jball go 
thither^ where they Jhall live again. 

Their Worfhip confifts oV Sacrifices and Songs. 
They feaft one another in Harveft-Time, and invite 
the Europeans fometimes. Mr. Pen was at one of their 
Entertainments, on a green Bank by a Spring, un- 
der ftiady Trees. There were 20 Bucks kill'd, with 
hot Cakes of new Corn, Wheat and Beans, which 
they make up in a fquare Form *, then they dance. 
Thofe that go to thefe Feafts muft carry a fmall Pre- 
fent in their Money *, it may be fix Pence, which is 
made of the Boae of a Fifh : The Black is with them 
as Gold^ the White as Silver % and they call it all 

Their Government is by Kings or Sachems, and 
chofeby Succeilion, but always of the Mother's fide, 
yet no Woman inherits. The Reafbn they render 
for this way of Defcent, is, that their IlTuemay not 
be fpurious. Every King has his Council, confifting 
of all the old and wife Men of his Nation, which per- 
haps is two Hundred. Nothing of Moment is under- 
taken, be it War, Peace, felling of Land, or Traf- 
fick, without advifing with them j, and which is more, 
with the young Men too. 'Tis admirable^ fays my 
Author, to confider how powerful the Kings are^ and 
how they move by the Breath of their People, And in 
thofe Monarchies where the true Ends of Govern- 
ment are maintain'd, no Power will be thought too 
much for the Prince, nor no Privileges too great for 
the People. The Simplicity of thsfe Indian Monar- 
, chies give us a better Idea of the Origin of Power, 
than all that the Filmers^ the Lefleys^ and the infa- 
mous Supporters of Tyranny have fhewn us in their 
Sophifiical Arguments. 

Their Juftice is pecuniary ^ in cafe of any wrong or 
evil Fadt, be it Murder it felf, they atone by Fvafls 
and Prefents of their Wampum ^ which is proportion'd 
to the Quality of th.Q Offence, or Perfon injur'd, or 
of the Sex they are of: For in eafe they kill a Wo- 

M 2 man. 

164 The Hifiory of Penfylvania. 

man, they pay double *, and the Reafon they render, 
is, That Jhe breeds Children^ which Men cannot do. 
This Argument is asfalfe as Ample ^ for (he could not 
breed them if a Man did not get them, and his Life is 
therefore as valuable as the Woiiian's. They feldom 
fall out if ^ober *, and if drunk, they forgive it, fay- 
ing, It was the Drink^ and not the Man that abus'd 

Mr. Ten believes them to be of JewiJJ) Race, but 
that Suppofition is too chimerical, and we fhould not 
much mend the Matter, if w^e repeated the Argu- 
ments that fome make ufe of to vindicate this Conje- 

Their Way of living is fimple, butnafty ^ and we 
fhould wonder if they had learnt any Delicacy of the 
New Comers. They have been very civil and friendly 
to the Englifoy who never loft Man, Woman, or 
Child by them *, which neither the Colony of Ma- 
ryland nor that of Virginia can fay, no more than the 
^^'MQo\on-^ q{ New-England. This Friendfhip and 
Civility of the Venjylvanian Indians are impy.ted to 
Mr. Ven^ x\\t Proprietary's extream Humanity and 
Eounty to them, he having laid out fome Thoufands 
of Pounds to inftruifi:, fupport and oblige them. There 
are i o Indian Nations within the Limits of his Pro- 
, vince ^ and the Number of Souls of thefe Barbarians 
are computed to be about 6'ooo. 

We have met with very few Events relating to this 
Colony : They have had no Wars either with the 
Indians or French j and confequently little Aftion has 
happen'd here. Mr. Pen having obtained the before- 
mention'd Pattent, invited feveral Perfons to pur- 
chafe Lands of them, as he, itfeems, purchas'd of the 
Indians. The Swedes^ who had encroach'd upon the 
Dutch J the fir ft Planters here, as well as at iVf TP-r^r^, 
fettl'd upon or near the Frefies of the River Delaware, 
The Finns^ or Inhabitants o^ Finland^ were part of 
the Swedijb Colony, and they apply 'd themfelves 
chiefly to Husbandry; The King of Sweden, to pro- 
te£i: his Subje<fls in theie Parts, appointed a Governour 
here, who had often Difputes wuth the Governour 
that prefided over the Dutch, The latter apply'd 
themfelves moftly to Traffick, living upon or near 
the Bay 1; and by the Neighbourhood ol New-T&rk 

were too powerful for t\\Q Swedes^ who finding they 
cou'd not maintain their Ground, fubmitted to their 
ftronger Neighbours. Accordingly John Riz,ewg the 
Swedifi Governour made a formal Surrender of the 
Country, A.D.i6$^, to Peter Styrefam^ Governour 
for the States of Holland, After which this Province 
continued fubje£l to that Republick till the Engliih 
drove the Dutch out of Neiv Amfierdam^ or Nevo^ 
Torkj and made the Polleliion of t\vik Territories 
eafy to Mr. Pf^/, when he had obtain'd a Grant of 
them : For both Swedes and Dutch are under his Go- 

There were a few Engli fh here before this Gentle- 
man fent over the firft Adventurers under his Pat- 
tent *, their Governour was Col. TF/Z/zV^/;? Mark- 
ham his Nephew, to whom .both Dutch and Swedes Col, W\h 
fubmitted \ and when the Lord Proprietary came M^rkhani 
thither himfelf, he Tent this Gharailer of them 10 D^^pmyGo^ 
England 'j ' They are a plain, ftrong, indaflrious^^^^^*^^^* 
' People, yet have made no great Progrefs in Culture 

* or Propagation of Fruit- Trees, as if they de fir 'd 

* rather' to have enough, than Plenty or Traffick. 
^ The Indians made them the more carelefs by fur- 
^ niiliing them with the means of Profit, as Skins and 
' Furs, for Rum, and fuch flrong Liquors, As they 

-^ are a People proper and ftrong of Body, fo they 

* have fine Children, ^nd almoft every Houfe full ^ 
' 'tis rare to find one of them without three or four 

* Boys, and as many Girls *, fome have fix, reven,and 
^ eight Sons, and few young Men are more fober 
^ and laborious. The Number of thefe. Inhabitants 
o^ Swedifi ox: Dz/fc/; Extradlion, may be about 3000 
Souls. Mr. Pen^ before he went over to Penfyhania^ 
fold 26000 Acres to a certain Society, Mr. Nicholas 
Moor^ Mr. James Claypool^ Mr. Phillip Ford^ and 
others^ who had a whole Street, and one fide of a. 
Street, laid out for them in Philadelphia^ and 4.00 

.Acres of Land in the City- Liberties. This Society 
ere^ed a Tannery, a Saw -Mill, a Glafs-Houfe, and 
a Whalery. They had a Preiideni: in London: Their 

■ Officers were a Prefidenr, Deputy, Treasurer, Agent^ 

Secretary, Surveyor, 12 ConimiLtee-Mer , ^ ,n/i-^ 

gioQs, Faftors, Clerks, Overieers, Mencngers^Por- 

'ters. Butchers^ Water-men, Car-men, and other in- 

' , M I * " feric r 

^66 The Hijlory of Penfylvania. 

ferior Mechanicks and Labourers. And having men« 
tion'd this Sale of 200OO Acres, 'twill not be impro- 
per to report what were the Proprietary's Conditions 
ofSale^: Buyers ^\\xQh.2is'd after the Rate of 20/. for 
a thoufand Acres, and i s, or the Value of it yearly, 
for 100 Acres. Renters were to pay i s. an Acre 
yearly, not exceeding 200 Acres'^ and Servants were 
to have 50 Acres when their Times were expir'd, 
whether Men or "Women. The Owner was alfoal- 
low'd 50 Acres a Head for fach Servants. 

We have hinted before, there were few Englifli 
when Mr. Fen went over to take on him the Govern- 
ment of his Province, which was in the Year i<?8i. 
He carry'd along with him, and there came to him 
in the firft Year near 2000 Souls, and before the New- . 
Comers built Houfes, they ran up Huts for their Re- 
ception. Thefe Huts were generally 30 Foot long, 
and 1 8 Foot broad, with a Partition near the Mid- 
dle, and another to divide one end of the Houfe into 
two fniall Rooms. For this ufe they took eight Trees 
ofabout 16- Inches fquare, cut oiF ten Pofts of about 
1 5 Foot long, upon which the Houfe flood, and 4 
Pieces, 2 of 20 and 2 of 1 8 Foot long, for Plates to 
lay a-top of thole Pofts. They had 10 Giejis of 20 
Foot long, to bear the Lofts^ and 2 falfe Pla^tesof 30 
Foot long to lie on the Ends of the Glefis^ for the;^^/- 
ters to be fix'd upon. There* were 12 Pair of Raf- 
ters of about 20 Foot, to bear theRoof of the Houfe, 
with Windbeams, Braces, Studds, &c. They us'd 
Clapboard for the Covering of the Houfe-Ends and 
Sides, and for the Loft ^ this Clapboard is riv'd 
Feather edg'd 5 t Foot long, and if well drawn, lies 
clofe and fmooth. They lin'd the Lodging- Room 
with it, and fiU'd it up between, which made it very 
warm. Ths Lower Flowr was Earth, the Upper 
Clapboard, But xhi^k mean Dwellings ferv'd only till 
tliQ Tevfyhvamans v/ere hi\\Q^ a little : And then ha- 
ying feil'd their Trees, clear'd and cultivated their 
Ground, rais'd Stv-cks, and planted a great part of 
their Pi^rchafes, they began to leave their Cottages ; 
■for ftateiy as well as convenient Houfes, and to imi^ • 
tate xki^ Inhabitants of die other Colonies in the ! 
Wiliiam Grandeur of their Buildings. As foon 2.%h^x,Te^^ 
*^^..^if.^ arriv'd^ he enters upon Treaties with the Indiaiii 

■ ' ' Kings 

The Hifiory of Penfylvaiiia. 

Kings to buy Land. The Natives being few, and not 
able to cultivate or defend a great Country, wliich 
the EngUfh cou'd eafily have taken from them, were 
willing enough to part with their Lands foi;* a fmali 
Confideration : Twenty Miles of Ground might hav© 
been purchas'd for a Trifle. But whcQ the Eagliih 
flock'd thither, th^iQ Indians were not fo ignorant, 
but they knew their Interefl, that the Land would be 
wanted, and confequ^ntly worth more *, accordingly 
they rais'd the Price ten times as much as it v/as at 
firft. The Proprietary, in the Letter before-men- 
tioned, gives us an Account of the Audience he had 
of the King, which 'tis probable the Reader will be 
defirous to be acquainted with, there being fome- 
thing in it worthy his Guriofity : ' I have had Occa- 

* fion, fays Mr. Pen^ to be in Council with them, 

* upon Treaties for Land^ and toad joft the Terms 

* of Trade, their Order is thus^ The King fits in 
' the middle of an Half-Moon, and has his Councilj 
' the Old and Wife, on each hand v behind them>or at 
' a little diftance fits the younger Fry in tliQ fa^me Fi- 
' gure. Having confulted and refolv'd thdr BufineGj 
' the King commanded one of them to fpeak to me •, 

* Heftood up, came to me,, and in his King's Name 

* falutqd me, taking me by l\\t Hand, and telling me. 
He was ordered by his King to [peak to me^ and that 

' now it was not he^ but the King that [poke ^ becaufi 

* what he Jhould fay was the Kings Mind. Hedril 
^ pray'd me to excufe them^ that they had not com^ 
^ ply'd with me in a former M'eeting, He feard there 
' might be fome Fault in the Interpreter^ being neither 
^ Indian nor Englijh'^ hefides it was the' Indian Cufiom 
^ to deliberate before they refolve j and that if the young 
^ People and Owners of the Land had been as ready as 
'■ he J I had not met with fo much Delay, Having thus 
« introduc'd his Matter, he fell to tliQ Bounds of the 
^ Land they had agreed to difpofe of, and to thQ 
^ Price. During thQ Time thi^ Perfon fpoke, not a 
**Man of them was obferv'd to whifper orfmile, 

* The Old were Grave, the Young Reverend in their 

* Deportment. When they fpoke, which was but 

' feldom, 'twas warmly and elegantly. I have ne- : 
^ ver feen more natural Sagacity, con (idering them/' 
J without tliQ Help of Tradition •, and he will de° ■ 

M 4 ^ fervej' 

1 68 The Hifiory of Penfylvania. 

* fei've the Name of Wife that is too hard for them in 

* any Treaty about a Thing they underftand. Wihen 

* the Purchafe was agreed, Great Fromifes pafi he^ 

* tween us of Kmdn^js and good N^eighhourhood^ and 
' that the Indians and Englifl) mufi live in Love as long 
' as the Sun gave Light, After which another made a 
' Speech to the Indians^ in the Name of all the 5^- 
^ chems or Kings, firfl to tell them what was 
' done, next to charge and command them. To love 
' the Chrijiians^ and particularly to live in Peace with 

* me^ and the People vnder my Government \ That ma- 
^ ny Governcnrs had been in the River ^ hut that no Go- 

* vernour had come himfelfto live and fiay here before ^ 

* and having now fuch cm one that had treated them 

* xoell^ they fhovld mvcr do him or his any wrong. At 
5 every Sentence of which- they lliouted, and faid 
^ Amen in their way. By Governour living himfelf 
among them, they meant Proprietary : For they had 
had feveral Dutch and Swedi/h Governours in Dela- 
ware River. The Land thus bought was enter'd up- 
on by the Under-Purchafers, who purchas'd by i^^ 
1 00 or the I ooo Acres what the Proprietary bought by 
Miles. When the Country began to be a little plan- 
ted, aluioft as far as the Bay's Mouth, 'twas laid 
out into the fix Counties we have Tpoken o^ which 
with the chief Towns or Villages chofe Reprefenta- 
tives in the AlTembly. For we maft obferve that by 
theConftitutions in the Pattent, the Proprietary was 
impower'd, with the Confent of the People, to make 
any Laws for the Publick Good. Theie Conftituti- 

•' ons were, That the Governovr and People have a Le- 

.t giflative Power^ fo that no Law can he made-^ nor Aio- 

ney rais'd^ ht't by the Confent of the Inhabitants ^ 
That the Rights and Freedom of England he- in Force 
there \ That making no Law againfi Allegiance^ the Go- 
vernour and People might ^nuB what Laws th'ey pleased 
for the Good J Prof per ity a?2d Security of the Pr&yince^ 
&c. All the Inhafiitanis, ^s well Swedes s^nd'^Dutchy 
as EngliJI):, WQVQ VQry well pleas'd with Mr. Pen's ao- 
niino thither in. Pcribn, and th'd Foreigners received 
-him with as much Joy and Refpe^l as his own Coun- 
try-men. He held two General Ajfemhlies^ an,d with 
fuch Unanimity and Difpatch, that tho they fat bat 
three Weeks, t|iey paft 70 Laws without one Dif- 
.. ' fent 

The Hifiory of Penfylvania. 

fent in any material thing. They prefented the Tro- 
prietary with an Impoft on certain Goods imported 
and exported, whicli Mr. Pen very generouOy remit- 
ted to the Province, and the Traders to it: People 
nov^ went from all Parts of England to Penfylvania • 
as from London^ Leverpoolj and Brifiol eipeci-Uy. For 
the Weft o{ England abounding wii;h DifTsnters, and 
with a lewd Ht^rd of Per fee a tors, more than other 
Counties, they ihipt themfelves in that Port in great 
Numbers for Philadelphia. In thQ Year 16-82. Mr. 
Thomas Goldney and Mr. John Duddlefione^ two Tra- 
ders in that City, fitted out the Vnicorn^ a Ship of 
300 Tuns for this Voyage, to carry Pa ffengers and 
Goods to the new Colony. "The Enemies of which 
reported, Mr. Pen was not only d.^%^^ but that he 
dy'd a Jefuit^ in his Government. Upon which Mr. 
Eord his Agent in England^ gave publick Notice in xh^ 
Gazette^ of his being alive and in good Health. The 
Anfwer Mr. Pen wrote to his Friends when he heard 
w^hat was reported of him, is very ingenious- / find 
fome Perfons^ fays he, have had fo little Wit, and fa 
much Malice^ as to report my Death ^ and to mend the 
Matter^ dead a Jefuit too ! One might have reafonably 
hop'd that this Diftance^ like Death^ wou'd have been a 
ProtefHon againji Spite and Envy *, and indeed Ahfence' 
being a kind of Deaths ought alike to fecure the Name 
of the Ahfent as the Dead^ becaife they are equally vna- 
hie as fuch to defend themfelves. But they that intend 
Ml f chiefs do not vfe to follow good Rules to effei^ it. 
However to the great Sorrow and Shame of the Inventor s^ 
Jamftill ahve^ and no Jefuit : I perceive many frivo^ 
lous and idle Stories have been invented fine e my Depar- 
ture from England, which perhaps by this time are no 
Ij 'more alive than I am dead. He was viiited by the 
I Kings, Queens, and Great Men of the Country, and 
jl (ettled the Affairs of the Province with equal Wifdom 
|-and Diipatch. He eftabiiih'd Courts of Juftice in- 
I every County with proper Officers, as Jufiicesof the 
I Peace, Sheriffs, \ Clerks, Contlabies^ &c. Which 
I CourtsAvere to he holden every, tvvo ivlonths- But 
I to prevent Law^Suits and Debates among this peace- 
j able People, there were three Peace-makers chofen 
j by every County- Court, in the nature of common. 
hArbiiratorSj to hear and end DiiF^rences between 


The Hijlory ^/ Penfilvania. 

Man and Man ^ and every Spring and Fall there's an 
Orphans Court in each County, to infped and regu- 
late the Affairs of Orphans and Widows, 

Things being thus fettled, the Colony thriv'd apace, 
and Merchants came thither to drive on a Trade with 
the Sugar Iflands, which is very advantagious ^ for to 
thofe Iflands the Tenfylvanians lend Corn, Beef, Pork, 
Fifh, Pipe-Staves, take their Growth, and carry it 
for England^ and return with Englijfj Goods. Horfes 
and live Cattle they alio export to the Southern Plan- 
tations, and fend their Furs to England^ where, or in 
other V2Lns of Europe^ they find a quick Vent. Here 
are other ' Commodities, as Hides, Tallow, Sheep, 
and Wool!, ail in Demand in the Sugar Iflands. The 
Indians help them to their Furs, as Peltry, Minx, 
Racoons, and Martins ^ with which profitable Trades 
this Colony flourilh'd as much as any *, and Mr. Ten^ 
before he came away, might mufter 2joo Fighting 
Men, there being above 6000 Souls in all, A, D, 1^84. 
fo much was the Colony encreas'd in his Time. 'Tis 
true, he carryM over with him 2000 Souls in 18 or 
20 Ships, which was a noble Foundation for a Settle-, 
ment, and fonie of them were Perfons of .Eftates, whol 
fled from the Perfecution at home, to enjoy the Peace 
of their Confciences, and the Privileges of the 
Laws of this Province*, the Government of which 
was then a fort of Republick^ and an excellent Form' 
was drawn up by that Great Lawyer, Sir Will. Jones^ 
and other famous Men of the Long Robe. The Go- 
vernment was indeed, as that of other Colonies,, 
by Governour, Council, and Aflembly ^ but the;; 
Council was not nam'd by the Proprietary ^ the In-* > 
habitants of every Shire chole two or more for each,, 
as they did Knights of the Shire : Neither had the Af- 
fembly Power to debate Laws, but the Conflitution 
gave them the negative Voice. The Governour and 
Council drew up what Laws they thought were for 
the Good of the Colony, and having drawn them up, 
affix'd them in a publick Place, where all the People 
might fee them, and judge of them, as to their Ne- 
ceility or Convenience ^ and the AfTembly, whom 
they chofe, pafs'd or rejefted them arbitrarily, as the 
Governour in other Provinces reje£^s or pafTes Laws 
there 5 fo that the Conilitution of Fenfylvania was at 

The Hiflory 0/ Penfylvania. 171 

firft Democratic al, Mr. Ten had all the Laws fo fram'd, 
that no Difference was made in Opinion^ where Property 
made no Difference, All Ele6lions were by Ballot, 
and the Form of this Government, which was found- 
ed on what was excellent in the beft German and o- 
ther foreign Conftitutions of Common-Wealths, was 
fuch, that every Man's Property, Privileges, and Li- 
berties, Spiritual and Temporal, were perfe^liy fe- 
cur'd : But fuch is the Wtaknefs of Human Nature, 
that being it felf imperfedV, it cannot relifh Perfections 
and the nearer any thing approaches to it in this 
World, the more likely it is to difguft People. This 
Form was too fine for the heavy Intell<:;6ls of feme of 
the grofs Vulgar. They valu'd themfelves, and with 
good Reafon in the main, on being Englifimen^ and 
fcorn'd, as they iaid, to give their Opinions and Votes 
in the dark *, they would do nothing which they durfl 
not own, and their Fore-heads and Voices fl^iould al- 
ways agree with one another. Thus they clamour'd 
againft that Part of the Conftitution which fecur'd 
the reft, the Ele^ion by Ballot^ and never gave over 
clamouring till it was abolifh'd, and the firft Order 
of Government broken in upon in the moll efTential 
Parts of It. Upon which Faftions of courfe com- 
menc'd, and Dilcon tents and Tumults follow 'd, to 
the great Difturbance and Detriment of the Colony : 
But this happening afterwards, fhould alfo have been 
reported in a later part of this Hiftory, if we had 
not been defirous to give one View of this Conftitu- 
tion, and of the Fate that attended it. 

Mr. Pen ftay'd in Penfylvania two Years, and would 
not then have removed to England^ had not the Perfe- 
cution againft the Diftenters rag'd fo violently, that 
he could not think of enjoying Peace in America^ 
while his Brethren in England were (b cruelly dealt 
with in Europe, He knew he had an Intereft in the 
Court of Engi^andj and was willing to employ it for 
the Safety, Eafe, and Welfare of his Friends *, fo ha- 
ving made a League of Amity with 19 Indian ^di- 
tions, between them and all ihQ Enghfi in America^ 
having eftablifti'd good Laws, and feen his Capital 
fo well inhabited, that there were then near 30<? 
Houfes, and 2500 Souls in it, befides 20 other Town- 
Ihips, he return 'd to England^ leaving William Mark- 
'^' • ham<^ 

Efqi Pre- 

J 72 The Hiflory of Penfylvania. 

hdm^ Efq-,"^ Secretary \ Mr. Ihomas Holmes^ Surveyor 
General •, and the Adminiftration in the Hands of the 
Council, whofe Prefident was Thomas Lloyd^ Efq*^ 
who by Virtue of his Office held the Government 
feveral Years, tho he had no Commiflion then to be 
Deputy or Lieutenant Governour ^ Mr. Ten kept 
the chief Government always himfelf, as Lord Pro- 

What Service this Gentleman did the Quakers^ in. 
King Jameis Reign, and how far that Prince gave him 
his Ear, is well known to all that are acquainted with 
the Hiftory of thofe times, ftill freili in our Me- 

Mr. Fens Enemies were very free of their Scandal, 
and ftuck at no Calumny to blacken him after the Re- 
volution. There was great Appearance of his having 
been a Favourite in the preceding Reign, and 'twas 
not likely he fnould be one in the next *, however, 
whether he was not too feverely dealt with to be treat- 
ed as an Enemy, let the impartial Reader judge. Hi§ 
Prerogative of appointing a Governour in Penfylvania 
was taken from him, and his Majefty King William 
Coltmet t^^ nid gave a Commiflion to Col. Fletcher y to be 
Fletcher, Governour of this Province, about the Year 1690, 
Govenour which Poft he enjoy'd two Years, and then Mr. Fen^ 
whofe Innocence of the things laid to his Charge 
began to be better known, recover'd his Right of 
nominating a Perfon to govern his Colony, and he 
•accordingly appointed Capt. Blachwelly who had been 
formerly Pay-Mafter of the Army m England^ to b?' 
Deputy Governour of P<??^/y/^'^»/^. This Gentleman's 
Son, Sir Lambert Blackwellj was lately Envoy ex^. 
traordinary from her Majefty to feveral Courts in 
Captm Capt. -S/^cy^Tpe// governed the Province with equal 

Blackwell, Pi'^^ience and Succefs '^ it now thriv'd apace, itsCora- 
(?5t;er?;o«r nierce and Inhabitants increas'd, and aboiit this time 
ih&: Fenfylvanians began to fall a If tie into the To-. 
bacco Trade, which is fo confiderable at prefent, 
jhat 14 Ships have been loaden with that Commodity 
from Penfylvania to London y and other Parts of £w^- 


The Hifiory of fGnfylv^inidi. . ij^ 

To Capt. Blackwell fucceeded Thomas Lloyd^ Efqj as Thomas 
Deputy Go veniour, and his Admin iftration prov'd as LloydjE/^; 
fuccefsful as his Pf edeceflors. It had been doubtlefs ^^JP^'J' 
for the Intereft of the Colony, as welJ as for Mr.Pen^s^^'^^^^^^' 
I own Advantage, if he had refided upon the Place and 
j governed the Colony himfelf. Faftions perhaps would 
not have got to fuch a Head fo foon as they did. The 
Authority of a Proprietary might have reilrain'd the 
Iflfoleace of fome Bigots, and others, whofe Zeal is 
j as blind as *tis furious. 

I Mn Lloyd dying, Mr. ?m appointed his Nephew "^^^"i^"" 
I Col. Markham to be again Deputy Governour of the ^^^™^ 
I Province, and he held the Government till the Lord ;?!r.L«. 
I Proprietary arrived himf^lf the fecond time at Fen-m\\lZ 
[fylvama^ which was in the Year 169^. Efr Go-* 

. ^^^ Perfecution ceafmg in England, the Quahrs vsrnour. 

^ here tound the Country began to be fettled by People, 

j who came thither to mend their Fortunes, and not 

I to enjoy the Liberty of their Confciences, for that 

j they had at home. Thefe Men being of the Orthodox 

: Religion of the Church of England^ Presbyterians^ and 

: Anabaptifts^ would have had a i^/&'^ fetti'd, but the 

\ Quakers being the Majority, were againfl it, their 

; Principles not allowing them the ule of Arms : How- 

\ ever, fuch as were of another Opinion, vyere allow'd 

to train themfelves, and take fuch Military Care, 

for their Defence, as confifted with t}iQ Peace of the 


Mr. Fen ftay'd here two Years, and then return 'd 
: to England^ leaving the Colony in an extraordinary 
\ fiourifhing Condition. We muft not omit that he 
[had a long Suit with the Lord Baltimore^ for the 
South Eaftern Parts of his Province, call'd, 77?^ Three 
Lower Counties, New Cafiie, Kent, ^naSuffex, but that 
Lord could make nothing of it. The. Proprietary no- ^o? An,^ 
nimated Col. Andrew Hamilton to be Deputy Gov^x-nL^tox^ 
Hour, and returned to England in the Year 1 700. SeZ 

We have fpoken of this Gentleman in the Article Govsmour 
ot the Jerfeys: Tis certain his Government gave 
Difcontent to feveral Leading Men in Penfylva- 
I nm, all Parties there were in a Ferment, and 
Matters ran fb high, that we have been in- 
torm'd they came to Executions •, but not ha- 
ving been able to learn the Particulars, we Ihall be 



174 ^^^ Hijlory of Penfylvania* 

filent; Whether this Man, by favouring the Ortho- 
dox, and thofe that fided with them, provok'd the o- 
thers, who were the Majority, we cannot decide, 
but he feems to have difcharg'd his Truft unhappily, 
and not to have been very much lamented when he 
dy'd, which happened in the Year 1704. 

By thefe Dill:ra£lions, all Mr. Penh firft and fine 

Conftitution was deftroy'd *, and this Province, like 

others, became governed by a Governour, Council, 

and AfTembly, each having much the fame Powers and 

Privileges with the Governours, Councils, and Af- 

iemblies of the other Colonies. . 

On the Death of Col. Hamilton, Mr. Fen fent over 

Col, John ^^^- 7^^^ Evans to be Deputy Governour, and he 

fivans,/?^- was approv'd by the Queen \ for the Lords Proprie- 

pmy Go- taries, all over America^ are by a late A£l of Parlia- 

vermur^ ment oblig'd to have rhe Royal Approbation for all 

the Governours they fend to America, 

We fhall not enter into any Enquiries into the Cau- 
fes of the Trouble that has been given Mr. Pen lately' 
about his Province of Penfylvania\ it appears to us, 
by what we have heard of it from other's, for from 
himfelf we had never any Information concerning it, 
that he has been involv'd in it by his Bounty to the 
Indians, his Generoiity in minding the publick Affairs 
of the Colony more than his own private ones, his 
Humanity to thofe thai have not made fuitable Re- 
turns, his Confidence in thole that have betray'd him, 
and the Rigor of the fevereft Equity^ a Word that 
borf^ers lh.Q neareil to Injailice of any. 'Tis certainly 
ths Duty of this Colony to maintain the Prcprie- ^ 
tary, who has laid -out his All for the Maintenance 
of them, in the PofTefiion of his Territory, and the 
Publick in Gratitude ought to make good what they 
reap the BeneBcof. This is all faid out of Juftice to 
the Merit of this Gentleman, without his Know- 
ledge, otherwife 'twould have been without his Con- 

In the Geographical Defcription of this Province we ; 
have made (ome Omiffions, '.vhich from better Infor- \ 
mat'ion we (hall now cor,re£t. 

The Province properly call'd Penfylvanla confifts 
only of the three Upper Counties, Buckingham, Phi- 
ladelphia^ .^ndi Cheftery for no more are within thQ 


The Hiflory of VQnfylvsiniB,. 175 

Grant made by King Charles to Mr. Pen-^ and the 
Length of that Country is about 150 or 200 Miles, 
as we have faid already y but then there are the Three 
Lower Counties, JSTewcaftley Kem^ and SuJJexy 
which Mr. Pen enjoys by a Grant from the Duke of 
Tork^ for they were within his Pattent of NewTork^ 
the JerfeySy &c. But being granted tg the Proprieta- 
ry of the Upper Counties, he includes them within 
the fame Government. Never thelefs he has a Right 
to make them a feparate Government if he pleaies, 
holding them by a feparate Charter. 

The three upper Counties, or Penfylvania^ proper- 
ly fo cali'd, tx\6. at Marcus Hook^ 4 Miles brjlow Che- 
fier. The Three Lower Counties run about 120 
Miles along the Coaft, and are about 30 Miles deep 
towards Maryland, 

The Marines on the Bay of Delaware are as com- 
modious and fertile as any in the World, notwith- 
flanding this Diftindion of Upper and Lower, fince 
all fix Counties are under one Government, have 
the fame Lord Proprietary, and the lame Gover- 
nour, they are commonly calfd by the fame Name, 
and are known to lYiQ World by the general Appellati- 
on of Penfylvania. We ihall treat of them in Order, 
in this Addition to our other Obfervations, as they 
ftand from Weft to Eaft, beginning with the FaUs 

The whole Country within Mr. Pen's Grants, 
from the Falls Townjhlp^ and higher, to 20 Miles be- 
low Cape Hinlopen^ or Cape WiUtam^ is in Length 
about 330 Miles, and in Breadth 200. The firft 
County we come to, travelling from the Falls to the 
Mouth of the Delaware^ is, 

Buckingham-County J where the firft Town is calfd, 
thQ Falls Townfljipy and confifts of 20 or 30 Houfes* 
Next to it is, 

Brifioll, the Capital of the County, confiding of 
about 50 Houfes, lying over 'dgdiink Burlington y in 
Wefi New-Jerfey. ' lis famous tor the Mills there of 
feveral forts, built by Mr. Samuel Carpe-atar^ an emi- 
nent Planter in the Country, formerly a Barbadoes 
I Merchant It lies about 20 Miles from Philadel- 
I phia, 


176 The Hiftory of Penfylvania. 

Tennsherry is a Mannor belonging to JF/7//^;« P^^^ 
Efq, the Lord Proprietary, who has built a very fine 
Seat there, both in its own Nature and Situation, as 
well as in its Improvement. The Ld. Cornhury^ when het 
was Governour o{ NeW'Torky (he being remov'd from 
that Government fmce our writing the Hiftory of 
that Province, and the Right Honourable the Lord 
Lovelace put in his Place ) vi^ittd^ this Mannor, and 
was extreamly pleas'd with the Houfe, Orchards and 
Gardens. Tis feated -in a treble Illand, the Delaware 
running three times about it. The Houfe is built 
with Brick, and ftands high and dry, having 1 6 A- 
cres of very good Orchards, producing better Pare- 
wains and Golden-Pippins than any in England^ by 
the Confeffion of good Judges here ^ for Mr. Pen 
brought fome of them with him to England, There 
are 10 or 12 TovpnJJnps more in this County,- 
which fends c Members to the AfTembly ^ one of 
whom, Jofeph Growdeny Efq^ is at this time their 
Speaker. He has been very inftrumental m 
planting and fettling this County^ for which, and 
many other things, it is very much indebted to his 
Care and Services. Next to it is, 

Philadelphia County, where the firft Town we 
come to, is FranEiford^ already mentioned. 'Tis as 
big as Brifioly and well built. As to the City of, ' 

Philadelphiay we have in the former Part of this 
Chapter or Head, dilcours'd of it at large •, to which 
we have only to add, that the Streets there are very 
broad, and their Names denote the feveral forts ol 
Timber that are common in Penfylvania : As Mulher- 
ry-fireety Sajfafrasfireet^ Chefnut-jireet^ Walnut- fir eet. 
Beach fireety Aflj-fireety Vine-fireetj Cedar-fireet, 
ThQYQzreothQYs J ^s^King-fireety Broad fireety High 
flreet^ &c. 

The Court-Houfe is built of Brick, and under it h 
a Prilbn. There are feveral Houfes on the Keys^ 
worth each 4 or 5000 Pounds^ and 15 Ships have- 
been on the Stocks at a time. Tis fuppos'd 100 Ships 
have been built in this City. The Cellars or Ware- 
houfes upon the Keys are made into the River with 
great Induftry, and fome of them are 3 Stories high. 
This City is now in a flourifhing State. Here are J lit 
two Fairs a Year, and two Markets a Week. The! 




The Hiflory ^/ Penfylvania. 177 

Buildings encreafe Yearly, and it has the Honour to 
fend Members to the AfTembly, which meets here, as 
has been elfewhere obrerv'd. 

Ahingto?i and Dublin are two pretty little Towns 
in this County, but the moft confiderable next to 
Fhiladelphia^ is, 

German Town^ a Corporation of High and Low 
Dutch. There are above 200 Houfes in it, Peach- 
Trees are planted all along before the Doors, which 
in the time of Bloom make a beautiful Road for a 
Mile together. The Town is very pleafant and airy, 
being wonderfully clear'd from Trees. In this 
County, and on the other fide of the River Schoolkill 
is the 

WelJJrTraB^ confifling of about 40000 Acres of 
Land, planted by Weljhmen^ or at lead laid out to 
them. This Traft is thick of Townfhips -^ as Radnor 
before-mention'd, Haverford IVefi^ Merioneth^ and 
others. 'Tis very populous, and the People are very 
induftrious *, by which means this Country is better 
clear'd than any other part of the County. The In- 
habitants have many fine Plantations of Corn, and 
breed Abundance of Cattle, infomnch that they 
are look'd upon to be as thriving and wealthy as 
any in the Province: And this muff always be faid of 
the Welfl}^ that where -ever they come, 'tis not their 
Fault if they do not live, and live well too ^ for 
they feldom fpare for Labour, which feldom fails of 

Mountjoy^ in this County, is a Mannor belonging 
to a Daughter of Mr. Fen^ the Proprietary, and in 
this Mannor the firil Lime-ftone was dug that ever 
was found in America^ 

The County of Philadelphia is remarkable for its 
excellent Gravel, which is very rare to be met with 
on all the American Continent. It fends 6 Members 
to the AflTembly. The next County to it is, 

Chefler-Coiintyj fo caird, becaufe the People who 
firil iettrd here, came for the moft part from CheJJme 
m England. The firft Town in it is Nejvton: 'Tis 
fmall, and confifts not of above 20 or 30 Houfes. 
There are others a great deal bigger, as, 

N Che- 

lyS The Hifiorj of VQafylvvim^i. 

Chejler^ the Capital of the County, confining 
of above loo Houfes. Here's a very good Road 
. for Shipping -, ihQ w^hole Navy Royal might ride 
here *, the Delaware^ on v^hich it (lands, being 
in this Place three Miles over. Here is aCourt- 
Houfe and a Prifon, but neither of them com- 
mendable for the Finenefsof the Stru£lure. Here's 
alfo a Church, as has been already obferv'd. Next 
to it is, 

Chiehefier^ built on a navigable Creek, fo cali'J. 
It confifls of about looHoufes. Concord is another 
Town in this County, where are feveral other Town- 
ihips, and t\iQ Country is well planted. Four Miles 
below Chefler is Marcus Hcok^ the Boundary of the 
Three Vpp^r Counties, properly call'd Fenfylvania^ 
becaufe fo term'd in Mr. Feris firft Grant. But the 
Three Lower Counties go alfo by that Name. The 
County of Chefier fends 6 Members to the AlTembly. 
The next to it is, 

Newcaflle County^ in which is a Hill , caird 
Iron H'dlj from the Iron Ore found there. 
The Mill before-mention'd i§ a Miftake, there be- 
ing none erecled for that life, as we can under- 
fland upon later Enquiries. The Capital of this 

Nervcafiley is finely feated and built upon the Dela- 
ware *, it flands high. The Dutch were the firit 
Planters in this Neighbourhood, and the firft Inhabi- 
tants of this Town, which they call'd Amftel ^ from 
Amfiely the River that gives Name to AmfUldam^ or 
Amfierdam^ the Capital City of the Vnited Provinces » 
Here is a Court-Houfe, and 2500 Souls are computed 
to inhabit here. 

Fhilpot Creek is fo large, that the Royal Fleet of 
England might ride there. St. George's is a pretty 
Village, 10 Miles below Newcaflle, There's ano- 
ther Townfbip, call'd Apaquamany, The Country 
within 12 Miles about the Capital of this County, 
North and Wei% is the proper Signiory of New 
cciflle. There are 6 Members chofen in this County 
for the AfTembly. The next is, 

Kent County^ very fruitful, but not fo well plan- 
ted as the others. Dover is its Capital. Twas for- 
merly call'd St. Johns, Tis thin of Houfes, and 


The Hiftory of Pen fy Ivania. 179 

docs iiQt confift even now of above 30 or 40 Fami- 
lies. This County is (ettl'd like Virginia^ not in 
Townfhips, but in fcatter'd Plantations. It con- 
tains many Tra6ls of excellent Land, and fends 
<5" Members to the AfiTembly. Next to it is, 

Suffex County^ which Mr. Ten fo call'd, from his 
own Seat in that County in England, The Capital 

LeweSy a handfome, large Town, ftanding on the 

lovely Bank of a River, between the Town and the 

Sea, which makes the Harbour. 

Below this Place, at the Mouth of Delaware 
Bay, is Cape Hmlopeny or Cape William *, and 20 
^diles below that Cape James ^ the farthermoft 
Bounds of the Province of Penfylvania* Tis faid, 
this Cape takes its Name from King James the 
Firft ^ in whofe time it was known, but the Country 
not well difcover*d. 

The Line of Partition between Penfylvania and 
Maryland is imaginary. The Whalery we fpoke of 
was at Cape William, 

Sujfex is not full of Tovonjlnps^ bat like Kent^ is in- 
habited by Planters, fcatter'd up and down, as they 
thought beft for their Convenience. It fends fix 
Members to the AfTembly. 

Thus we have givea the Reader as full an Ac- 
count, as we could get by the beft Information of 
Tenfylvania^ which was, to uie the Proprietary's 
own Words, made at once a Country : For 'tis cer- 
tain, no Colony in America came to fuch Perfecti- 
on in fo little time, both in Trade, Settlements, 
and Numbers. Every one of the fix Counties has a 
Quarterly and Moathly Seffions and Aflizes twice a 

There's a Sheriff, or Sheriffs, for each Shire 
or County, and Juftice is frequently and regularly 
adminiftred. The fix Counties run along 20 or 30 
Miles upon the Rivers and Bays, and backwards, as 
far as they are planted '^ in fonie Places above 20 

Mr. Ven referves five Mannors in each County, 
as his particular Propriety. The Inhabitants con- 
fift of People of almoft all Nations and Religions*, 
but the Opinion of the Quakers prevails fo far, that 

N 2 xwzv 

i?o The Hijlory of Penfylvania. 

they are by much the Majority, as the £??^///^ are 
cf all the othe^r Nations. And thQ Engliflj^ JDutch^ 
Swedes J French^ Indians^ and Negroes in the Pro- 
vince of Tenjylvania^ may modeftly be computed at 
55000 Souls. 

Tho we have already made fome mention of the 
. Climate and Soil, yet having fomething to add by 
further Enquiry, we fhalldoit in this Place. 

The Summers here are not much hotter than 
in England^ at leaft not for above one Week *, when 
the Heat is fenfibly more violent. The Earth a- 
bounds in Mines, Samplers of moft Ibrts of Ore 
having been taken up in every County, and no Coun*- 
try in the World is better ftor'd with Rivers and 
Creeks, nioft of them navigable for Ships of Bur- 
then, andaliofthemfory};z^//Cr<2//!-. 

Tho not above a thirtieth Part of this Province is 
inhabited or planted, yet *tis clear'd every where 
rx^.ore than the other Parts of Amerkain PoiTeflion of 
t\iQ Engli/Ij. 

We fhall conclude what we have to fay on this 
Head, with a fhort^ but clear Account of it, abftra- 
£led from a Letter the Proprietary, William Pm, 
Efq, did the Hiftorian the Honour to write him. 

^ We confume about 18000/. yearly o^ Englijh 
' Growth, and return of our Produ£lions direftly, 

* and by w^ay of the Iflands, what augments the Re- 

* venue of' the Crown 50000 Pound. The High- 
^ hxidA 0^ Firginia diXi^i Maryland are very profitable 

* ones, having mc-derate Hills, and large Vales, 
^ fullcf Springs and little Rivers, emptying them- 
^ felves into the two great Rivers, Safquehanagh and 

* Delaware \ w^here Ships of the largeft Burthen 
'^ may ride.. Its Length is about 500 Miles*, its 

* Breadth 200. All Provifions are realonable, but 
' Labour dear, which makes it a good poor Man's 
' Country *, Husbandmen and Mechanicks getting 
^15- and 20/. Wages per Annvm for their Work, 
^ befides Diet *, {^c\\ as Carpenters, Smiths, Joiners, 
' Taylors, Shoe-makers, Cart-wrights, and Husband- 

* men, Qrc» 

The Hlfiory of Penfylvania. 

By which the Reader may fee^ that the Tempta- 
tion for People to go thither, to mend their For- 
tunes, to live pleafantly and plentifully, is fo great, 
that 'tis not to be doubted but this Province will get 
tkhe flart of all the other Englifl) Settlements on the 
Continent of America. 

We fball conclude this Hiftory and Account of 
Penfylvania J with a Lift of the chief Oiicers of this 

The Proprietary of Penfyhaniay WiEiam 
Pe^y Efquire, 

The Lieutenant-Governour, Col John Ev^ns. 

Edward Shippe/7y Efq*, 1 

Sam. Carpenter J Efq*, i 

William Trent ^ Efq^ j 

Thomas Story^ Efq^ I Members of the 

Richard Hill^ Efq', f" Council. 

William Rodney^ Efq^ I 

KalebPeufy^ Efq*, | 

James Logan^ Efq^ j 

Speaker of the Aflembly, Jofeph Grawden^ Efq^ 

Mafter of the Rolls, Thomas Story^ Efq, 

William Clarky Efq^ y 

Edward Shippen^ E(qj ClnAaeK^ 

Jofeph Growden, Efq*, C ^ ^ 

■ William Guefiy Efq-, J 

Judge of the Admiralty, Col. Robert Quarry. 

Treafurer, Samuel Carpenter^ E(q^ 

Secretary to the Government, James Logan^ 

Attorney General, R.Lowther^ Efqj 
Regifterj FeterEvans^ Eiq^ 

N 5 . Sur- 

I S2 The Hijiory of Penfylvania. 

* Surveyor General lately, Mr. Edward Venning' 

Clerk of the Peace for the j 

Town and County o^ > Robert yifl}ton^ Efq^ 
Philadelphia, J 

•^ This office is mw mans^i by ths Vnder-Surveyors , Accowr 
ubld to the Secretury^ 



— . 



O F 



€ont dining an Account of its Difcovery^ 
Settlement^ Progrefe^ and prefent State. 

'HIS Province was always reckoned a Part of 
yirginlay till the Year 16-31. when King 
Charles made a Grant of it to George Cat' 
vert J Lord Baltemorc^ of which we have 
made fome mention in the Hifcory oiFirginia-^ when 
2iX\di by whom 'twas difcover'd, will there be feen. 
George Lord Baltemore not living to (ee his Grant 
made out, his Son Cacilim Calvert^ Baron of Baltemore 
in the Kingdom of Ireland^ took it out in his own 
Name, and it bears Date the 20th of Juyie^ 1^52. 
We cannot better afcertain the Bounds of this Goun- 
tnf, than by making ufe of the Words of the Pattent. 
ivs all that Part of a Peniniula, lying between the Ocean 
Qti the Eaflj and tbf Bay of Chefeapeak on the IVefi^ 

N 4 and 

184 The Hifiory of Maryland. 

and divided from the other Part by a Right Line drawn 
from the Cape called Walk ins Poin t, (fituate in the afore- 
faid Bay near the River of Wighco) on the Weft^ mto 
the main Oc^an on the Eafi, and between that Bound on 
the Souths vmo that part ^/Delaware Bay on the Northy 
which lies under the ^oth Degree of Northern Latitude^ 
■&c. And all that TraEl of Land from the aforefaid 
Bay of pelaware, in a right Line by the Degree afore- 
faid^ to }he true Meridian of the firfi Fountain of the 
River Patownieck, and from the-ace tending towards 
the Sou^hj to the farther Bank cfthe aforefaid River^ 
and jdioxvlng the Wefc and South Side of it to a certain 
Place caird Cinquack, fituate near the Mouth of the 
faid River ^ where it falls into the Bay of Chefeapeak, 
and f'Om thence by a fir eight Line to the aforefaid Cape 
call'd Watkins Point, &c. 

The King hinifelf, when he fign'd the Pattent, was 
pleas'd to give this Province the Name of Maryland^ 
in Honour of his belov'd Wife Henrietta Maria^ 
Daughter of Henry the IVth of France. Tfte Lord 
Baltimore held it of the Crown of Er.giamL^ m com- 
mon Soccage, as of his iVla jefty's Honouir of Windfiry 
holding apG paying yearly for ever v^olndtm Arrows 
of thole P^rts at the Cafile of Win^for, The Pov^^er 
of this Proprietary is as Sovereign as that of any in 

Maryland lies between 5 7 and 40 Degrees North 
Latitude, is bounded on the Norr:: by fenfylvania^ 
Eaft by Delaware Bay and the Atlantick Ocean, 
South by J^irginia^ from whence 'tis divided by the 
River I-atcwmieck^ and Weft by the Indian Nar 

The Lord Baltimore haying obtained this Grant, 
refolv'd to go thither in Perfon *, but afterwards 
changing his iVand, he appointed his Brother Lf<3- 
nard Calvert^ Efo", to goGovernour in his ftead, with 
whom he join'u in Commiiiion Jeremy Hawley, Efq*^ 
^nd Thomas Co rnwal(i^ J Efq*, The firit Colony that 
was feot to Maryland J was in the Year 16-3 3, and 
^onfiftedof about 200 People. The Chief of thefe 
Adventurers were Gentlemen of good Families, and 
^oman Catholicks *, for Perfons of that Religion being 
fnade uneafy in England^ as well as Proteftant Dif- 
|eritersa they tranfpoi ted themfelves to this Province, 
': ' ■ , ^ . ' ■ hoping 

The Hiftory of Maryland. 185 

hoping to enjoy there the Liberty of their Confden- 
ces, under a Proprietary of their own Profcflioii, as 
the Lord Baltimore was. Thefe Adventurer? faird 
from Covpes in the Jfle of Wight the 2 2d o{ N:vsfjihery 
and having flop d at Barbadoes and St. Chr.'fiophers 
fometime, arriv'd at Poi?7t Comfort in Flrgima^ the of February following. The Names of the*prin- 
cipal Perfons among them were as follows; 

Leonard Calvert ^ Efqv Govern our. 

?CS^., ] Er.s-, Afliftahts. , 

Geo. Calvert, EfqV Brother to the Governour, 
Richard Gerard, Efq^ 
Edward Winter, Efq:^ 
Frederick Winter, Elq*, 
Henry Wife man, Eiq-^ 
Mr. John Saunders, 
Mr, Edward Cranfield, 
Mr. Henry Green, 
Mr. Nicholas Fairfax, 
My. John Baxter, 
Mr. Thomas JDorrel, 
r ' Capt. John Hill, 

Mr. John Medcalfe, and 
Mr. William Saire. 

They carry'd Letters in their Favour from his Ma- 
jefty to the Governour oiTirg'mia, who treated them 
in his Province with great Humanity. On the 3d of 
March they left Point Comfort, and came to Patowmeck 
River, which is about 24. Leagues diftant. The Go- 
vernour caird the South Point of the River St Crcgo- 
ries, and the North Point St. A^ichaels, Sailing up 
Patowmeck i -v Leagues, they came to Heron Iflancl, 
and anchor'd under a neighbouring lile, to which they 
gave the Name of St. Clements, Here Mr. Calvert^ 
in his fuperftitiour v;ay, f?t up a Crofs, and took 
Poffeflion of tri^. Country /<?r otrr S.rjiour, and for 
cur Sovereign Lord the King cf England. He went 
4 Leagues higher up the RiVer, with two Pinnaces, 
to make Difcoveries *, and landing on the South Side, 
found the hidia77s were fled for Fear. Thence he 
fail'd 9 Leagues higher, and came to Patowmeck 


1 86 The Hijlory of Maryland. 

Town, where the Werowance being a Child, j^r- 
r^/^^M his Uncle govern 'd his^ Territories in his Mi- 
nority, and receiv'd the Englijh in a friendly manner. 
From Patowmeck the Governour went to Pifcattaway^ 
about 20 Leagues higher, where he found many In- 
dians aflembled, and among them an EngllJIj^ 
many Captain Henry Fleet^ who had liv'd there leve- 
ral Years in great Efteem with the Natives. Capt. 
Fleet brought the Werowance or Prince aboard the 
Governour's Pinnace, to treat with him. Mr. Cal- 
vert ask'd him, Whether he was willing he and his 
People fhould fettle in his Country, in cafe they found 
a Place convenient for them. The Werowance re- 
ply *d, I will not bid you go ^ neither will I hid you fiay^ 
^ but you may ufe your own Dtfcretion. The Indians find- 
ing the Werowance ftay'd aboard longer than they 
expefted, crowded down to the Water-fide, to look 
after him, fearing the Englifi had kill'd him, and they 
were not fatisfy'd till he fliew'd himfelf to them to 
appeafe them. The Natives who fled from St. Cle- 
ments Ifie, when they faw the Englijh came as Friends, 
returned to their Habitations *, and the Governour not 
thinking it advifeable to fettle fo high up the River, 
in th^ Infancy of the Colony, fent his Pinnaces down 
the River, and went with Cdi^t, Fleet to a River on 
thQ North Side of Patowmeck^ within 4 or 5 Leagues 
of its Moiith, which he call'd St. George's River. He 
went up 4 Leagues in his Long-Boat, and came to the 
Town of Toamaco *, from Whence the Indians of that 
Neighbourhood are call'd Toamacoes, The Governour 
landed, and treated with the Werowance there, ac- 
quainting him with the Occafion of his Coming*, to 
which the Indian faid liftle, but inviting him to his 
Houfe, entertain'd him very kindly, and gave him his 
own Bed to lie on. The next Day he fhew'd him the 
Country •, and the Governour determining to make 
1^^ firfl Settlement there, order'd his Ship and Pinna- 
ces to come thither to him. To make his Entry the 
more fafe and peaceable, he prefented the Werowance 
and Wifos, or principal Men of the Town, with fome 
Englifi Cloth, Axes, Houghs, and Knives, which they 
accepted very kindly, and freely confented that he 
and his Company Ihould dwell m one Part of their 
TowHj reserving the other for them felves. Thofe 
. ' ■ ■ ' la- 

The Hifiorj of Maryland. 187 

Indians^ who inhabited that Part which was afiign'd 
thQEngliJhj readily abandoned their Houfes to them, 
and Mr. Calvert immediately fet Hands to work to 
plant Corn. The Natives agreed further to leave the 
I whole Town to the Englijh as (bon as their Harveft 
I was in, which they did accordingly, and both Indians 
1 and Englijh promised to live friendly together; If any 
I Injury was done on either part, thQ Nation offending 
\ was to make Satisfa^ion. Thus on the 27th of March^ 
1(^34. theGovernour took Pofleflion of the Town, 
and nam'd it St. Maries* 
There happened an Event, which very much facili* 
I tated this Treaty with the Indians, The Safquehanoch^ 
I a Warlike People, dwelling between Chefeapeak Bay 
I and Delaware Bay, were wont to make Incurfions on 
i their Neighbours, partly for Dominion, and partly 
j for Booty, of which the Women were mofl defir'd by 
i them. The Toamacoes fearing thefe Safquehanocks^ 
had a Year before the Englijh arriv'd refolv'd to defert 
their Habitations, and remove higher into the Coun- 
try, many of them were actually gone, and 'the 
refl preparing to follow them. The Ship and Pin- 
naces arriving at the Town, the Indians were amaz'd 
and terrify'd at the Sight of them, efpecially when 
I they heard their Cannon thunder, when they came 
to an Anchor. 

The firft thing Mr. Calvert did was to fix a Court 
of Guard, and ere£l a Store-houfe •, and he had not 
been there many Days, before Sir John Harvey^ Go- 
vernour of Virginia^ came thither to vifit him, as did 
feveral Indian Werowances, and many other Indians 
from feveral parts of the Continent : Among others 
came the King of Patttxentj and being carry'd aboard 
the Ship then at Anchor in the River, was plac'd be- 
tween the Governour of Virginia and the Governour 
ofMarylandy at an Entertainment made for him and 
others. A Patuxent Indian coming aboard, and fee- 
ing his King thus feated, flarted back, thinking he 
was furpriz'd ^ he would have leap'd over-board, and 
could not be perfwaded to enter the Cabbin, till the 
Werowance himfelf came and fatisty*d him he was in 
no Danger. This King had formerly been taken 
Prifoner by the Englijh of Virginia, After the Store- 
houfe was finifh'd, and the Ship unladen, Mr. CalverJ: 

i88 The Hifiory t?/ Maryland. 

ordcr'd the Colours to be brought afhore, which wass 
done with great Solemnity, the Gentlemen and their 
Servants attending in Arms •, feveral Volleys of Shot 
were fir*d a Ship-board and a-fhore, as alfo the Can- 
non, at which the Natives were ftruck with Admira- 
tion, fuch at lead as had not heard the firing of Pieces 
of Ordnance before, to whom it could not but be 

The Kings of Patuxentzxi^ Toamaco were prefent at 
this Ceremony, with many other Indians of Toamaco \ 
and the Werowance of Vatuxent took that Occafion 
to advife the Indians of Toamaco to be careful to keep 
the League they had made with the Englijh, He ftay'd 
in the Town feveral Days, and was full of his Indian 
Complements: When he went away he made this 
, Speech to the Governour \ I love the Englilh fo welly 
that if they fijould go about to kill me^ if I hadfo much 
Breath a: to jpeak^ I n/ould command the People not to 
revenge ?ny Death -^ for I know they would not do fuch a 
things except zt were through my own Fault, 

This Infant Colony fupply'd themielves With Indian 
Corn at Barhadoes^ which at their firfl Arrival they 
began to ufe, (to fave their Engllf}} Store o{ Meal and 
Oat-meal.) The Indian Women perceiving their Ser- 
vants did not know how to drefs it, made their Bread 
for them, and taught 'em to do it themfelves. There 
yj2i% Indian Corn enough in the Country,and thefe new 
Adventurers foon after fbip*d off loooo Buihels for 
New England^ to purchafe Salt Fiih arid other Provi- 
fions. While the Indians m^Englifl) liv'dat St.i^'^nV^ 
together, the Natives went every Day to hunt with 
the new Comers for Dear arid Turkies, which when 
they had caught, they gave to the Englijh^ or fold 
for Knives, Beads, and fuch Trifles. They alfo 
brought them good Store of Filh, and behav'd them- 
felves very kindly, fuifering their Women and Chil- 
dren to come among them, which was a certain Sign 
of their Confidence in them. Twas a great Advan- 
tage to the firft Colony in Maryland^ that they took 
. PofTeflion of a Town, about which the Ground was 
ready clear'd to their Hands, which gave them an 
Opportunity to plant Corn, and make Gardens, 
where they low'd Engl'fi Seeds, and they thriv'd 
wonderfully. They were very induflrious to build 


The Hifiory of Maryland. 

Houfes, for they found only Huts *, but before they 
'zould accompUfh thofe things to their Satisfaftion, 
Capt. Cleybourne^ one of the Council ofFirgmia^ (who 
ibad in view to engrofs all the Trade of thofe Parts 
to himielf) threw out Words among the Indians^ 
iwhich gave them Caule to (ulpeft that the Adventu- 
rers who came to Maryland were not what they pre- 
:endedtobe, Englifimen^ h\xt Spaniards^ and Enemies 
to the Virginians. The Natives were fo fimple as not 
to fee he imposed on them, as they might have foon 
found out by the Liken efs of the Englijh in Maryland 
!to thofe in Virginia^ as well in their Garb and Cu- 
ftoms, as their Language and Trade , yet fuch was 
their Stupidity, that they took what Cleyhourne infi- 
jnuated for Truth, and grew ihy to the Englijh at St. 
iMaries, The latter alarm*d at this Alteration in 
their Carriage, thought of being on their Guard, and 
gave over building Houfes to fet all Hands to work 
towards ereding a Fort, which was finifh'd in <f 
Weeks time, and mounted with Ordnance. After 
that they renewed their Labour about their Houfes, 
and in a Year or two's time there were 50 or 60 at St. 
Marfs Town : But the Humour of Plantations has {q 
far hinder'd its Progrels, that there are not many 
more even at this «Day. 

The new Comers furnifh'd themfelves with Hogs, 
Poultry, and fome Cows, ixom Virginia^ and the 
Country was fettled with fo much Eafe, and fo many 
Conveniences, that it foon became populous and flou- 
rifhing *, for feveral future Companies went thither, 
and chiefly Perfons of the RomifljChmoh^ as has been 
hinted. The Country of Toamaco being clear'd en- 
tirely of the Natives, the Englijh planted it, and the 
Governour gave the River the Name of St. George's, 
Thofe that fettled here firft were taken with a Di- 
ftcmper fomewhat like an Ague, which they caird 
a Seafoning^ of which for fome Years many dy'd, 
for want of good looking to, and through their own 
ill Conduft ^ but fince the Country has been more 
open'd, by the cutting down of the Woods, and that 
there is better Accommodation of Diet and Lodging, 
with the Improvement of the Inhabitants Knowledge 
in applying phyfical Remedies, very few dieofthefe 
Seafomngs •, and fome that come over from Englavd^ 
or elfewhere, never have them at all The 

ipo " The Hifiory of Maryland. 

The Government of this Colony, when it begati 
to grow more numerous^ was fram'd much after the 
Model of that in England, The Governour had his 
Council in the Nature of the Houfe of Lords, and 
Privy-Council in England \ and when the Country 
was divided into Counties, each had Reprefentatives 
in theAflemblyof the Province, and thefe Reprefen- 
tatives formed the Lower Houfe *, the Upper Houfe 
confifting of the Governour and Council, and fuch 
Lords of Mannors, and others, as the Lord Proprie- 
tary, or his Lieutenant, from time to time fhall call 
thither by Writ. This AfTembly the Proprietary, 
or his Deputy, conveen*d, prorogued, or difTolv'd at 
Pleafure \ and their A^ls being ratify'd by the Pro- 
prietary, or his Deputy, were of the fame Force 
there, as an Ad of Parliament is in England^ and 
cannot pafs, or be repeal'd, without the concurring 
AfTent of the Lord Proprietary, or his Deputy, with 
the other two Eftates . 

Next to this Legiflative Court was erected the Pro- 
vincial Court, which is holden every Quarter in the 
City of St. Mary's, This is the chief Court of Judi- 
cature, where the moft important judicial Caufes are 
try'd \ of which, in the Abfence of the Lord Propri- 
etary, the Lieutenant, or Governour and Council, 
are Judges. This Court is for the whole Province ^ 
but for each particular County there are other infe- 
riour Courts, which are held fix times in the Year, 
in each of thefe Counties, for Trial of Caufes not rela- 
ting to Life, nor exceeding the Valse of 3000 Weight 
of Tobacco, with Appeals from them to the Provin- 
cial Court. 

Having mentioned the Counties in this Province, 
we muft ob(erve, that as the Number of the Inhabi- 
tants encreas'd, Mr. Cahert^ the Governour, thought . 
fit to divide the Country into Shires*, of which 
there were at firft but 10, as 5 on the Weft-fide of 
the Bay o{ ChefeapeaJty and 5 on the Eaft-fide. Thofe 
on the Weft fide were St. Mary'^ Charles^ Calvert j 
Ann Arundel^ and Baltimore ^ to which has lately 
been added Frince George County^ which makes the 
whole II in all. Thofe on the Eaft-fide were, and 
ftill are, Somerfet^ Dorchcjler^ Talbot^ Cecily and 
A'tw Counties. There were Towns laid out in each 


The Hijiorjf of MsLvyhnd. ipi 

of them, but they never came to Perfedlion ^ and for 
the fame Reafon that there are no Towns in Virginia^ 
which the Reader will find in the following Pages. 

The Governour built a Houfe in St. Mary's for 
himfelf and SuccefTors, and govern'd the Country 
till the Diftra^lions happened in England^ when the 
Name of a Papift became To obnoxious, that 'twas not 
likely the Puritans, who were then uppermoft, 
would leave any Power in the Hands of a Roman 
Catholick. The Parliament afTum'd the Government 
of this Province into their own Hands, and appointed 

• • Efq^ to be their Governour here, but 

upon the King's Reftoration the Lord Baltimore re- 
covered the Right of his abfolure Propriety •, and a- 
bout the Year i66i, fent over his Son Charles Cal- 
vert^ Efq^ the prefent Lord Baltimore^ to be his Go- 
vernour *, and Mr. Calvert liv'd there almoft twenty 
Years, a long time after his Father dy'd, and his 
Title and Eftate fell to him. By his Wifdom and 
Prefence this Colony flourilh'd apace, and there were 
computed iohQ 16000 Soulsin^Marylandy lb long a- 
go as the Year 1 66^. 

All the Indian Nations about this Province fubmit- 
ted to the Lord Proprietary of Maryland^ and put 
themfelves under his Proteaion : So that in the Year 
166^. one Naocoffo^ who was chofen Emperor of 
Tifcattaway (that is, he was advanc'd to an Office of 
more Authority than the reft of tht Indian Kings 
or Werowances) was not thought to be abfolute- 
lyconfirm'd, till Mr. Charles Calvert^ now Lord 
Baltimore^ approved of their Choice. 

The Lord Baltimore was at a vaft Expence to bring 
this Province to its prefent Perfedion ; and allowing 
for his Partiality to th^ Roman Catholicks, which in a 
great meafure helpt to lofe him the Government of 
it, he behav'd himfelf with fo much Jilftice and Mo- 
deration, while he kept the Power in his own Hands, 
that the Inhabitants liv'd eafily and happily under him. 
They flourifh'd, and encreas^d in Number and Rich- 
es. He procur'd an Aa of AfTembly, for Liberty of 
Confcience to all Perfons who profefs Chriftianity, 
thoof different Perfwafions. By which means Pro- 
tcftant DiiTcnters, as well as Papifts, were tempted 
to fettle there •, and that Liberty having never hc^n 


X92 The Hijiory of M^ivyhnd. 

infringed in any manner, is a fevere Refiedion on thofe 
pretended Proteftants in other Colonies, where Dif- 
fenters have been opprefs'd *, while here, under a 
Popilh Proprietary, they enjoy'd all the Rights, Li- 
berties and Privileges of EngUJhmenj as far as the 
Laws permitted them. 

Butnotwithftanding all his Lordfhip's Care to pre- 
vent any Rupture with the Indians, when they were 
at War with the Virginians^ they committed fome 
Hoftilities in the Year 1^77. on the Eaft-fide, and 
kiU'd 4 Men and a Woman near Nommij which put 
the Colony in Fears of further Mifchief^ however 
that Cloud blew over, thofe that did the Mifchief were 
punifh'd, and no more Blood was fhcd in i^^ Quar- 
rel. While the Lord Baltimore liv'd here, he marry'd 
one of his Daughters to Col. Biggs^ a Gentleman of 
the Country, of great Intereft in it, and a confidera- 
ble Merchant or Faftor alfo. But when the Lord Pro- 
prietary remov'd to England^ he did not appoint him 
to be Deputy, but put in another Gentleman, whofe 
Name we have not been able to learn, nor that of his 
SiiccelTor : In whofe Time the Government of Eng- 
land took from the Lord Baltimore that o^ Maryland. 
And we muft obferve, King James IL intended to 
take it from him before the Revolution, inftigated to 
it by Father Peters. What Reafon that Jefuit had to 
do the Lord Baltimore fuch a DilTervice, we know 
•not, and would have thought the Agreement between 
Father Feters and this Lord in Religion, might haviij 
influenced the Prieft more in his Favour. But 'tis ve-3 
ry certain, that he was the firft Inflrument of thei 
Lord Proprietary 'slofing the Government, and per- 
haps the Court might think, that as much as thq 
Papifts were favour'd in Maryland., they might hope? 
for more Favour from a Proprietarv of their own 
perfecuting Principles. The Lord Baltimore might 
have expeaed more than Juftice from a King of his 
own Religion *, yet his Pattent was then queltion'd, 
and 'tis fuppos'd the Prerogative of naming a Gover- 
nour would have been taken from him, liKxngJames 
had not abdicated his own Goveniment. After the 
Revolution, this Lord had no Reafon to look for 
any thing but ftria Juflice ^ for 'twas known, he 
was not a little zealous in oppofing it. 


The Hiflory <?/ Maryland. ipg 

King William thtWU, of glorious Memot7, being 
iettrdon the Throne, the Steps that were taken for 
annexing the Government oi Maryland to the Crowa 
in King James\ Reign, were with much more Reafon 
eontinu'd •, and after a long and expenfive Difputeat 
the Council-Board, the Lord Baltimore was depriv'd of 
that part of his Power, and the King appointed Sir 
Edmund Andros to be Governour of Maryland^ who 
Cali'dan AfTembly, which in the Year xegi, pall: an 
Aft to recognize King William m^ Queen Mary's 
Titles and there having been great Confufion in the 
Courts of Judicature, b^^ ReaSn of the Alteration in 
the Conftitution of the Government in Maryland^ an 

, Aftpaft, to make all the Proceedings at Law valid, , 
except where there were any Errors in any Procefs 
and Pleas. It provided alfo, thjt the Year 1 690^ and 
169I' fliould not be accounted, concluded and meant 
in the Statute of Limitations. 

We find Sir Edmund Andros did not aft fo inoffen- 
fively as might he wiih'd in a Governour : For when 
Col. Francis Nlcholfon^ whom King [l^'fe/;? appointed 

, to fucceed him, came to the Governaseot, in the 
Aft which pafl to eftabliili and ratify all Aftionsj 
Suits, Caufes, and Proceedings in all Courts, &c^ 
and all Officers Civil and MtUtiry, for, in, or by 
reafon of any legal Afting or Proceeding in their fe- 
fpeftive Offices and StatioPo, from the Accefs of Sir 
Edmund Andros^ to the then Governour, Francis Nl- 
cholfon^ Efq-, his Arrival, any Glaufe, Imp;^rf?ftion, 
or want of Authority in the faid Sir Edmund Andros^ 
or his Commiilion notwithftandiTg, there is this Pro- 
vifo ^ Provided nothing in this AB fiafl jufllfy Sir Edm. 
AndrosV taking and difpofing of the Puhlick Revenues^ 
or debar the Affemhly^ or any other Ferfon^ of their Right 
or Claims to the fame. 

The Government of this Province is now the fatiis 
with that of the other Colonies, which are immedi- 
ately under the Crown *, by a Governour made by 
the Kmg or Queen, a Council nam'd by the fame, 
and an AfTembly chofen by the Eleven Countieso 
The Lord Proprietary ftill enjoys the Profits of the 
Province^ arifmg by certain Revenues granted to him 
byfeveral Aflemblies ^ as a Duty on each Hogfhead 
of Tobacco exported, and other Incomes , which 

O with 

194 7"^^ Hijhry of Maryland. 

with the Sale of Lands uncultivated, and unpurdias'dj 
amount to a confiderable Sum yearly *, and the Duty 
of Tobacco encreafing, as that Produft encreafes, 
'tis probable that Revenue will one Day rife to a very 
great Sum, Belides this, the Lord Baltimore has a 
large Plantation at Mettapany \ and in the whole, his 
Eiiate and ' Interefl in this Province are very well 
worth his Care to maintain them. 

About the Year 102. the Lord Bifhop of Z/oWo;? 
appointed Dr. Thomas Bray to be his Commiflary ia 
Maryland, That Doclor went over thither to fettle 
the Churches, according to the Rites and Worship 
of the Church oi England, For by an A£l of AfTem- 
bly in the fame Year, the Eleven Counties were divi- 
ded into thirty Parifhes, fixteen of which arefupply'd 
with Miniilers, who have a competent Maintenance 
fetti'd upon them, with Glebes, and other Advanta* 
ges. Libraries are fix'd, and many thoufand pra6li- 
cal and devotional Booi<s have been di(pers*d among 
the People, by the aiilduousCare of Dr. J?r^j/, who 
flaid there 2 or 5 Years. 

Befides- thefe Churches, are feveralChappels, and 
th'i Number of Papifts and DilTenters are not incon- 
fiderable. Mr. George Macqucen^ and Mr, Robert 
Keithj have been employ'd by the Society for propaga- 
ting the Gofpei in foreign Parts, to advance that good 
Work here •, but *tis faid the Quakers and Paptfis e- 
qually ob/lrtt^ it, 

A very ingenious Man, who was in this Province^ 
in Col. Nkholfon's Time, fends this Account of the 
State of it to the Royal Society : ' The Inhabitants of 
' Maryland are governed by the fame Laws as in En^- 

* gland^ except that they have fome AOls of AiTembly, 

* relating to particular Cafes, not provided for by the 
^ Laws o^ England. The Church of £«g/^W is pret- 
^ ty well eftabliih'd among them; Churches are 
' built, and there's an Annual Stipend allow'd to e- 
^ very Minifter, by a perpetual Law ', which is more 

* or lefs according to the Number of Taxables in each 

* Pariih. Every Chriftian Mate 1 5 Years old, and 

* Negroes Male and Female above that Age, pay 40 
Pound of Tobacco to the Miniiler *, which is levy'd 
by the Sheriff among other publick Revenues*, and 

^ this makes the Revenues of the Miaifters, one with 

* ano- 

The Hiftory of Maryland, 195 

another, about 20600 Pound of Tobacco, or 100/. • 
Sterling a Year. It has been the Unhappinefs of 
this Country, that they had no Proteftant Minifters 
hardly among them till Governour Nicholfras time 
fv>^ho has been a great Promoter and Encourager of 
the Clergy) but now and then an itinerant Preacher 
come over, of very loofs Morals, and fcandalous Be- 
haviour : So that what vnth fach Mens ill Examples, 
the Roman Priefts Cunning, and the Qi.iakers Bigo- 
try, Religion was in a manaer turn'd out of Doors, 
But by Col. Nicholfori's Prote<?i:ion, the Face of it 
mended, and the Orthodox Churches were crowd- 
ed as full as they could hold. The People grew 
fenfible of the Romlf/j Superilition, and tho. Enthuli- 
aiiii of the. Quakers : Infomuch that their Parties, 
joining now both together, are very inconfiderable 
to that of the Church of England. Indeed the Qua- 
kers fir uggle hard to maintain their Footing-, and 
their Teachers (elpecially of the Female Sex, who 
are the moll zealousj) are very free of their Refie- 
dlions and^ Scandal againfi the Orthodox Divines 
and Profeflors- TJie People here have not yet found 
t\\Q way of afTociating themfelves in Towns and 
Corporations, by reafou of tlie Fewnels of Handi- 
crafts-Men. There are indeed feveral Places alot- 
ted for Towns, but hitherto they are only titular 
ones, fiKcapt Annapolis -^ where the Governour refides 
Col. Nkhol]on has done his Endeavour to make 
a Town of that Place. There are about 40 Dwel- 
ling Houfes in it, 7 or 8 of which can afford a good 
Lodging and Accomodations for Strangers. There 
are alfo a State-Houfe, and a free School, built 
with Brick, which make a great Shew among a 
Parcel of Wooden Houles', and the boundation^of 
a Church is laid, the only Brick Church in Adary- 
land,. They have tv,'o Market Days in a Week~^ 
and had Governour Nicholfon continu'd there a fev/ 
Years longer, h© had brought it to Perfedion. 
Gol. Nicholfon mightily promoted the Advance- 
\ ment of Religion in this Province, as did his Saccei^ 
jl for Col. Nathaniel Blachiflon^ with whom the Coun- 
I try, tho healthy in its felf, did not agree, and he was 
forc'd to return to England for the"i\ecovery or his 
Health: In wdiofe ilead her Majeily was pleas'd to 

' O 2 make 

196 The Hiftory of Maryland. 

make Col. William Seymour Governour of this Pro- 
vince*, \s\iQmSept. i70 5.embark'daboardtheDr^^«5?- 
wz^^^f Man of VVar, whichj with others, was appoin- 
ted to convoy the Virginia and Maryland, outward 
bound Fleet ;, but being feparated from the reft by 
ftrefs of Weather, the Governour put into BarbadoeSy 
where he arriv'd the 2d oi February , The Ship was 
forc'd offthe Co^.iis of Mary I ar^d by contrary Winds, 
and did not arrive in the Bay dii April ot May^ 1 704.. 
So that Col. iS'fjwow was near 8 Months in his Voy- 
age, which is commonly made in 6 Weeks. This 
Go'^ernoiir has given general Satisfaftion to the Inha- 
bitants, and is indeed a Man of Honour, worthy the 
Pofl her Majefty has been pleas'd to continue him in 
to this time. 

It cannot be expelled that we fnould be able to 
give as perfe6l an Account of every Colony, as we 
havedone of New-England^ Virginia^ Carolina^ Bar- 
badoes^ and fome others. Our Helps have not been 
at all equal, tho our Application has. Thofe Gentle- 
men to whom we apply 'd, who could have given us 
full Information, and negle^led it, are to anSver for 
what is imperfedl in this Hiftory of Maryland ^ which 
is however the largsft that has been publilh'd *, and 
had we been better fupply'd v.'ith Memoirs, we fhould 
have given a better Account of this Colony, which 
we confefs deferv'd it. The Gentlemen concern'd in 
it will excufe us, when we tell them we have done 
our bed, and in another Impreflion fhall enlarge in 
our Hiftory of Maryland^ if they will tranfmit us 
Materials, to enable us to do it. We kept this Ac- 
count backwa.rd, in hopes of fuch Ailiftance *, andj 
perhaps theie Gentlemen will be as angry with them- 
felves as with us, when they fee how induftrious we 
have been in the Hiftories of thofe Countries, that 
we were fully inform'd about, and what a Figure 
they make in the Britifo Empire in America^ where 
Aiaryland is far from being the leaft confiderable 
Portion of it. Tis true it does not encreafe much in 
.Towns, and thofe that are honour'd with the Name, 
would not pafs for any thing but little Villages in o-. 
ther Countries. This, as has been hinted in ^/rgm^'^^j 
is the Humour of the Inhabitants, and allEndeavoun 
to bring them to build and fettle at Annapolis^ 01 


The Hijiory of Maryland. 

Willlamfiadtj have been inefFeftual. Thofe two Towns 
are not bigger than they were, if they hold to be {o 
big, and there are Villages in Penfylvania which may 
vie with them for Number of Houfes and Inhabitants. 
The Lord Baltimore difputed at Law with Mr. Pen 
for the Propriety of that Part of Penfylvania^ known 
by the Name of the Three Lower Covnties^ as if it had 
been included within his Pattent for Maryland *, but 
Mr. Pen has maintained his Title, and 'tis probable 
will always maintain it againft the Lord Baltimore's tp 
thofe Countries. Penfylvania has lately endeavoar'd at 
^ Tobacco Ttade, but Maryland and Firginia will hin- 
der the Progrefs of any other Colony in this Com- 
modity •, they have been long fettled in it, and can 
make enough to fupply all the Markets in the World^ 
and their minding this Traffick wholly, prevents 
their falling into that of Provifions fo much as New 
England^ 'New Torkj Penfylvania^ and Carolina ^ 
which Provinces may fiourrh by that Trade and 
M^nufidure, and leave to Virginia and Maryland 
their Natural Trade, for by their long Continuance 
and Perfeaion in it^ it deferves that Name. 


Qontaming a Geographical Defcription of 
the Province of Maryland ; an Account 

i of the Climate^ Soil^ Frxydaciy Animals^ 
Trade^ and Inhabitants^ EngliHj and In- 

jpHO* we have given a large Defcription of Vlrgl- 
r nia^ and the Bay of Chefcapeak^ and have alfb let 
itutthe Bouadsof M.tryhnd^ as we find it bounded 
ri the Lord Proprietaries Pattent ;, yet having had 
pme Years fnce a compkat and diftin a Account of 
|oth Provinces from zx\ ingenious Gentleman, an In- 
jabitant of the Place^ with whom we have been long 
' .(|uainted, the Reader will be better fatisfy'd to fee 

O 3 what 

^9^ 1^^^^ Hijlory of Maryland. 

what he fays, than to take it from us : Such then is 
the Defcription communicated to us by Mr. Philemon 
Ll^yd of Maryland •, ' The Colony of Firginia and 
' Province of Afaryland are fituate upon the Bay of 
' Chefeap^ak.^xshokMoMXh or Inlet is between the Capes 
' cali'd Cape Henry and Cape Charles^ and yet {o as 
/ neither of the Provinces is plac'd on one particulai; 

* Side, but are both of them on each Side water'd by 
' that commodious Bay, which divides as it were in 
' half both Governments •, fo that part of the Colo- 
' ny oi Firginia is on the Weft Side of the faid Bay, 

* and ihQ other part on the Eaft Side,the*Bay running 
' through the Centre of them. The Colony of /^ir- 
' ginia on the Weil Side of the Bay, is divided from 

* Maryland by the great River Patowmeck^ and on the 

* Eaft by the River pGko772oak^ whole Head lies near 

* the Sea to the Eaftward. The Boundary of the 

* Province of Maryland begins at the River of Patow- 

* mecK^ and runs along the Bay Side Northwards, til 
*■ it intsrfedVs a Line drawn Weft from the Mouth of 
^ Delaware Bay, fituate in 40 Degrees North Latitude, 
^ having for its Bounds on the Weft high Mountains, 

* and on the Eaft the £\id Bay. The Eaftern Side 
*- of the Province of Maryland is bounded on the 
' Weft by the Bay of Chefs ape al^ on the Eaft by the 

* Main Ocean, on the North by Delaware Bay, anc 
^ on the South by the River Pokomoak^ which is th« 
^ Line of Divifion between it and the Colony of ^r 
^ ginia. The Province of Maryland is divided int< 
'11 Counties, 5 on the Weftern, and 5 on the Eaft 

* ern Side of the Bay. Thofe on the Weftern Sid- 
' are StMaries^ Charles^ PnnCQ George^ Calvert^ Ann 

Arundel J and B alt i mere Counties. Thofe on th 
Eaftern Side of th^ Bay are Somerjct^ Dorchcjiey 

* Talbot^ Kem^ and <7m/ Counties. This Provinc 
has but one City in it, cali'd the City of St. AdaryS 
from whence one of the Counties took its Nam| 
being commodionily fituate between the Rivers ( 
Patcvcinec}. and Patifxsnt. This was formerly th 
Seat of Government, and the Place where the R< 
preientatives of the feveral Counties afternbied, 1 
concert and determine things for the Good of t\ 
Colony. There are aifb two principal Towr 
cailVj by the Names of Ports, as the Port of Am 

The Hifiory of Maryland. if 9 

* polls^ and the Port of Willlamfiadt, There are fe- 
^ veral other Towns, but of no Coafideration. The 

* principal Rivers of this Province are Patorvmeck^ 
' which divides it from the Colony o^Ftrginla ^ Fa' 

* tuxem and Severn on the Weflern Shore \ and on 

* the other Side are Chiptonk^ Chefier^ and Saffafrai^ 

* of greateft Note. The Extent of the Province of 

* Maryland runs further Northward than the Head of 
' the B?iY ot Chefeapeaky being (ituate on both Sides of 

* it. 

In rpeaking of the Counties, we ihall begin with 
thofe on the Weft Side of the Bay. 

St. Marfs is the firft of thefe, and is bounded thus : 
It begins at PointLook-outydind extends dAongPatowmeck 
River, to the lower Side of Bud's Creek, and fo over 
to the Head of Indian CvQQk in Fatuxent River. About 
the Year i^^^s. fome Medicinal Waters were diico- 
ver'd in this County, calFd the Cool Springs^ which 
the Government order'd ibould be purchas'd, with 
the Land about it, and Houfes built for the Enter- 
tainment of the Poor. In the City of St. Marfs 
the General Court is holden, for which there's a t^ 
State-houfe, and the Council is kept t\iQ firii Tuef' 
day in September^ November y January^ Marchy and 
Ju??e^ for Orphans. This City choofes two Citizens 
to reprefent the reft in thQ AfTembly, and the Go- 
vernment is by a Mayor, Recorder, Aldermen, ancj 
Common-Council y tho true it is, fo much Magiftra- 
cy might have been fpar'd, confidering there are not 
above 60 Houlesin it, and fmcQ Annapolis has been 
made the Seat of Juftice, and the publick Offices, 
there's no great Likelihood that the City of St. Ma- 
ry's will encreafe much in the Number of its Houfes 
and Inhabitants. 

Mettapany in this Country is noted only for having 
been the Lord Baltimore's Seat, when he dwelt in this 
Country. Here he built a handfome Houfe, tho more 
for Convenience than Magnificence y it ftands near 
the Mouth of the River Fatuxent, In St. Mary's 
County are the Parilhes of St. John*Sy St. Clemsnt'?^ 
and Hervlngtony the latter ufurping the Name of a 

Charles County Bounds begin on the upper Side- 
qI Indian Crige^and ^Ws Creek, v/here St. Mary's 

O 4 '" County 

^GO The Hr/iory of M^ryhnd., 

Gountyends, and extends to Mattawoman Creek^ ins 
eluding all the Land lying on the upper Part of Bud*s 
Creek and Indian Creek Branches. In this County 
the chief Places or Parifhes are Brifiol and Pifcattaway, 
Prince George\ County is the neweft in the Pro- 
vince, being laid out, ^ D, 169^, It includes the 
Land from the upper Side of Mattawoman and Swan-' 
fin's Creek, extending upwards by Patowmeck in the 
Weftj and P^fz^A'^Kf River in the Eaft. In this Coun- 
ty i'^ the Fcvriili of Majierkont^ and others. 

Calvert County borders upon Charles Co\mty^ from 
which 'tis divided by the River Patuxent^ as alfo from 
Prince George^ County. In this County are three 
Tov/ns or Parifhes, Harrington^ Warrington^ and Cat- 

Ann Arundel and Baltimore Counties are divided by 
5 mark'd Tree?, {landing about a Mile and a Quarter 
from Bodkin Creek, on the Weft Side of Chefeapeak 
Bay, and this Divifion runs thence Weft, till it crofTes 
the Road fiom the Mountains of the Mouth of ^^^g^ry 
River to Rich. Beard's Mill, and fo continues Weft- 
ward to 2 mark'd Trees, one for AnnArvndel^ the 
other for Baltimore County, and ftiil contmaes Weft 
from Maggaty -^v.di Potcpfco Rivers, till it comes to a 
Mountain of white Stone, from thence to the. main 
Road to Potopfco Ferry, and two mark'd Pines, writ- 
ten at large on the North Side of the faid Trees Bal" 
timore^ and on the South Side Ann Arvndel County \ 
from thence Weft North Weft to Elk Ridge Road to 
two mark'd Trees there, thence to Patnxent River, 
and fo up the faid River to the Exttnt of it, for the 
Bounds o^ Baltimore County. All the Trad of Land 
on the North Side of thefe Divifion-Lines is in Balti- 
more County, and all the Land on the South Side in 
Ann- Arvndel County. The chief Town in the Coun- 
ty of Ann Arvndel is 
% Annapolis^ which was formerly cali'd Severn^ and^ 
by an Aft of AfTembly, 1 69^, was made a Port Town, 
and a Collc£lor and Naval Officer were order'd to 
refide there ^ the Name of Annapolis was then giveri 
it. The County Court w?s remov'd to this Place, 
a ChurcL was order'd to be built within the Port, 
which was made a Parifti *, and in the Year 1699, the 
Port of Amapalps was made the chief Seat of Juftic^ 


The Hifiory of Maryland. sof 

within this Province, for holding Aflemblies, and pro- 
vincial Courts, and all Writs, Pleas, and Procefsre* 
tamable to the Provincial, or to the Court of Chan" 
eery, were made returnable to the Port of Annapolis. 
All Roads leading through any County to this Port 
were by another A£l of AfTembly order'd to be mark'd 
on both Sides with two Notches in a Tree, and where 
the Road to Annapolis broke off from any other 
Road, it was to be diftinguifb'd on the Face of 
the Tree with the Letters v^. A, The AfTem- 
bly about lo Years ago pafs'd an A 6^ for founding a 
Free-School here, to be call'd King I^y/?W/'s School. 
Other Schools were alfo to be ere&cd under his Pa- 
tronage, and the Arch-Bifhop of Canterbury was to be 
Chancellor of them. Truftees were appointed and 
incorporated by the Name of the ReBors^ Governours^ 
Truftees^ and Fifitors of the Free- Schools of Maryland ^ 
what has been the Effeft of this good Bill we 
know not, but believe it -is very inconfiderable. The 
firft School that was to be built was to be at Anna- 
polis. The County Court for Orphans is kept here 
the (econd Tnefday in September y November ^ January^ 
Marchy and Jnne, The Records of the County of 
Ann- Arundel were remov'd to this Town, where are 
now about 40 Houfes, but it lately has not flourifh'd 
according to Expe£l:ation % and while the Planters and 
Merchants in Maryland affeft to live feparately, as 
they do in Virginia^ there's no great probability of 
this Towns making any confiderable Figure, 

In Baltimore County is a Parifh or Town fo caird \ 
but the Houfes are fo diPoin'd in this, and others, 
that the Townfhips are not worth the Name. 

Thus we have given a fhort View of the Counties 
on the Wefl- Side of the'Bay, and muft obferve, that 
the great River Safquehanagh falls into that Bay a lit- 
tle above ^^//^z^j^or^. 

On the Eail-fide of the Bay are the 5 other Coun- 
ties •, the firft*of which, proceeding from Weft to 
Eaft, is, 

Cdcil County, the Weftern Part of which is (b near 
the Delaware^ that the Cut w^ould not be above 8 
or I o Miles to join that Bay and River to Chefeapeah 
This County runs along Parallel with iV^Trc^^/f and 
Kent County in Penfylvanla, We have not learnt how 


^02 The Hijiory of Maryland. 5 

many Pariflies are in it, and know nothing more of it^ 
fo we proceed to 

Kent County, which runs out like an Ifth- 
nius into the Bay of Chefeapeah We know not 
the Name of the Parifhes in it. The next. Coun- 
ty is 

Talbot County, divided from the County of Kent 
by a double Line of mark'd Trees. That part of this 
County that lies on the North Side of Corfeka Creek, 
is the Southerly Bounds of the County of Kent^ and 
X on the North the County of C^ciL Oxfard was for- 
merly the Capital of this County, but by an Aft of 
Aflfembly in the Year i^ps- it was n3.m'd JVi/Ilam' 
ftadty and made a Port Town, loo Acres of Land 
adjacent to it was order'd to be purchas'd, for a com- 
mon Pafture for the Benefit of the Town. The fecond 
School that was to be built was appointed for this 
Place, and the Roads to it were to be mark'd out in 
the like manner with thofe oi Annapolis. A Golleftor 
and Naval OfHcer were order'd to refide her^. Befides 
Oxford^ here are the Parifhes of St. Michaers and Bui- 
linghrook. The nextT^ounty is 

Dorchefler County. The chief Parifh is Dorchefier^ 
where the County Court is kept. 'Tis a fmall Place 
of about lo Houfes. The Land here lying on the 
North Side of Nantlcoke River, beginning at the 
Mouth of Chickacoan River, and fo up ^to the Head 
of it, and from thence to the Head of Andertons 
Branch, and fo down to the North Weft Fofk, to the 
Mouth of the aforefaid Chickacoan River,was by an Aft: 
of AfTembly in the Year kt^s. declar'd to belong to 
Tanquafl) and Annatouqmm^ two Indian Kings, and the 
People under their Govenmient, their Heirs and 
SuccefTors for ever, to be holden of the Lord Propri- 
etary, under the yearly Rent of one Beaver Skin. 
There are more Indian Towns in this than in any o- 
ther of the Counties. 

Somerfet County has a Parifh of the fame Name 
;n it. The Names of the other Parifhes in this and 
the other Counties are not come to our Know- 
ledge-, and, we know nothing particularly remark- 
able in them, fo we ihall proceed to our Account of 
|:he Climate, e?T. 


The Hifiory of Maryland* 205 

The Climate of this Province, the Soil, Produ£^, 
and all that's mention'd in the Contents of this Chap- 
ter, are the fame, in a great meafur®, with thofe of 
F'irgtnla : Both here and there the Englijh live at 
large at their feveral Plantations, which hinders the 
Encreafe of Towns \ indeed every Plantation is a 
little Town of it felf, and can fubfift it felf with Pro- 
vifions and NecefTaries, every confiderable Planter*s 
Ware-houfe being like a Shop, where he fupplies not 
only himfelf. with what he wants, but the inferior 
Planters, Servants, and Labourers, and has Commo- 
dities to barter for Tobacco, or other Goods, there 
being little Money in this Province, and little Occa- 
fion of any, as long as Tobacco anfwers all the ufes 
of Silver and Gold in Trade. There, are few Mer- 
chants or Shop-keepers, who may properly be fo 
caird, we mean who are not Planters alfo, but live 
wholly by their Trades. The Tobacco of this Pro- 
vince, caird Orconoh^ is ftronger than that of Firgi- 
nla^ and no EngUfliman^ who has not a very courfe 
Relifh in his Smoak, will bear it ^ yet 'tis as profita- 
ble to the Planter, and to the Trade of the Nation in 
general, being in demand in the Eaftern and Nor- 
thern Parts of Europe^ where 'tis prcferr'd before the 
fweet-fcented Tobacco of James and Tork Rivers in 
Virginia. The Planters in Maryland finding fo good 
Vent for their Commodity in foreign Markets, have 
cultivated it fo much, that this Province is thought 
to produce as much or more Tobacco than that of 
Virginia. The Soil is here at leaft as fruitful, the 
Country being a large Plain, and the Hills in it fo 
eafy of Afcent, and of fuch a moderate Height, that 
they feem rather an artificial Ornament to it, than 
one of the Accidents of Nature. The Abundance of 
Rivers and Brooks is no little Help to the Fertility 
of the Soil ^ and there's no Grain, Plant, or Tree, 
which grows in Virginiaj but thrives as well here. 
The Produd-, the Animals, and every thing is the 
fame here as there, only the black and yellow Bird, 
caird the Baltimore Bird, goes by another Name in 
Virglmci, it had that given it, becaufe the "Colours 
of the Field of the Lord Baltimore's Coat of Amis are 
Or and Sahko 


The Hifiory e?/ Maryland, 

If the Reader has the Curiofity to know more of 
this Country in any of the Particulars mentioned in 
the Title of this Chapter, let him fee the Hiftory of 
VirgmiaoRthQ fame Heads, and there's nothing there 
which may not alfo be faid of Maryland^ except it is 
added here. 

The Air of the two Provinces has the fame Agree- 
ment ^ and if there's any Difference m the Health of 
the one Country and the other, ^^Vg^W^ perhaps has 
the Advantage. The Province of Maryland howe- 
ver thrives in a greater degree, tho *tis the younger 
Colony •, and thai is a plain Proof of the Profit of the 
courfe Tobacco, preferable to the fweet ncented, or 
rather that which is fold to a foreign Market turns 
to better Account every way, than what is made for 
a home Confamption with more Labour and Coft, 
and at lafl- with \A% Gain. 

The Nu mber of Ships trading hither from England^ 
and other Parts of the EngUfij Dominionss was compu- 
ted to be TOO, above 30 Years ago ^ and we may i-» 
m^gine how many more there come now, from the 
Increafe of the Inhabitants, who were then calculated 
to be 15-000, and are now judg'd to be 50000 Souls, 
The Lord Prgprietary had a Mint here, to com Mo- 
ney, but it never was much made ufe of. 

As to x\\Q Indians, their Language, Manners, and . 
Cufloms are the fame with thofe of Virginia. At the 
firft fettling of Maryland there were ieveral Nations 
of 'em, governed by Petty-Kings^ but 'tis thought 
the'-e are not now 500 fighting Men of them in all the 
Province, i^ rhe Account Mr. Hugh Jonss tranfmirted 
to the Royal Society of it be true t For Mt.Glover, 
who fome Years before fent the fame Society an Ac- 
count of f^rginla^ fays. The Indians in the Lord Bal- 
timore' j Territories^ at the Head of the Bay^ where 
Lowth. fi^^ Engliih were later featedj are more numerous^ there 
^^^' 3' P' being 3000 of themfiill in fome Towns ', hut theje being 
Vhh'T^'^'^ continualV/ars with each other, are likejmtly tobe 
^2 reduced to a fmall Number ', which juftifies Mr, Jones s 

Relation of their Number in Maryland^ fince in Mr. 
Glover's time there was not above 3000 Indian Souls 
in all Virginia -, out of which one cannot reckon there 
were many more than 500 fighting Men. The fame 
Mr. Jones gives us a large Account of feveral thmgs 
in this Province worth nodce. The 

The Hiftory t?/ Maryland. 205 

TheBiyo^Chefeapeakj which runs N. by W. about 
200 Miles, or more, divides Maryland as well as Fir- 
ginia^ into two Parts, which the Inhabitants of the 
two Provinces call the Eaftern and V/eftern Shoars. 
The Land is generally low on both Sides ^ no Hill that 
is to be fcen, or is known by them 50 Yards perpen- 
dicular *, but above 100 Miles Weft oFrhem, towards 
the Heads of the Rivers, the Ground rife?, and ap- 
pears in very high Mountains, and rocky Precipices, 
running North and South f, from the Top of which 
a Man may have a clear Profpe^l of both Maryland 
and yirgima* 

All tne Low-land is very woody, like one continued 
Forreft, no part clear'd, but l^•hat is clear'd by the 
Engl'/h't who, tho they are Teated pretty clofe oU'- to 
another, cannot fee their next Ntigh-'rnr's Hoafj for 
/Trees. Indeed 'tis expe<fted <:hat 'twill be och-crrwiie 
in a few Years, for t':e Tobacco Trade deflroys abun- 
dance of Timber, both for making of Hogftjeads and 
building Tobacco Houfes, befides clearing of Ground 
yearly for Planting, 

The Soil of Af^rj/te/i is gener^^ily Tandy, and free 
from Stone, which makes it very convenient for Tra- 
velling, and there's no occafion for ihoeing their 
Horfes, except in froRy Weather-, and what with 
the Goodnefs of their little Horfes, r.nd the Smooth- 
nefs of the Roads, People, upon Occafion, can tra- 
•vel 50 Miles in a Summers Afternoon •, and fometimes 
.100 Miles in a Day •, but then their Miles are notac- 
i counted lb long as in England. 

The rich and plentiful Gifts of Nature add much to 
the Happinefs of the Place •, the three Elements affor- 
ding Plenty of Food for the life of Man, as Deer, 
Fowl, both Water and Land ^ and for the Preferva- 
tion of Health, many excellent Herbs and Roots, the 
Difcovery of whofe Virtue is chiefly owing to the 

They have Timber of feveral Kinds, good for Buil- 
ding, and of them fiiveral forts of Oak*, as Red, 
■White, Black, Chefnut, Water, Spanifb, and Line 
Oaks (which laft bears a Leaf like a WillowJ Cedar 
white and red', the latter ferves only for Pofts and 
, Groundfills^ the W^hite to rive or (plit into Board?, 
' that being the freeft from Knots, and g-oes under the 


2o6 The Hiftory of Maryland. 

Name of Cyprefs, tho 'tis falfely To term'd. There's 
a Tree call'd Cyprefs, which is extraordinary large 
in Bulk, and bears a Leaf like the Senfitive Plant, 
'Tis foft, fpungy, will not rive, and is fit for no Ufe. 
Their Black Walnut is mightily efteem'd by the 
Joiners for its Grain and Colour. There*s a fort of 
Poplar that makes good white Plank. Tis a large 
Tree, and bears a Flower like a Tulip. They have 
Plenty of Pine, and Dogwood, which is a fine Flow 
er-bearing Plant, SafTafras, Locuft, a Tree of quick 
Growth, and very durable in Building. Hickery, 
of which there are two forts. Red and White •, the 
latter ferves chiefly for Fire- Wood, being the bed 
for that Ufe. There's abundance of Chemuts and 
Chinquapines, another Species of Chefnuts ^ a fort 
of Elm like a Dutch Elm ^ and the Sugar mention'd 
in the Hiftory of Firgmia, as well as others nam*d 
here. In Maryland is a kind of Elder, whofe Bark is 
clofely guarded wdth Prickles, like a Briar. The 
Tulip-bearing-Lawrel and Myrtle of feveral forts, 
one of which bears a Berry that is work'd up in the 
Eailern Shore to a kind of Green Wax, very proper 
to make Candles with, if mix'd with Tallow. 

The Humming-Bird and Mocking-Bird are th^ 
moft curious Birds in this Province, as well as in the 
next *, and the Rattle-fnake in both is the uioft noted 
of their Reptiles. 

The Air is now more wholfome than formerly, \ 
which proceeds from the opening of the Country, 
the Air having by that means a freer Motion. The : 
Summers now are not extream hot, as in the firfl ,< 
feating •, but their Winters are generally fevere, \ 
The North-Eaft Wind is then very fharp, and even : 
cools the Air very much in the Heat ofthe Summer, ^ 
when a fudden North-Weftern Blaft too often ftrikes \ 
their Labourers with Fevers, if they are not careful 
to provide for it, by putting on their Cloaths while 
they are at work. 

There's little or no Woollen Manufacture followed 
by any of the Inhabitants^ except what is done in 
Somerfet County. Tobacco is their Meat, Drink, 
Cloathing, and Money : Not but that they have both 
Spanijh and Engliflj Money pretty plenty, whirh ferves 
only for Pocket- Expences, and not for Tr^de, To- 

The Hijlory of Maryland. 207 

bacco being the Standard of that, as well with the 
^Planters and others, as with the Merchants. Their 
common Drink is Cyder, which is very good*, and 
|i where it is rightly order'd, not inferiour to the beft 
1 white Wine. They have Wine brought from Ma^ 
[dera^indFyally Rum from Barhadoes'^ Bear, Mault, 
\French and other Wines from England, There's 
jPlenty of good Grapes growing wild in the Woods, 
jbut no Improvement is made of them. 
\ Moll of the Indians live on the Eaftern Shore, 
Kvhere they have tvv^o or three little Towns : Some of 
||them come over to the other fide in Winter-time, to 
^huntfor Deer, being generally employ'd by t\\Q Eng- 
Ujh. They take Delight in nothing elfe, and 'tis ve- 
|ry rare that any of them will embrace the Chriftians 
jway of Living or Worfliip. The Caufe of their Di- 
'minifting proceeded not from any Wars with the 
^Engliflj^ for they have had none with them worth 
fpeaking of, but from their own perpetual Difcords 
and Wars among thenifelves. The Female Sex alfo 
have (wept away a great many, infbmuch that their 
iNumberis now veryinconfiderable. 
\ One thing is oblervable in them, tho they are a 
People very timerous, and cowardly in Fight, yet 
when taken Prifoners, and condemii'd, they will die 
like Heroes, braving the moft exquiiite Tortures that 
:an be invented, and fmging all the time they are up- 
)n the Rack. 

' If we have at any time mentioned the fame thing in 
:wo feverai Provinces, we have taken all pofiible Care 
lot to defcribeit but in one, that X\v'Q Reader might not 
be tir'd with needlefs Repetitions. But it will be ob- 
erv'd, that every Nation of thefe Barbarians has 
|ome particular Cuftoms, which diftinguifh 'em from 
the reft j and to make the Hiftory of each Province as 
perfed as lay in our Power, we have,as far as we cou'd, 
fefcrib'd the Manners and Cuftoms of all of them. We 
uve nothing more to fay of this Colony, and fhall 
conclude with the Names of tlie prefent Governour 
md Council, 



The Hifiory of Maryland. 
Col. WiUhm Seymour^ Governour. 

r Members of the 
^ Council. 

nomas Tench^ Efq-, 

Samuel Tomgj Efq*, 

John Hammond^ E(q", 

Francis Jenkins^ Efq*, 

Edward Lloyd, Efq^ 

William Holland^ Efq; 

Kennelau Chittletoriy Efq, 

William Courcy, Efq*, 

Thomas Ennals^ Elq^ 

Robert Quarry, Efq j 

Thomas Grinjeildj^ 

JohnContee^ J 

Secretary to the Government, Siic Thomas Lawrencsl 
Speaker of the Affembly, Ul^Thoma^ Smithfon. 
Naval-Officer at Annapolis^ Mr. W^lham Bladen. 




T H 1 




rrwiii iiiriirfu 



O F 

V I R G I N I A. 


Contdning the Hiftory of Virginia^ from its 
^ Dijcovery to the Prefmt Times. 

Y the Nameof/^Vg/W^5 was forniedy caird 
all that Tra£l of Land which reach'd from 
ISlo-rtmhegua to Florida ^ and contain'd the 
_^ ,^, Country, now known to the Englifh By the 
Names of New-England^ New-Torkj New-Jerfey^ 
Penjilvanlay Maryland^ Virginia and Carolina, The Na=* 
tives call'd it Apekhen-^ and 'twas, as'tisiaid, firft 
difcovet'dtothe Europeans by SebaflionCahor^ a Geno- 
: eie Adventurer, who liv'd at Brijlol-^ and who in the 
Year i4i>7. was fent by King Henry VII. to make 14^7; 
Difcoveries in the Weft-Indies, Cohmbm's Sxxcct^ts Its Difce^ 
5 Years before, having fet all the Trading Nations ^Jf' . > 
in the World upon Expeditions into America^ in 
hopes of fharing the Treafures of the New difcovefd 
■[f^or/^ with the Spaniards. 

The French, who will never allow any Nation to 
I be before them in any thing, pretend this Country 
! was difcover'd by John Ferazx,m ; who took poflefli- 

P on 

21 c The Hifiory of Virginia. 

on of it in the Name of Francis I. that he call'd it Mo- 
Kobbe cofa-^ and with Canada, to which he gave the Name 
Geog, Oi .-New-France^ added it to the French Dominions* 
E^rt-tkis is a --fc^lion . of their OBin, -ej^ploded by all 
Authors who treat of the Difcovery of Virginia : For 
which the Crown <d{ England is certainly indebted to 
i}(i^ Care and Expenfe of the famous Sir Walter Raw 
high J who having, as appears by his admirable 
H^^y of the W^tld, made ftri^l Enquiries into th^? 
Sta^ of tKe llniv^rfe p and hearing.of the prodigious 
ProSt th e^^'Sf^.niaSs'dreiv from their Settlements in 
the Wejl- Indies^ reiblv'd upon an Adventure for fur'- 
ther Difcoveries. 

His Miftrefb- Queen Eliz.abeth was then too much 

employ'd in £2/rc/7^, to think of making Attempts for 

Acquifitions in America. She was apprehenfiveof a 

Wa"r with Spain ^ and was bufy'd in protefting the 

States of the United Provinces, and the French Pro- 

terfahtSj againfl the Tyranny of ir<3:^r^ and <Si^^2/^, Sir 

SirWzlter'^^^^^^f-^^ thverefore found himfelf under a necefiity of un- 

Rauiiah dertaking the Adventure, on the'atcountof private 

undertaies Perfons, \'-ho bearing the Charge of it, were to have 

it. the Advantage,^*-; /' _ \ ..,._, 

1 5 8 5 •. To this RarpoTe,^ in the Year 1 5 8 3 . he procur^sTe- 

veral Merchants ^,nd- Gentlemen to advance large 

Sums of iMoney towards carrying on the Defign 

And in the Year following, obtained Letters Pattents 

, from the Queen, bearing Date the 25th of March 

1584. To poffcf:^ plant ^ and enjoy for himfelf^ and fuck 

Perfins as hefionld nominate^ ihtmfelves and their Sue- 

cefjors^. all fucb Landry Territories^ &cc. as they fioula 

'd,lfcover^ not' then in the T-offeffion of any Chrifiian 


1584. - In^ th" Gentlemen and Merchants, by Sii 

JValter.Raivleigh's Direflion, fitted out two fmall Vef 

fels under the Comm^iid of ^ Captain Philip Amidas 

Amidas and Captain Arthur Barlovp^ two of Sir Walter's Ser 

arid^^T" vants^ who knowing no better Courfe, faiPd awa^ 

^^^^ ^ for the Canaries J from thence to ihtCarihhee Ifiands 

^y^g^' and croiling. x!i\^ Galph of Mexico.^ made the Coaft 


They were fo ignorant of Navigation, that b; 
Computation of able ^Seamen, they went above 
thoufand Leagues out of their way. Their Voyag 

The Hijlory ^f Virginia. 211 

was however prolpercus \ and they anchored at the 
In-let by Roenoke^ at prefeiit under xh^i Go^'^THm^nt 
of North CarGlina. They landed on ccnain lilmds on 
the Coaft, between C^.pe Fear and the greai" B^y of 
Chefapeac, They afterwards wen^ .here on the 
Continent, in a Country cali'd Wingandacca -^ over 
which there reign'd a King, whofti Name Wc\s Wingi- 
na. They traded with the Indians^ and mads good 
Profit of their Truck, the Natives parting with their 
Furrs for things of much inferiour Value. With this 
Commodity, Safafras and Cedar, they loaded their 
two \ eiTels, and return'd home, carrying with them 
fome Pearl, which was taken for an evident Sign of 
OdQ great Riches of the Country. Amldas and Bar- 
low had made a very advantagious Voyage ^ and to 
encourage their Owners, the New Wefh-India-Compa^ 
ny to continue the Trade, they represented the Place, 
they had difcover'd to be fo plentiful, and fo defira- 
ble, the Climate fo pleafant and healthy, the Air fo 
fweet, the Sky fo ferene, the Woods and Fields fo 
fruitful and charming, and every thing fo agreeable, 
that all that heard it were taken with the Defcription y 
and fuch as had not Conveniences to live pleafantly 
at home, were tempted to remove to this Para- 

' But the Difcovery was in its Infancy, and the En° 
glifh then could only admire, without daring to at- 
tempt the enjoying the Sweets of fo delicious a Coun- 
try. Befides the Pleafantnefs of th^ Place, and the 
Profit of the Trade, Barlow and Amldas highly ex- 
toird the Innocence and good Nature of the Indians, 
and the AcJvantages that might be made by their Igno- 
rance, and their Love of t)i^ Englifh. To this they 
added an inviting ilccount of the" Produdions of the 
Soil, the Variety bf Fruits, Plants and Flowers there, 
and their Beauty and Excellence. . 

They alfo brought over with them (ome Tobacco, Tobacco 
the firll that was feen in England^ and two Indians, P:/^ 
Whofe Names were Wanchefe and Manteo, brought hu 

Qiieen Ellz,abeth w^as her ielf fo well pleas'd with^^^^^S" 
the Account thefe Adventurers gave oi the Country, ^^"^^^ 
that Ihe honour'd it with the Name of Firginiaj either 
becaufe it was firft difcover'd in her Reign, a Virgin 
Queen *j or, as the Virginians will have it, becaufe it 

p 2 m 

2 1 2 The Hijlory of Virginia. 

ftill feem'd to retain the Virgin Purity and Plenty ofths 
firji Creation^ and the People their Primitive In- 

The En glifh Merchants were the more fond of fur- 
ther Adventures to America at this time, for that her 
Maiefty's Ships had lately intercepted a Spanifh VefiTel 
bound home from Mexico^ which had Letters aboard, 
cont?jning a Deicription of the vail Treafures that 
were dug out of the Mines there. ,And the Compan-^ 
erefted under the Aufpices of Sir Walter Rawleigh, 
who fome affirm gave the Name of Virginia to the 
Country himfelf, refolv'd on a fecond Voyage thi- 
ther. , , . T . _ 

Sir Walter intended to have commanded m this Ex- 
pedition himfelf, and to have carry'd with him a fuffi' 
cientnumber of Forces, to have com pleated his Defigr 
of making a Settlement there-, but being at that tim< 
jealous that his Abfence might be preiudidal to hi: 
Intereft at Court, which the Earl of LzVa^f rfough" 
all Occafions to leifen, he committed the Coiiduft o 
this fecond Enterprize to his LiQutQnmt S\i' Ric hare 
Greenvill \ who on the ^th of April kt (ail from Til 
mouth with feven Ships fitted out by the Company 
of which himfelf and feveral other Gentlemen wer< 
Members : and this Company was the firft of tha 
kind that was eftabliih'd in Europe, Theie Kmi 
James incorporated by the Name of the Governom 
and Company of the Weji-Indies , which for thei 
■Male-adminifiration w^as difTolv'd by his Son Kinj 

Charles \, ^ ^ ^ ^ . 

Sir Richard Greenvill^ for want of better Informa 
tion, faird round by the Wefiern and Caribbee l\ 
lands. He had laden his Ships with Provilion, Arms 
Ammunition, and fpare Men to fettle a Colony, 
With thefe he took the tv/o Indians, to aflift him i 
his N^^ociations with their Countrymen : And havin. 
a profperous Voyage, he arriv'd at Wokokon on th 
•26th o[ May '^ being the fame place were the Enghil 
'^^^' had been the Year before. 

In A^'gvfi following he began to plant at Roenofi.i^ 

an I(l:^nd about 5 Leagues from the Continent, whio 

lies in 3S Degrees of Northern Latitude. He all 

made fome little Difcoveries more in the Sound to m 

Southward ', trading with the Indians for Skins, Furn 

1 ear* 

The Hifiory of Yivgimi. 21 j 

Pearl, and other Commodities ^ which they bartered 
with him for things of inconfiderable Value. 

He left 108 Men on Roaioke Ifland, under x!^t Com;- M/. Ralph 
mand of Mr. Ral^h Lane^ and Captain Philip Amidas^ Lane f,rfi 
to keep pofTedion of it ', and himielf rerura'd to Engr Govsrnor. 

As foon as Sir Richard was gone, the Men he left 
behind fet themfelves about difcovering the Continent, 
and rang'd up and down So Miles Southward, and 
130 Northward, venturing indifcreetly too hign up > 
the Rivers, and too far into the Country *, by w^hicti 
the Indians growing jealous of their D^figns, began 
firft to be weary of their Company, and cut off their 
Straglers when they fell into their Hands ^ they alfo 
form'd a Confpiracy to deflroy thereil, but were hap- 
pily prevented. 

The Journals of the Colony's Proceedings w^ere 
duly tranfmitted to 'the Company in £??gte^', who 
was not fo careful as they fbould have been, to fend them 
Supplies of Provifion : And the EngliOi not under- 
ftanding the Nature of the Climate, had neglefted 
to gather Food in Seafon, as the Indians did ^ by 
which means they were reduc'd to terrible ilreights. 
The Natives never after kept Faith v/ith them, but 
watch'd all Opportunities to cut them off! And, as 
this oblig'd them to be more wary in their Enterpri- 
zes on the Main, fo it hinder'd their receiving any 
Supply from them : However they endur'd all with 
incredible Refolution, and extended their Difcoveries 
near 100 Miles along the Sea-Coads. 

They kept the Indians in awe, by threatning them 
with the return of their Companions, and a Reinforce- 
ment of Men. But no Ships coming from England 
in al] that Winter, nor in the Spring following, nor 
in Summer, they defpair'd of being able to fupport 
themfelves any longer:, the Natives beginning to de- 
fpife them, when they faw them, as it were, aban- 
doned by their Countrymen, and the Engliili ex- 
pelled daily to be iacrific'd to their Cruelty. 

In this Diflrefs their chief Employment was to look 
out to Sea, in hopes of finding tome means of Efcape 
or Recruit : And when they were almoft fpent with 
Want and Watching, Hunger and Cold, in Ai'gujt i^SiT. 
fhey fpy*d Sir Francif Drake's Fleet, who was returning 

P :; from 

214 The Hifiory of Virginia. 

from an Expedition againfl the Spaniards in North- 
America^ and had been commanded by the Queen to 
vifit this Piantition in his way, and fee what Encou- 
ragement or Afiiftance it wanted. 

The fight of Sir Francis's Fleet was th.Q nioft joyful 
one that ever the Eyes of the poor Wretches who 
were left on RoenokeAi[z.nd^ beheld. Their firil Petiti- 
on to him, was to grant them a Supply of Men and 
Provifions, with a fmall Ship or Bark to attend them ^ 
that in cafe they could not maintain themfelves 
where .they were, they might embark in it for Eng- 

Sir Francis granted their Reqiieft ^ and they fet all 
hands to work to fit the Ship he had given them, and 
furnilh her wath all manner of Stores for a long flay : 
but a Storm arifing, which drove the VelTei from her 
Anchor to Sea, and the Ship fulFering fo much in it, 
that fhe was not fit for tl leir ufe, they were fo difcou- 
rag'd, that notwithftanding Sir Francis uffer'd them 
another Ship, they were afraid to ftay, and earneftly 
>^?/ e»a of entreated him to take them with him home, which 
the jprjf he did ^ and this put an end to the fiifi: Settle- 

In ''he mean time, Sir Walter Rawlelgh being very 
folliCTtcu-^ for tht Prefervation of his Colony, foUicited 
th^ Company to Aaften their Supplies of Men and 
Frovifioas, refolving to go with them in Perfon; 
And fearing the Colony would fuffer by their Delays, 
lie fitted out the Ship he was to go in with all poilible 
fpeed ^ and when it was ready, fet fail by him felf: 
A Fortnight after. Sir Richard Greenvill faii'd again 
from Ph7nGuthj w^ th three other Ships for Virginia, 

Sir Walter fell in with taQ Land at Cape Hattaras^ 
a little ^o the Southward oiRoencike^ where the 1 08 
Men fettled ^ whom, after ftrift learch, not finding 
there, he return 'd. 

The Virginians pofitively affirm, that Sit Walter 
Rawieigh made this Voyage in Person, but the Hifto- 
ries oF tliofe Times, and the Authors of the Life of 
Sir Walter Rawieigh^ w^hich has been twice written, , 
make no mention of it; 'Tis more probable, that the 
common Account of it is true, that he fitted out a 
VelTei of a hundred Tun, loaded it with NecefTaries, 
r.nd difpatch'd it away to relieve his little Colony. 
^ . . ; Before- 

The Hlpory of Vivglnh, 215 

r Before this Ship arriv'd, the Engliih had abandoned 
their Settlement, and retuni'dwith Sir Francis Drake, ^ 
And the Mafter of the VeiTel not beiag able to get 
any Information concerning th^m^ made the beft of his 
way home. 

Though the Author of The Hiflory and Prefim 
Scate of Virginia^ afTures us Sir Walter Rawleigh went 
thQn himfelf, 'tis not likely a Man of his Q-iality'and 
Charafter would hazard bis Perfon fo far, in no bet- 
ter an Employ than thQ Mafter of an Advice Boat or 

When Sir Richard arriv'd, which was a faw d^ys 
after the departure of the VelTel vs^e have meatioo'd,, 
he found the Ifland Roenoke^ where he left his Men,- 
entirely deferted. He knev/ nothing of Sir Francis 
Drake\ having been there ;, and thought they had 
been all murder'd by the Indians, till Manteo la- 
tisfy'd him of the contrary;, but he could not tellNavI- 
how they got away. However Sir Richard left fifty ganc, Iti- 
Men more (fome Accounts fay but 15) in the fame "^^^"^* 
Ifiand ^ order'd them to build Houfes, giving thnii ^ ^^^ 
Materials, and two Years Pro vifion ^ after which he ^'^^'J^,^^ " 
returned, having affur'd them that they Hiould be' 
fpeedily and conftantly fupply'd. 

In the Year following Mr. John White was f^nt 
thither by the Company, with three Ships. ■ He 
carry'd with him a Supply of Men, and fome vVo- 
men-, as pJfo pleiitiful Recruits of Proviiions, having 
a Commiilion to lettle there, and to prelids over the 
Settlement as Governour. 

He arriv'dat Roenoke the 2 2d of Jidyy 1587. but i5'S7- 
found no Englifhmen there ^ at which he was very ' 
much troublei. He enquir'd of Manteo what vvas 
become of them^ this Indian inform'd him, that the 
Natives fecretly let upon them, kilFd fome, and the ^^/''^y'^^^ 
'reil fied into the Woods ^ where they v/ere never 
heard of afterwards. 

To confirm Manteo % Information, x!\\;^ Fort they 
had built he found demoliih'd, their Huts empty, tn^ 
place of their Habitation all grown up with Weeds *, 
and at the Entrance of the Fort the Bones of a dea.d 

This did not difcourage Mr. John White ^rora ^^-'i^- j tjjjy.i 
king Attempts tov/ards a third Ssttleaient : So he fat satk- 

P 4" do\Yn meiit. 

2i6 The Hijlory of Virginia. 

dotwn in the fame place, repair'd the Houfes : And 
when he had put all things in* the beft Order he could 
Mr. John ^^^ ^^^^^^ Prefervation, he proceeded to conftitute a 
Wiiite Form of Government among them, confiding of a 
Governor, Governour and twelve Couniellor?, incorporated b;y 
the Name of the Governour and Affiiiants of the City 
ofRawlcigh in Virginia. i 

On the 1 3 th of Augufk^ Manteo the faithful Indian 
I7;e Indian was chriften'd, and created by the Governour Lord 
Mmteo of Dajfamonpeakj an Indian Nation iocall'd, asaRe- 
-Cbrijlen'd, v\fard of his Fidelity and Services to the Englifh : And 
on the 1 8 th of the fame Month was born the fir ft Child ^ 
that was the Iffiie of Chriftian Parents in that place, i 
being the Daughter of Mr. Ananiivs Dare : She was af- 
ter the Name of the Country chriften'd Virginia. 

Tis from thefe fmall Beginnings that we are to trace 
this Colony, which has encreas'd ib much fmce, that 
*tis now one of the beft Branches of the Revenue of the 
- Crown of England. 

Good Government and Induftry foon rendered Mr. 
White and his Men formidable to the Indians, who 
courted their Friendftiip, and made Leagues with 
X}ci^ Corporation, w^hich they kept or broke as 
they thought themfelves too weak or too ftrong for 
the Englifh y who, as much as they feem'd to thrive, 
underwent ib many Hardfhips for want of due Sup- 
plies from Europe^ that nothing but the invincible 
Conflancy, which is the diftinguifhing Charafter off 
their Nation, could have fupported them in fo much 1 
Milery : yet fo far were they from repenting of their 
Undertaking, or defiring to return, that they difputed 
for ""Jtit Liberty of remaining at Roenoh *, and obliged 
Mr. Wyjite their Governour to return for England, 
and follicite the Company to fend them Recruits of 
Men and Provifions. 

Mr. White undertook to negotiate their Affairs ; 
and leaving 115 Men in the Corporation, fet fail for 
England^' where he arriv'd in fafety, and was two 
- Years there before he could obtain a Grant of 
ceffar y Supplies : At laft he had three Ships fitted out 
for him, with Provifions and more Men for the Co- 
He f jrd from PUmouth in the latter end of the Year 
1329. 1 585>. taking the ufual Courfe round by the Weftern 
- • > . and 

The Hifiory of Virginia. 217 

and Caribhee Iflands -^ for no othc;r was then known. 
The they were skill'd in Navigation, and in the Know- 
ledge of the ufe of the Globes, yet they chofe rather 
to follow a prevailing Cnftom, and fail three thoufand 
Miles about, tha.n to attempt a more direft PalTage. 

On the 15th oi Augyfi he arriv'd at Cape Hattoras^ 
and landing on the Ifland Roenoke^ found by Letters 
cut on the Trees, in large Roman Charafters, that 
the Englifh were remov'd, but he could not tell where , 
They Taw the Letters C.R.O. on feveral Trees ^ 
and fearching further, on one of the Pallifadoes of the 
Fort which they had quitted, they found cut in large 
Capital Letters the Word Croatan ^ one of the Illands 
forming the Sound, about 20 Leagues Southward of "" 

On this Advice they reimbark'd in queft of their 
Fellows at Croatan'^ h\xt they were fcarce aboard all 
of them before a dreadful Storm arofe, which fepara-^^^ E-ndof 
tQ^ the Ships one from another. They loft their An- ^i'^ ^^■'"'^ 
chors and Cables, and durft not venture in with the"^^^^^^" 
Shore-, fothey all fhifted for them felves^ and with' ' 
various Fortunes arriv'd in England and Ireland, 

There were no more Attempts to find and relieve Mr, 
the 115 Men Mr. White left at Roenoke for (ixteen White 
Years following *, and what became of them God only returns. 
knows, for they were never heard of to this Day. 
'Tis fuppos*d the Indians feeing them forfaken by 
their Countrymen, fell upon them and deftroy'd 

This Misfortune was enough to put a ftop to any 
further Enter prizes of this Nature for fome time *, 
and *tis rather a matter of Wonder, that the Englifh 
ever after it attempted a Settlement in Virginia^ than 
that they negk£led it fo long, this being their third 
Mifcarriage, "and the two laft with moll: terri- 
ble Circumftances : Thefe were certainly the Rea- 
ibns that the Deiign of fettling a Colony there was 
laid afide for fo long a while, and not Sir Walter 
Rawleigh's Troubles, as the Author of the Hifiory 
before mention'd pretends *, for Sir Walter from t\iQ 
Year 15^0. to the Death oi QiiQQn Eliz^abeth^ was in 
full Favour at Court, and at thQ head of feveral fa- 
mous Expeditions. 


21 8 The Hifioiry of Virginia. 

16-02. In the Year 16-0 2. in which Queen Elizabeth dy*S^- 

Captain ^ Captain Bartholomew Gofnold fitted out a fmall V.eiTe! 

Gofnold'^ at Dartmouth^ and fet fail in her from that Port, with 

y^y^g^' 32 Sailors and PafTengers for Virginia. He had been 

one of the Adventurers in a former Voyage thither, 

was an excellent Mariner, and had found out that 

there niufl: be a fnorter cut to thsit pirt of America 

than had hitherto been .attempred ^ wherefore he de- 

fign'd a more direft Courie, and did not fland fo far 

to the Southward, or pafs by the Caribhee lilands, as 

all former Adventurers had done, by which they not 

only fail'd many hundreds of Leagues out of their Way^ 

but were expos'd to the difficult Shores and dangerous 

Currents of the Iflands, and the Coa'lb of Florida. 

He attain'd his end in avoiding thofe Coafts and 
Currents, and taking a nearer Courfe than any had 
done before him. 

He arriv'd in the Latitude of 42 Degrees, and a few 
Minutes, to the Northward of Roemke^ among the 
Iflands, forming the North fide of Majfachufets Bay 
in New-England •, where not finding the Convenien- 
ces he defir'd, he fet fail again j and when he thought 
he had got clear of the Land, he fell upon the Bay of 
Codj now part of New-England, 

By his Method of Navigation he fhorten'd his way 
500 Leagues, and yet went farther about by as many 
nlore than our Ships do now. 

Captain Gofnold fiiay'd fome time on the Coaft, 
trading with the Indians for their Furrs, Skins, &€. 
with which, Safafras and fome other Commodities, 
he loaded his Ship^ and return'd, having too few Men 
in his Company to pretend to a Settlement. This 
Voyage was fo healthy, that neither himfelf nor any 
of his Crew were in the leafl indifpos'd in ail the tinie.^ 
He was the firil that had made it turn to any account 
fines Barlow and A'mldas's Voyage ^ and gave fuch a 
good peicription of the commodious Harbours, plea- 
fant ^^laces, and profitable Trade he had met with, 
that the Englifii once more began to talk of a Planta- 
tion in Virginia *, and feveral Merchants, particularly 
the Mayor and fome Aldermen of Briftoll^ witn 
whom Mr. Hackliiit^ who made a very good Collecti- 
on of Voyages to America,^ was ccn^ern'd, fet out 
Ships to trade to the fame Places, 
■ ■' Two 

The Hifiory of Virginia. 219 

Two VefTels fitted out by the ^r^^o// Men, fell in 
wi/'h the fame Land Captain 6'(?/??(?/£5^aiad done, fol= 
iow'd his Method and Traffick^ and return'd with 
a rich Lading. 

The Brijioll Merchants encourag'd by this Adven- 
ture, continu'd their Voyages thither, and encreas'd 
their Commerce from time to time 10 much, that 
for many Years they were the moft confiderable 
Traders to that Colony ^ and, confidering the Ine- 
quality of their Numbers, out-did the Londoners by 
much, till the Merchants of Leverpooll dro^^e them ' 
out of the Irifh Trade, and rivalFd them in that to 

The next Ship that fail'd thither from England was 
j commanded by Captain Martin fringe fitted out by Ca^t, 
\ the Brijioll Men, who came to Whitfan Bay, anchor'd Pring*s 
! there, and traded with the Natives to advantage. ^'^^Jf^W- 

The fame Year Captain Gilbert in the Elizabeth of 
London^ made a Voyage to Virginia^ but not with the 
like Succefs. He traded with the Savages in the Ca- 
ribhee Ifiands, "viz.. St. Lucia^ Dominica^ Nevis ^ St. 
Chriflophers^ and thence proceeded to thQ Bay of 
Chefepeac in Virginia^ being the firft that fail'd up into 
it, and landed there. The Indians fet upon him and 
his Company in the V^oods, and Captain Gilbert 
and 4 or 5 of his Men were kili'd by their Ar- 
rows ^ upon which his Crew return'd home. 

The trading Voyages of Gofnold and t\iQ Briftoll 
Men began to put the Englifn on new Attempts 
for a Settlement : But before it could be brought 
to pafs, Hmry Earl of Southampton^ and ThoniM 
Lord Arundel of Warderj fitted out a Ship on- ^ 
der the Command of Capt, George Weymouth^ who Capt. 
fell upon the Eaftern Parts of Long-Ifland (as 'tis Wey- 
now call'd) where they landed, and traffick'd with mouth V 
the Indians, made Trial of the Soil by Englifii Grain \ ^'^y^'^g^- 
and found the Natives more affable and c rirteous xh:2Csi 
the Inhabitants of thofe other parts of Virginia which 
the Englifh had difcover'd ^ but the Adventurers be- 
ing gready of Gain, over-reach'd ^}cLt Indi:ins, impo- 
fing on their Ignorance ■, of which they growini^ jea- 
lous, it occafion'd the many Murthers and Maflkcres 
that follow in the Courfe of this Hiftory, 


220 The Hiftorj! of Virgmh. 

Capt. Weymouth enter'd the River of Powhatam 
Southward of the Bay of Chefapeac, He fail'd up a- 
bove Forty Miles, finding the Channel deep and 
broad, being a Mile over, and 7 to lo Fathom in 
depth, having Creeks on every fide at every half 
Mile Diftance, all deep and fafeyin which Ships oi 
500 Tuns may ride in many places, with a Cable on 
Ihore in the foft Oaze. 

As^he coafted along this River, he traffick'd withi 
the Natives, bartering his Trifles for their Treafures ^ 
the Indians giving him to the value of i o or 12/. in 
Furs, Beaver, ^tter, and Sable, for five Shillings 
worth of Knives, Combs, Bead? and Toyes. 

In one place where he traded, he and Iiis Crew had! 
like to have been furpriz'd by tli^ Natives, who invi- 
ting him afhore on pretence of TrafRck, plac'd 3003 
Men with Bows and Arrow, in an Ambufcadej butt 
Capt. Weyjnopth march'd with fo much Caution, and! 
fo well arm'd, that they durft not attack him. Hee 
fent his Boat 70 Miles up the River, in which his Shipi 
lay (f Weeks. While he was there he made trial of 
the Soil of the Country with Englifh Grain, which 
he found thriv'd, as it did in other parts of Firginia 
where the Experiment had been made. 

Having laden his Ship with the Commodities of the 
Place, fuch as Furrs, Safafras, and Tobacco, he re- 
turn'd to England^ carrying 5 or 4 Savages whom he 
had taken Prifoners with him. 

The Account he gave of his Voyage when he came 
home, tempted others to adventure thither, but none 
had the Courage to think of a Settlement. They had 
forgot the 115 Men whom Mr. White had left at Roe- 
noke : Their Pity was too weak for their Avarice, 
Trade and Profit was all they thought of :, and thefe 
private Adventurers would have put the Defign of a 
Colony out of the Peoples head, had not Capt; Gofnold 
fo effectually follicited the Settlement of Virginia in 
the Court of King James^ thatfeveral Gentlemen con- 
tributed towards it ^ and the King incorporated two 
Companies in one Patent, bearing date the loth o^A- 
i<5"o(5'' K^^> 1606, for two Colonies. 
The South The firft Company were Sir Tho.Gates^ Sir George 
Virginia Summers^ the Reverend Mr. Richard HacMidt^ Pre- 
Company, tend of Wefiminfler^ and Edrvard Maria Wingfeild^ 
>■ ' Efq*7 

The Hijtory of Yitgmiz. 221 

Efq, who were the London- Adv^ntrntrSj and had li- 
berty by tlieir Patent to feat themfelves, and fuch as 
fhou'd join with them at any place on the Coafl of 
Virginia^ betw^een the Degrees of 34. and 41 of Nor- 
thern Latitude. They were allow'd to extend their 
Bounds from the place of their Plantation 50 Englifh 
Miles, each way, and one hundred Miles* up in the 
Country, diredlly from the Sea-Coafl, and none was 
permitted to l^ant or dwell there without leave of the 
Company or their Council. 

This Patent included Af^ryte^, Virginia and Ca-- 
roUna^ as they are now diftingaifh'd from each other, 

Thefecond Company were George Vopha?n^{q-^ and 
others, as we Ihall fhew in the Hiilory of New Eng- 
land^ thefe were call'd the Plimouth-AdvQntmQXS, 

They had liberty by their Patent to plant and in- 
habit any Part of the Continent between the Degrees 
of 58 and 45 of Northern Latitude, with the like Pri- 
vileges and Bounds as the Firft Company. ,. 

In this Patent vs^as included New-England^ New- 
Tork^ New-Jerfey and Tenfilvania^ as they are now- 
divided into fever al Provinces •, but the whole Coun- 
try was then call'd Firginia^ That which was granted 
to the fecond Colony, as well as that which was gran- 
ted to the firft. The latter w^as the earlieft in their Set- 
tlement : For in the fame year with the Date of their 
Patent, they fitted out two Ships under the Command i ^^6. 
o[ Cd.^t.Newportj who fell in with the Coaft near Cape 
Henry ^ the Southermoft Point of the Bay Chefeapeac, 

With him went the Honourable MicPercy^ Brother 
to the Earl of Northumberland^ Capt. Gofnell^ Capt. 
Smithy Capt. Ratdiffe^ Capt. Martin^ Mr. Wingfietd^ 
of whom the 5 laft were of the Council. They took 
a Minifter, and abundance of Handicraft Tradefmen 
with them. Capt. Newport rais'd a Fort at the Mouth Cap^ 
of the River Powhatan. Here he left 100 Men, with Newport. 
Provifions, Arms, Ammunition, and other NecefTa- 
ries to make a Settlement •, and this was the firft Co- Fhfi Colo- 
lony that remain'd on the Place. The firft Company ny that 
refolving to profecute their Undertaking vigorouily, remahi'd.. 
had taken Capt. John Smith into their Service. He 
was a noted Seaman, who from a mean Original 
had acquir'd a great Reputation by his Adventures. 
C^-^U Smith chearfully undertook the Employment, 


2^2 The Hiftory of Virginia. 

and ventur'd his all oa that Bottom. The Company 
were im power 'd by their Patent to choofe a Pren- 
dent and Gounfellors to grant Gommiffions, and ex- 
ercife judicial Authority. Accordingly they gave a| 
Commiiiion to the Gentlemen above-mention'd to^ 
eftablifh a Colony in their Territories, and govern 
it by a Pi«efident and Council, who were invefted 
with fufficient Authorities and Powers. 

The Gentlemen who went over with Capt. Smithy 
were very unkind to him, and envying his Zeal and 
Experience in Maritime Affairs, they us'd him fo ill, 
that 'twas thought they intended to put him to Death. 
Mn This was carry'd on by the Prefident Mr. ^'7;?^- 
^^"§' fidd^ a covetous haughty Perfon, who, while Capt. 
field Fre- Smith was trading and treating with the Indian Kings, 
Jident, contriv'd his Ruin: Falfe Witnefles were produc'd 
to f\vear ill Defigns againft him, and he was not only 
refus'd to be admitted into the Council, but thrown 
into Prifon, where he lay till all the Forgeries of his 
, Enemies were dete£led. He then Was admitted a Mem- 
ber of the Council •, Mr. Wingfield was depos'd from 
C^^^.Raci. his Precedency, ^"^^ Capt i?^^c/^^ chofen Prefident, 
cliff, Pre- ^^"^ knowing Capt. Smith's Ability, left the Admini- 
fident, ilration of Affairs to him. 

The Company gave Captain Newport^ when he 
fet out, orders to Sail to that Part of Virginia^ 
where Mv. White left his Miferable Colony, tho 
there was no Security of Harbour there. Captain 
Smith v/as the Pilot of this little Fleet, and as good 
a Seaman as he was, went the old round-about 
way, by the Weilern and Charibbee Iflands, and paft 
his ov/n Accounts in Navigation twice or thrice, in- 
fomuch that his Companions began to Defpair of 
reaching the Place they were bound for, and to think 
of returning to England. But \vhen they were at the 
- Point of returning, Capt. Smithy with twa of his 
Veffels, luckily fell in with Virginia^ at the Mouth 
I of Che fapeac Bdy. Some Authors diflinguifh. Capt. 

Smith's Voyage : from Capt. Nevrporfs ^ and affirm, 
that the firrf Settlement which remain'd, was made by 
Smithy but others make the Voyage of Capt. New- 
port Prior to Smith's. Leaving this Difpute to be deci- 
ded by the^Conipany's Books, and the Firginians^ we 
proceed in our Hiftory. 


The Hiftory of Virginia. 225 

I Capt. Smithy when he had the Management of Af- 
I fairs, built a Fort on the Southern Cape, which he 
[ nam'd Cape Henry^ from Prince Henry King James's 
\ Eldeft Son : the Northern he call'd Cape Charles^ from 
: Prince Charles^ afterwards Charles I. And the River 
Powhatan he calFd James River, after the King's own 

Before the Prefident and Council proceeded to a Barnes- 
\ Settlement, they made a full Search of 7<^;;/^jRiver,and Town 
\ then they unanimoujfly pitch'd on a Peninfula, about built 
i 50 Miles up the River to build a Town upon, which 
I they caird James-Town, 

The Soil about it is very good, the place it 
I felf two thirds environ'd by the Main River, which 
I affords good Anchorage, and the other third by a fmall 
narrow River, capable of receiving Vellels of 100 
Tuns, by w^hich means the Ground the Town ftands 
upon is a fort of an Ifland. Here they built Caftles and 
a Fort, and might have gone on with Succefs, had not 
their own Divifions put a ftop to the Growth of their 
Settlement, and given the Indians an Advantage over 
them. One hundred and eight Men ftaid upon the 

Tis certain that in this year 1607^ the Plantation 1^07. 
oi Virginia was firfi fettled by about one hundred 
Perfons, and that fi'om the(e (mall Beginnings it rofe 
to the Figure it has fince made in the Britifh Com- 
merce, The two Ships were fent back by the Pre- 
fident and Council to fetch Recruits of Men and Pro- 
vifions, and in the mem while thofe that remain'd fell 
to Planting and Sowing, to Building, Fortifying, 
and Trading with the Indians, making a prodigious 
ProEt by their Traffick. But each private Trader 
being at liberty to fell their Goods at what Rates 
he pleafe, the Engliih underlbld one another, by 
which means the Natives who had bought dearer 
than their Neighbours, thought -they were cheated^ 
and (o conceiv'd an Averfion to the Englilli in general, 
.which ended in a National Qiiarrel. 

The Trade was further interrupted by a fort 

of yellow Dufl-Jfinglasy which w^as found to be 

i . walh'd down by a Stream in a Neck of Land on 

the back of James-To^/^n.. This the Engliih 

mijlook for Gold , and all their Hearts were 

- fet 

2^4 TPje Hijlory ^Virginia. 

fet upon it, to the negle£^: of their real Profit by 
Traffick, and their Security and Prefervation, by 
making Provifion for a time of Neceffity, which then 
came upon them -^ for while they were all running 
mad after this Vifionary Gold •, their Town was burnt, 
their Stores confum'd, and they were reduced to the 
lafl Extremities of Wants. Many of them were alfo 
deftroy'd by the Indians, none minding their defence, 
fo much were they infatuated with the Hopes of Moun- 
tains of Wealth, by the help of thefe New-found- 
Sands •, and they already began to defpife the Mines 
of Mexico and Peru^ in comparifon of their own in- 
eftimable Stream. In the mean time they labour'd 
under unlpeakable Difficulties, which however they 
bore with patience, being comforted by their golden 
Dreams. One of the Ships that had been fent back to 
England for Provifions, return 'd :^ and they loaded 
her home with this Tellow Dvji^ thinking all the 
Stowage wafted that was beftow'd on Furrs or Druggs, 
and coa'd hardly afford any room for Cedar. Not 
long after her departure the other Ship arriv'd, 
and her they alfo loaded home with this imaginary 
Gold Duft5with Cedar and Clap-board to fill up. They 
were all fobuiy in Fifliing for the Dirt, that they 
cou'd fpare no time for Difcoveries, till the heat of 
their Avarice began to Cool a little, and fome of the 
wifer Sort to fu{pe£f, that according to a good old 
Englifh Proverb, All was net Gold that glifter'd. At 
iaft Capt. Smithy ^A'ith part of the Colony, made fe- 
verai Difcoveries in y^;;^^^- River, and up Chefapeac 
Bay, with two Sloogs which they had brought with 
them for that Purpoie.' 
I6-0 8. In the fame Year i^o8« the Englifh firft gather'd 
Indian Corn of their own Planting, and they might 
have flourifh.'d, had not their Feuds, Folly, and Neg- 
ligence, hinder'd their Succefs, and been the caule 
of their Future Mifchiefs. For in Capt. Sfmtb's ab- 
fence, Matters fell into Confufion *, ieveral uneafy 
People were for deferting the Settlement, and attemp- 
ted to run away with a fmali VefTel, which was left 
to attend it, but they were prevented. 

Capt. Smith in his Expedition among the Savages, 
was iurpriz'd , aflaulted , and taken Prifoner by 
them. He was then making Difcovery on the River 


The Hiftory of yirgmi^. 225 

Chicohomony^ where Oppecamcanoughj a King of that 
Nation, fell upon him treacherouHy, and put all his 
Men to death, after he had forc'd them to lay 
down their Arms. He not only fpar'd Mr, Smith's 
Life , but carry'd him to his Town , feafted 
him, prefented him to Powhatan the Chief King of 
the Savages, who wou*d have beheaded him, had he 
not been iav'd at the Interceflion of Powhatan's Daugh- 
ter Pocahonta^ of whom we fhall have occafion to fay 
more hereafter. Capt. Smith returning to James- 
Town, found the Colony in fuch Diftraftions, that 

Itwas likely to break up. When he had prevailed upon 
;hem to remain there, Capt. Newport returned with 
Supplies of Men and Provilions, and they both paid 
la Vifit to Powhatan^ who receiv'd them in great State. 
jCapt. Newport did not ftay long in Virginia^ and Capt. 
^adclif refigning hisPreridency,Capt.5;;2/>/7 was undi^Capt- 
inimouHy defir'd to accept of that Office. He jnade a Smith Pre 
ifecond Expedition for Difcoveries, leaving Mr. Scrive-fidrnt, 
ner Vice-Prefident, but the Affairs of the Settlement 
llill ran to deftruftion. 

I In the year following, 1609, John Layden^ and 
'Anne Burroughs were marry 'd, which was the firft 
iohriftian Marriage in Virginia ^ and in the fame 
[fear the Prefident and Council at Jam'es-Tov^n fen tout 
[People to make two other Settlements, one at Nan- 
Camund , under Capt. Martin in James-^v^tt j and 
Jie other at Powhatan^ 6 Miles below the Falls of 
James'Kv^^r , under the Honourable Mr. Weji : 
Mr. Martin attempting to feize the King of Nanfa- 
nurjdy was forc'd to fly from his Settlement, and iVIn 
'Vejl did not ftay long at his. 
The Colony was by this tii)ie fo encreas'd by Recruits 
ifom England^ that the People of Ja?nes-Toy\'n. cou'd 
pare 120 Men for each of thefe Settlements. Not 
ong after another Settlement was made at Kiquotany 
it the Mouth of James-KviQr, Powhatan was an In- 
lian Town, and was bought of Powhatan King of 
Verocomocoy for fome Copper. 
i 'The Company mEngland underftanding how preju- 
iicial the Divifions in their Colony were to the ad- 
vancement of the Settlement, Petition'd the King for ^^^^De- | 
eave to appoint a Governour,which was granted them ^^^are 
n a new Patent. Purfuant to this Grant they made the ^^'^^^<^^- 

Q Lord 


Sir Tho. 
Gates, Sir 

Difp. Go- 


The Hiftory ^/Virginia. 

Lord Delaware Governour of the Colony, wliofe 
Brother Mr. V/efl liv'd then in Virginia, My Lord 
appointed three of the Members of the Society, Sir 
Tho?7ias Gates J Sir George Summers^ and Captain New- 
port^ to be Joint Deputy Governours. 

Thefe three Gentlemen embarked in one Ship, and 
fet fail, with eight more in their Company, loader 
with Provifions and Neceffaries. The Ship in whid 
the Governours were, being feparated from the ref 
in a Storm, was driv'n afhore, andftav'd zt Bermudas 
but the Crew were all fav'd, and the three Gover 
nours with the rcfh^ who, notwithftandingthe dan 
gers they had run, were always jangling, to the grea 
detriment of their Affairs. 

While they were there, thQ two Knights had per 
petual Quarrels among themfelves, formed Fa£lions 
and their Differences grew to fuch a height, that the 
would not embark in the fame VelTel •, fo they bail 
each of them one of Cedar, picking up theFurnitur 
of their old Ship for Rigging *, and inftead of Pitc 
and Tar, they made ufe of Fifh Oil, and Hogs Greal 
mix'd with Lime and Afhes. 

Several of the Nine Ships th?tt came out with th 
Governours, arriv'd in 5'^;«^^-River :, and by the: 
Arrival, encreas'd the Diforder in the Settlemen 
there ^ for, pretending that the new Commiilio 
dilTulv'd the old one, they would not fubmit to tl 
Government they found on the Place -^ the fatal Coi 
fequence of which we fhall fee hereafter* 

We niufl now return to Capt. Smithy who whi 
the Company were preparing to difpatch away tl 
three Governours, and thofe Gentlemen ftay'd 
Bermudas^ continued his making Difcoveries wi 
great Difficulties and Hazards •, in which he was o 
pos'd by Powhatan'^ with whom he made War, ar 
had frequent Advantages of the Indians, tho not wit 
out Lois *, himfelf was twice taken Prifoner by hir 
once, as was hinted before, as he was making a I 
fcovery of t}iQ Head of Chichtho^mny River, and 
nother time by an Ambufcade at Onawmoment, T 
manner of his Treatment among the Indians, and 1 
Elcape, his Friendfhip with Nautaquavs the Kin 
Son, and the fur prizing Tendernefs o^Tocahontal 
Da«;^ktei" for him, when he was about to be execute 

The Hijiory ^Virginia. 227 

are Incidents equally agreeable and furprizing. He 
has given a large Account of them in his own Hiflory, 
Ito which the Reader is refer'd *^ only we cannot omit 
relating the wonderful Humanity of Tocahonta^ who 
when Mr, Smith's Head was on the Block, and fhe 
could not prevail with her Father to give him hhsTheFrienA- 
Life, put her- own Head upon his, and ventured thei^^) of Po» 
receiving of the Blow to fave him, thp fhe was then ^^^onta, 
fcarce thirteen Years old : A remarkable Inftance, ^^ /^^|^ 
how vain we are to our felves, in thinking that all who ^^^'^^j^' 
do not refemble us in our Cultoms are barbarous. 
j We fhall have occafion in this Chapter to fay fbme- 
thing more of this generous Lady, who was the firft 
Virginian that ever fpoke Englifh, or had a Child by 
'an Englifhman/ and the firft Chriftian of that Nation. 
Capt. Smith having twice got out of the Hands of 
the Indians, proceeded in advancing the new fettled 
[Colony, which was now lb numerous, that there 
were 500 Men in James-City^ and Plantations up and 
down the Country ^ but Mr. Smith happening to be 
'blown up by the accidental firing of fome Gun-pow- capt' 
der in his Boat, was fo wounded that his Life w.isde-Sniith re-- 
|rpair*d of, and his Friends oblig'd him to embark for turns to 
'^England to be cur'd. England* 

I He was no fooner gone, but thofe he \^{t behind, 
I Capt. Radcli fdind Capt. Martin j fell out among them- 
selves, and the Confufion encreas'd upon the Arrival 
^ of the Ships belonging to the three Governours Fleet. 
The Colony foon mifs'd their late Prefident Mr. Smithy 
'who by his Wifdom, Vigilance, Courage and Care, 
preferv'd the Settlements in good Order. Without 
him they had certainly been deftroy'd, either by their 
own Lazinefs and Negligence, or the Treachery and 
Cruelty of the Indians : He always kept their Grana- 
ries full, and by fair means or force obliged the Indi- 
ans to bring in Corn and Provifions. He aw'd theni 
fo much by his Valour, that they durft not make any 
Attempts againft the Englilh, for whofe defence he 
rais'd Forts and Batteries, and was indeed the Soul of 
the Settlement *, for as foon as he left it the People de- 
creas'd daily, and by theTreafon of the Natives, or^ 
Want and Hunger, to which they were foon red uc'd,f^^^^^^^'^" 
their Numbers were leffen'd to 6-0, when Sir '^^^^^^^^^^^cTn 
Gates and Sir George Summers arriv'd : Tis true, they ^ ^ ^^! 

0^2 made 

228 The Hiflory of Virginia. 

made fome unfaccefsful Attempts to defend thenl^ 
Selves \ Capt. SicUemore and Capt. Radcliff^ ^'with a 
Company of Men, going amongft the Indians to trade, 
were furpriZ'd, and f^o M&a (lain by Towhatan^ who 
would have no Dealing with them after Capt. Smith's 
Departure. All thofe that had fettled in any 
other part of the Country, fled from the Indians 
to James-Town^ except the Planters at Kiquotan^ who 
being defended by Algernoon-YoxX^ maintained them- 
felves again ft the Natives, but could not fubfift for 
want of Provifions, which they, as well as their 
Country-men at James-Town^ had wafted, and like 
them they were almoft famifh'd : Their Diftrefs was 
fo great, that they fed on the dead Bodies of the Indi- 
ans whom they flew, and even dug up and eat thofe 
that were bury'd. 

This dreadful Famine is ftill remember'd mVirgi- 
niay by the Name of the Starving Time. The Perfons 
who came in the laft Ships continu'd their DiiTention 
amidft thefe Calamities'^ during which, fome of them 
who pretended to be of the Three Governours Coun- 
cil, aftum'd the Ad minift ration *, andtho the Commil^ 
fion was not arriv'd, ulurp'd the Power of Govern in g^ 
to the Rain of the Settlement ^ which, by Famine 
and Sicknefs, bred by bad Diet, were reduc'd from a- 
bove 500 to d'o Perfons. 

' The Three Governours in the mean while fet fail 
on the nth of-^<%/, 1610. horn. Bermudas^ in their 
two fmall Cedar Ships, with 150 Men in their Com- 
pany ^ and in 1 4 Day arriv'd in Virginia. They went 
up to James-Town with their VelTels, where they 
foimd the poor Remains of the Colony. 

Sir Thojnas GateSy Sir George Summer s-, and Capt. 
Newport pity 'd their deplorable State, and immediate- 
ly caird a Council, to confult of what fhould be done 
for their Relief. They inform'd them they had but' 
16 Days Provifion aboard, and demanded of them 
whether they would venture to Sea with that, or ft ay 
in the Settlement, and take their Fortunes '^ in which: 
they would very vsi'illingly ftiare with them. 

They foon refolv'd to abandon James-Town^ and re 
turn fo\: England y and, becauie Provifions feIlfhort,J 
to call at theBanks of New-fomdland^ in hopes to meet 
fome Fifhermen there, and in fuch cafe^ to divide 





The Hiftory of Virginia. 229 

themfelves into feveral Crews, and go aboard feveral 
Ships, for their better Accomodation. 

This Refolution being taken, they all went aboard, 
and fe! I down to HogMml the p th of June^ at Night j 
and the next Morning to Midberry-l^^nd^ 18 Miles 
below Jajnes'Town^ and 30 from theMoiuh of the Ri-^^^i^^^i 
ver-, where they fpy'd a Ship's Boat coming- up to ^^faw^J^^ 
them, which the Lord Delaware had fent before him ^^^^^^^ 
to found the Channel. 

This Lord brought with him 3 Ships, very well 
provided with all manner ofProvifions and NecefTa- 
ries, and 250 People to recruit the Colony, ihe 
Lord Delaware perfwaded them to return to James- 
Town 5 and by his good condufl brought the Settlement 
into a flourifhing Condition. He reftor'd Difcipline 
among them, renew'd their Trade with the Indians, 
which had been interrupted by their Wars with them ^ 
and made the Savages once more afraid^ of attacking 
them, either openly, or by furprize. 

In his time the Government had the Form of an E= 
frablifhmenr, and feveral Men of Quality bore Offices 
in it, a§ the Lord Delaware Lord Gcvernoar, and 
Captain General, Sir T/)ow^^ G'.iJ/-a Lieutenant Gene- 
ral, Sir George Simmers Admiral, the Honourable 
George Plercy Efq-, Governour of James-Town and Fort-^ 
Sir Ferdlnando Wenman Mader of the Ordnance, Capt. 
iV^HTpor^ Vice Admiral, William Str achy Efq*, Secreta- 
ry j an Appearance of Officers that has not fmce that 
time been feen in Virginia, 

My Lord fent Sir George Summers and Capt. Argall 
to Bermudas to fetch Provifions : Sir George dy'd in 
the Voyage*, but Capt. Argall got a Supply of Cod' 
iBfh at Sagadahoc in New-England. 

Sir Thomas Gates was fent for by the Company at 
Londdn'y to give them an Account of their Proceedings *, Th Bo- 
and the Lord Delaware being taken fick, left Mr; Ter- murahU 
cy Deputy Governour, and returned to England -^Oto. Viet- 
where he made the Adventurers fuch a pleafmg Re- ^''' ^ffy 
port of their Affairs, that they ordered it to be pub- ^^J^^^y 

There were now about 250 Men on y.^;^^^-River •, 
over whom Sir Thomas Dale was plac'd, with the Ti- sir Tho. 
tie of Marfhal General, by the London Council : HeDaleilfur- 
arriv'd there the lotho^June^ i5ii. with three Ships/''^^» 

Q 3 laden 

230 The Hiftory of Yirgimz, 

laden with Provifions and Necefiaries, having Sup- 
plies of Men, and fbnie live Cattle, and Hogs aboard, 
for Labour and Breed. 

On his Predeceilor's Departure the Colony fell 
into their old Diforders, and began to be in 
Want, occafion'd by their Sloth and DifTention. 
They depended on their Supplies from England^ 
and neglefted to plant Corn, to fubfift them in 
cafe of a Difappointment, which they might reafon- 
ably have expe£led, confidering the Length and Ha- 
zards of the Voyage. 

From this Knights Government the Profperity of 
the Plantation may be dated, for he fet all the Englifh 
to work, and did not difdain to put his own Hand to 
the Spade and the Axe, to help to turn up the Earth, 
and fell Trees •, and that they might no more depend 
on the Natives for Corn, he put them upon fowing 
Grain of their own ;, which, tho they did not begin to 
prepare the Ground till the A4iddle of May^ yielded 
an indifferent good Crop : he order 'd Land to be waird 
in for Fences from wild Beafts, and the wilder Indi- 
ans : He enlarg'd the Englifh Bounds -^ furvey'd the 
Rivers to find out a Place convenient for the building 
Vaks-Cift a new Town, which was done at his own Charge, 
milt. and wasfromhimcairdZ)^/^j-6'///-. 

The Company in England^ notwithftanding they 
had hitherto met with very little Encouragement, 
continued to fupply their Colony with all forts of Ne- 
celTaries, fbllicited to do it by tlie Lord Delaware and 
Sir Thomas Gates : The latter was fent wnth 6 Ships 
more^ having 350 Men on board, 100 Head of live 
Cattle, and Plenty of Provifions and Tools for Labour 
and Life, 
.r/r Tho. Sir Thomas arriv'd in Augufl^ took upon him the 
<Sates Go- Government ^ and in Septemher he fettled a new Town 
vemor, at Arrahattuck^ about fixty Miles above 7^;;^^^-City, 
calling It HenricopGlis^ 01 Henrys-Town^ in honour 
o^ Henry Prince of Wales. 
Henrico- Here he built Forts and Centry-boxes, and ran a , 
polls ^?//7/, Palifadoe on the other fide of the River at Coxendale^ 
to fee u re. their Hogs. 

The Englifh now plough 'd the Ground, whereas 
before they planted all their Corn vsath the Spade ^ 
they alfo fpread themfelves abroad in the Country, 

: - ■ and 

The Hiftory of Virginia. r 2 1 1 

and poiTefs^d themfelves of private Plantations, which 
they cultivated, and planted Tobacco and Corn, each 
Planter paying a Qait-Rent to the Treafury of the 

Their Cattle, efpecially their Hogs, encreas*d pro- 
digioudy ^ Laws and Order began to fioiirifh, Indu- 
;■ dry to thrive, and the Plantation to have the Face of 
l a Settlement that look'd to be laftmg *, yet it was not 
% long before new Dangers threaten'd their DeftruiStion ^ 
from which however the hand of God deliver'd 
I them. 

I The Company at London finding the Colony was Churchs£ 
I in a flourifhing Condition, thought it their Duty to built, 
provide for the Welfare of their Souls, as well as their 
Bodies *, and to that end invited many charitable Per- 
fons to contribute to the building them Churches, and 
founding Schools for the Education of their Youth. 
Many devout People, in hopes of propagating the 
Gofpel, open'd their Purfes*, Minifters were fent 
over, Churches built, and fupply*d with Prea- 
chers *, as will be ihewn more at large in its proper 

In' the Year 1^12. Capt. .^rg^//, afterwards Sir id'isj 
Samuel^ arriv'd from England with.' two Ships more 
for the ufe of the Settlement. Sir Thomas fent Argall 
to Fotorvmack to buy Corn, where he met with Poca- 
hontas the Lady of whom we have before made ho- 
nourable mention. He invited her to come aboard 
his Ship, which with fome fmall difficulty (he confen- 
ttdi to, being betray'd by the King o^Paftancy^ Bro- 
ther to the King of Potowmack^ with whom fhe then 

Argall having got her in his Cuftody, detain d her, Pocolion- 
and carry'd her to Jarhes-Townj intending to oblige ^^ ^^R ^ 
her Father King Powhatan to come to what Terms he ^^ ^^j'^- 
pleas'd, for the Deliverance of his Daughter : Tho the ^^ ' 
King lov'd her tenderly, yet he wou*d not do any 
thing for her fake which he thought was not for his 
own and his Nations Intereft', nor would he be prevail'd 
upon to conclude a firm Treaty of Peace, tho Sir Tho- 
mas Dale went himfelf to treat with him about it, be- 
ing then Marfhal under Sir Thomas Gates^ till he heard 
his Daughter, who turn'd Chriflian, and waschrift- 
ned Rebsccaj was maxry'd to Mr. John Rolfe^ an Englifh 

23^2 The Hijiory of Virginia. 

S^ewt^rryj Gentleman, her Uncle pivinp her in Marriase in the 
iWr.Rolfe. Church. 

Pcivhatan approved of the Marriage, took it 
for a fincere Token of Friendfhip^ and was fo pleas'd 
with it, that he concluded a League with the Engliflit 
I (fi 3* in the "^ ear i ^i 3 . Intermarriage was propos'd at that 
time, as a fure means of continuing the Peace with 
the Indians : And how far it would have anfwer'd that 
end, the Reader may judge ^ but the Englifli were not 
fond of taking the Indian Women to their Beds as 
their Wives. Whether it was on account of their 
being Pagans or Barbarians we cannot decide*, or 
whether that Nicety was not very unfeafonable in the 
Infancy of the Settlement. 

By Powhatan s Alliance with the Englilh, and Mr. 
Rolfe\ marrying an Indian Princefs, a great Nation 
v;ere made Friends to the Colony: And thus they 
conceiv'd hopes that they had fecur'd them f elves from 
the Infults of the Savages : But we ihall feein a Page 
or two they fiatter'd themfelves in their Security, 
when they were never nearer Defl:ru£^ione Tho Sir 
Thomas Gates w?.s on the fpot, yet Sir Thomas Dale 
had a great fhare in the Government^ and Capt. 
Argall reduc'd the Chicohomony Indians. 

Thefe two Gentlemen were very induftrious in the 

Service of the Colony •, and the former, Sir Thomas 

Dale, upon Sir Thomas Gates's return to England^ m 

Cdpt,(jto,t\iQ Year i(5'i4. prefided over it two Years ^ during 

Yardly which time it fiourifli'd ^ and he then going for Eng- 

^^P' ^^- land^ left Capt. George Yardly Deputy Governour *, 

^Tr''^ ^^^^ ^^' ^^^fi ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ Pocahonta with him, and 
^ • arriv'datP//^ow/^/jthe i2thof7z/;?^. 

Capt. Smith hearing the Lady who had been fo kind 
to him was arriv'd in England^ and being engag'd at 
that time in a Voyage to New-England^ which hin- 
dered his waiting on her himfelf, petitioned Queen 
Pocoho ■^''^^'^•i Confort to King James^ on her behalf, fetting 
ta irrivls ^*^^^^ ^^^ Civilities he had received from her, and the 
in Eng- Obligations fhe had laid upon x!^t Englifh, by the Ser- 
land. vices ihe had done them v/ith her Father. 

The Queen received his Petition gracioufly^ and 
before Capt. Smith embark'd for New-England^ Mr. 
Rclfe came with his Wife from Plimonth to London, 
The Smoak of the City offending her, he took Lodg- 

■ . ' ings 

I The Hifiory of Virginia. 2 j j 

! ings foir her at Brentford^ and thither Capt Smith 
■ went with feveral Friends to wait on her. 
i Focahonta was told all along that C^ipxSmith was dead, 
$ to excufe his not coming to Virginia again, from 
I which he had been diverted, by lettling a Colony in 
I New-England. Wherefore when this Lady faw him,i^er treat- 
j thinking; the Englifh had injured her in telling her a^*?^^ ^^ 
^Falfity, which fhe had ill defer v'd from them, ^^^'f'JZ 
was fo angry, fhe wou'd not deign to (peak to him ^ ^^^^^'"^ • 
but at laft, with much Perfwahon and Attendance, 
was reconciled, and talk*d freely to him : She then 
put him in mind of the Obligations fhe had laid upon 
him ^ reproach'd him with forgetting her, with an 
Air fo lively, and Words fo fenfible, that one might 
have feen Nature abhors nothing more than Ingra- 
titude j a Vice which even the very Savages de- 

She was carry'd to Court by the Ladj Delaware^ 
and entertain'd by Ladies of the firft Quality5 towards 
whom fhe behav'd her felf with fo much Grace and 
Majefty, that fhe confirmed the bright Chara£ler Capt. 
Smith had given of her. The whole Court were 
charm'd with the Decency and Grandeur of her De- 

Eortmentfo much, that the poor Gentleman her Hu(^ 
and, was threatened to be call'd to an account for 
marrying a Princefs Royal without the King's Con- 

The in that King ^ames fhew'd a very notable piece 
of King-Craft •, for there was no likelihood that Mr. 
Rolfe by marrying Focahonta^ could any way endan- 
ger the Peace of his Dominions, or that his Alliance 
with the King of Wiccomoco could concern the King of , 
Great-Britain : Indeed we are told that upon a fair and 
full Reprefentation of the Matter, the King was pleas'd 
to be fatisfy'd. 

The Lady Focahonta having been entertained with 
all manner of Refpeft in England^ was taken ill at 
Gravefend , where fhe lay in order to embark for 
Virginia : She dy'd tliere with all the Signs of a fmcere ^ 

Chriftian, and true Penitent. f' fl /^ 

She had one Son by Mr. Rolje, yyjhofe Pofterity^^S^-^^* . 
are at this day in good Repute in Virginia, 

Capt. Tardly^ whom Sir Thomas Dale had left Go- 
vernour, let the Buildings and Forts run to Decay, 


f j4 ^^^ Hiftory of Virginia. 

being (o eager in planting Tobacco, that he negle^led 
the Security of the Settlements, and would not fpare 
Hands enough to keep the Fortifications in repair : 
He alfo omitted fowing Corn. And thus the Colo-- 
ny fell into their ufual Diftrefs, were reduc*d to great 
Want, and expos'd to t»he Mercy of the Indians. 
id'17. i^ fl^g following Year Sir Samuel Argall came o- 
Ar n ^^^ Governour ', who was griev'd to fee the Number 
Gov^rmr, ^^^^^ People lefTen'd, and every thing running to 

The Indians alfo, by mixing with the Englifh, had 
learnt the ufe of Fire- Arms -^ and the Planters out of 
Lazinefs employed them to hunt and kill Wild-Fowl 
for them. 

Sir Samuel jirgalldid what he could to regulate thefe 
Diforders*, but the Mifchief had taken fo deep root, 
that he could not hinder its Growth. 

Capt. Yardly returned to England^ and Sir Samuel Ar- 
gall governed the Colony in Peace till the next Year, 
1^18, KS'iS. when the Lord D^to^r^, who all this time 
feems to have been Chief Governour, and thofe that 
fucceeded him only his Deputies, came near the 
Coaft with 200 choice Men, frelh recruits of Provifi- 
ons, and all manner of NecefTaries. 

My Lord ftill fail'd the old way by the Canary and 
■lQY^\^^^Carihhee Iflands. The Length of the Voyage had an 
laware iU EfFeft on his People, or whom 3 o dy'd \ and the 
dies on thel^ord Delaware himfelf did not live to reach Fir 
Coafi, ginia *, fo that Sir Samuel continued in the Govern- 

Powhatan dying in April^ left his Kingdom to his 
fecond Brother Itopatin^ who renewed the League: 
with the Englifh : But this Prince was foon outed 
of his Dominions by Oppecancanough his youn^err 
Brother, who reign'd over Chickahomonyj made^ 
himfelf Mafter of all the Nations around hinij 
and his Empire at laft became formidable to the Eng- 

Sir Sam. Argall finding his Colony was in Peace, and: 
that they thriv'd a- pace under his Government, begani 
to look about him a little, and refolv'd to undertaken 
an Expeditioil-' on the Coalls, to make DifcoverieSji 
3^nd dillodge the French^ who had fettled in Acadia. 


The Hifiory of Vifginia^ 23 1 

In his 'way he drove out fome Hollanders^ who sir 
iad Seated themielves on Hudfons River ^ he then Sam. Ar- 
ttack'd a Settlement of French to the Northward §^^!'? ^^" 
)f Cape Cod ^ and afterwards drove Monfieur Bien-^^^^9'^^\ 
ourt from Port-Royal in Canada^ where the French'^ -f, 
lad fow'd and reap'd, built Bams, Mills, and other })7ff^ ''^'^ 

i • ^Thofe of them that were for returning to France 
it permitted to embark^ which fome of them did, 
ind others went up the River of Canada^ to make a 
lew Settlement there. 

With the Plunder of thefe two Forts Sir Samuel 
return'd to Virginia: And how he could juftifiehis 
Lttacking the Subje£ls of a Prince who was at Peace 
with his Mafter King James^ does not appear in the 
Hiflories which mention this Event ^ only we are 
:old, that fome Months after it there arriv'd a fmall 
Veffel from England^ which did not (lay for any thing, 
but as foon as Governour Argall was on board, it (et 
fail, and carry'd him home. The occafion ofhisbe-■^^,^''^" 
ing recaird is not know *, and therefore 'tis imputed ^^ ^' 
to his attacking the French. ^^^^ 

He left Capt. Nathaniel Powell Deputy *, who the po^^fi 
fame Year refign'd his Office to Sir George Ifardly^jj^p^^ g^^ 
whom King James had Knighted, and the Company -nenjor, 
made Governour. j'/rGeo. 

1 here arriv'd with Sir 6'^org^,and fome Months after Yard! y 
him, 1 300 Men in 2 1 Ships, the Earl of Southampton^ one Governor. 
of the Company at London^ being zealous to furnifh 
them with Supplies of Men, Cattle and other Provifi- 
ons. Thele feated themfelves in all the Plantations 
that had been deferred, and planted new ones. And 
now the Colony grew fo numerous, that to have the 
Confent of the whole in the Palling of any Laws or 
Orders for the Publick Good, Reprefentatives 
were appointed to be chofen for every Precin^, 
whom the People were to Ele6l in their feveral Plan- 

Thefe Reprefentatives, being the firft AfTembly 7/6^ /;/! 
that lat in Virginia^ met at James-Town in May^ 1 620. JJJembly.. 
The Governour and Council at firft fat v^ith them, i^2q. 
as the High Commiffioner, Lords and Commons, fit 
together in the Parliament in Scotland ^ here the 
Affairs of the Settlement were debated. We fliall fee 


^ j6 The Hifiory ^Virginia. 

in the folowing Chapters how this Method of theij 
Seflion came to be alter'd. 

In Augufl: a Dutch Ship put in there with Negroes, 
and the Merchant fold 20, which were the firft Slaves 
that were brought thither from Guinea. This Yeai 
alfo the Boundaries of James-City were mark'd out 
and Land was laid out in feveral Places, to the 
Company, to the Governour, the College, tk 
Churches, and particular Perfons : New Settlements 
were made in James and Tork Rivers : Very great Sup- 
plies continually came over : A Salt-work was fet up 
at Cape Charles^ an Iron Work at Falling Creek ;, and 
Sir George Tardly feem'd to make amends for his for- 
mer Male-Adminiftration ^ yet he Hill fuffer'd the Peo- 
ple togrowfecure, and negle^ed providing for theii* 
Defence. He was fucceeded in the Government by 
JiVFran-" Sir Francus Wyat^ a young Man, who arriv'd in OEio-^ 
cisWyat, ^^r, i<?2i. and this Year more Men fettled there^ 
Governor, ^j^o falling to Planting, they made fo muchTobac. 
1621. ^Q^ fjj^^ tjie Market was over-ftock'd, and the Com- 
modity yeilded little or nothing. The King pitying 
their Lois by it,commanded that no Planter ffiou'd the 
next year plant above 100/. of Tobacco a Man, ad- 
vifing thein to turn their fpaife time to provide Corn 
and Stock, and make Potafh or other Manufa£lures. 
In November Newport ■Arnv*d with 50 Men on 
his own Account, and fetti'd a Plantation at the 
Place, which from him is call'd Newport's News. Set- 
tlements were made as far as Patowmeck River, where 
the Indians never molefted the Engliili. On the con- 
trary, they were always friendly and ferviceable to 

The General Aflembly appointed inferiour 
Courts, call'd County-Courts, to be held for the 
more convenient Diftribution of Juftice in Caufes 
0/ lefs moment : The reft were try'd before the 
Governour and Council,who were the lupream Court 
of Judicature in the Country. The Profperity and 
Increafe of the Colony render'd the Englifti carelefs, 
of their Safety. They convers'd frequently and open- 
ly with thfe Indians, admitted them to eat, drink, and 
lleep with them, and wou'd often do the fame at their 
Cabbins •, by this Means the Savages became acquain- 
ted with their Strength, and learnt the ufe of Guns. \ 


The Hijiory of Virginia. 257 

j They knew their Places of Refidence and Refort, 
I and their Fear of them by degrees wearing off, pre- 
pared 'em for any bold Enterprize againft them on 
the firft occafion ^ And *twas not long before their 
Emperor Oppecancanovgh took an Affront for the Mur- 
der of one of his Captains, a Man very eminent in his 
Nation for his Valour. This Ftllow had robb'd 
one Manning^ ani kiird him ^ for which he was about 
to have been apprehended and carry'd before a Juftice 
pf Peace, when he came next time into theEnglifh 
Boundaries ; but makins fonie Refiftance he was fhot 

Oppecancanoughj on News of the Death of his Cap- 
tain, relblv'd to be reveng'd, and he and his Indians 
Contrived a general Maffacre of the Englifh, which 
Was to be executed on Friday the 22^ ofMarchy i <5"22. t S22> 
and moft of the Nations of the Indians were engag'd ^^^ Sng" 
\n the Confpiracy, which was reveal'd to Mr. Pace ^# ^#!" 
by a converted Indian, or the MafTacre in all proba= ^^^^ ^ 
bility had been general minmm. 

The Difcovery he made being but 4 or 5 Hours 
before the intended Execution of it, the remoter Plan- 
tations cou'd not take the allarm, and the Englifh that 
dwelt neareft to the Savages, were barbaroufly but« 
cher'd, Men, Women and Children, by them, to the 
Number of 3 3 4 Perfons. Mv.Pace fled to James-Towa^ 
and fo did all to whom he cou'd give notice of the 
Confpiracy. Others ftood on their Defence,and made 
la retreating Fight to their Forts. The Plantations 
iwere defertedjand thQ Planters who liv'd at a Diftance 
Commanded to iet their Houfes, Barns, Store-houfes^ 
&c. on Fire, to repair to the Forts, and defend them- 
ielves againft the Common Enemy. Mofl of thofe 
jthat were kilFd, fell by their own Weapons, Inftru- 
ments, and Working Tools. Thofe who were at 
the Works at the Iron Mines near Falling Creek^ 
were ail murder'd, except a Boy and a Girl who hid 
themfelves. This Iron Work cou'd never after be re- 
ftor'd, nor the Lead Mines, which the Superintendant 
had juft tlien difcover'd, be found out. The Projeft 
of Glafs-houfes at James-Town was ruin'd by the Maf- 
facre, which put Improvements out of Peoples Heads ; 
from this time they were fo enrag'd at the Natives, 
that they never gave over warring with them till they 


The Hljiorj of Virginia. 

had almoft utterly extirpated the Nations that were 
concern'd in the MafTacre. They dealt the fame 
meafure to them that they had received from 
'em ^ And the Savages, fearing the Englifh after 
they were colIe£^ed into one Body, fled to the 
Woods. The Governour invited them to return i 
to their own Habitations, and plant their Corn, 
which on promife of Peace they did ^ and when they 
were as fecure as the Englifh had been, the latter 
fell upon them, cut great numbers of 'em to pieces, 
and deftroy'd their Corn and Habitations. They at- 
tack'd and entirely dQfii'oy'dPowhatariyOppecamamngh's 
Royal Seat, where in imitation of the Englifh he had 
built him a Houfe, and was fo pleas'd with the Con- 
trivance of a Lock and Key to faften the Door, that 
'tis faid his Imperial Majefty fpent moft part of his 
Time in locking and unlocking it5Wondring how fuch 
a (light Turn of his Hand, ihould have fuch an 
cfFeft on the Door and Poftern. The Englifh conti- 
nu'd to aflault the Indians where-ever they found them, 
they deferted thofe Parts where they then inhabited, 
and the Colony receiving,frefh Supplies from England^ 
and Arms and Ammunition out of the Tower by the 
King's Command, extended themfelves every way^ 
and planted over all the Country, as 'tis now^ peopled 
and cultivated. 

Some time after this MalTacre, feveral Gentlemen 
procured Grants of Land in England from the Com- 
pany, and others came over on their private Accounts 
to make Settlements *, among the former was one 
Capt. Martin^ who was nam'd to be of the CounciL 
This Man rais'd fo many Differences among them, 
that new Diftradlions follow'd, which the Indians cb- 
ferving, took heart, and once more fell upon the Eng- 
lifh on the Borders, deflroying them, without pity- 
ing either Age, Sex, or Condition, 

Thefe and other Calamities being chiefly imputed 

to the Mifmanagement of the Proprietors, whofeLofTes 

. had fo difcourag'd mofl of their beft Members, that 

^^^y T they fold their Shares, King Charles I. on his Accefiionr 

Mdlfs ^^ ^^^ Throne, di^Tolv'd the Company, and took thei 

thf. Com- Colony into his own immediate Direction. He ap-> 

-tiinj, ^ pointed the Governour 'and Council himfelf, order'd( 

all Patents and Procefs to iiTue in his own Name, and( 


The Hiftory of Virginia. 239 

rclerv'd a Quit-rent of 2 s, for every hundred Acres. 

We have been the larger in our Account of theDif- 
covery and Settlement of Virgmia^ becaufe that part 
of the Hiftory of the Colony is ilightly touch'd by 
moft of the Writers who have treated of it, and we 
have from all of 'em taken fo many Particulars, as will 
together give the Reader a clear Idea of the Infancy, 
Growth and Increafe of this Settlement, from Capt. 
Amidcts and Capt. Barlow's Difcovery of the Country, 
to the Government of Sir John Harvey who was the 
firft Governour of Virginia after the DiHolution of the Ue prefem 
Company. The King ord^'d the future Form of its Conftituti' 
Conftitution to be by a Governour, a Council o{onImUi<i 
twelve Gentlemen, and the AlTembly confifting as has 
been faid, of Reprefentatives deputed by the feveral 
Towns and Counties in the Colony; He granted large 
Tracks of Land to Gentlemen and others in England^ 
and to Ibme of them added Authority independent of 
the Government, giving each Gentleman the fame 
Power in his Province as the Proprietors of Virginia 
had formerly. The greateft of thefe Grants was that 
of the whole Territory of Maryland^ which was 
giv'n by the King to George Calvert^ Lord Baltimore, 

The Virginians pretend that this Divifion of their 
Country into feparate Provinces, created feparate In- 
terefts, and that the General Advantage of the whole, 
has often fuffer'd by their Oppofition to the Regula- 
tions which have been made for the Common Good. 
They tell us, that when the Government of Virginia 
has thought fit to prohibit the Exportation of bad 
Tobacco to help the Market in England^ the Plan- 
ters of Maryland have pour*d in as much Trafh as they 
cou'd make, to take the Advantage of that Market. 
Whether the People o{ Maryland have not the fame or 
the like (Complaints to make againft the Virginians^ is 
to be doubted, and that the Induftry and good Ma- 
. nagement of that Colony have fet an Example ev*n to 
her Mother -Plantation, which it had been better with 
her if ihe had followed. We muft leave this Difputc 
to be decided by the Gentlemen concerned in it, and j/,. john 
continue our Hiftory ofVirginiay during the Admini- Harvey, 
ftrationof Sir John Harvey ^ who was a great Promo- Goi'^^'w^. 
ter of the large Grants that were made of Land in his 
Province, ana often went fo far, that he procur'd the 

' very 

%/^o The Hifiory of Virginia. 

very Settlements which had been made before to be 
included. In a word, he was a very bad Governour, 
fevere in his Extortions and Exaftious, in Fines and 
ForfeituresjProud and turbulent in his Councils,and lb 
unjufl and arbitrary, that the Gentlemen of the Colo- 
i<5'3^. nynot being able to endure hisTyranny,feiz'd him,and 
Seiz'd and fgnt him Prifoner to London^ in the Year 1 6^ 9* They 
/ewr fo deputed two of their Members to accompany him, 
England, ^^j exhibit their Grievances to King Charles I. who 
was fo far from redrefling them, that he immediately 
ordered Sir John Harvey to return to his Government. 
But the Cry of the Plantation was fo loud, that it was 
to be fear'd it might reach the Parliament : To pre- 
vent which Sir John was foon recalled, and Sir Wit- 
Str Wil- ii^.^j^ Berkley order'd to fucceed him. 
\c G^' ^^ Sir John Harvey's Time, (kys BullocJi in his Dif-^ 
ylyln/' coui'iQ o^Vivginm, what perplexed Condition were both 
he and the Gentlemen of the Country in^ when upon his 
Complaint they were fent for from Virginia,? ^ anfwer here 
in England at the Council Board \ and again upon their 
Com.plaint he and his Friends mufi: come to London to an- 
fwer at the fame place J and this iterated, hefides conti- 
nual Heavings and Shovings between two Parties, &c. 

The Differences between the Governour and the 
Colony occafion'd fo much Confufion, that the Indians 
who watch'd all Opportunities to fall on the Englilh, 
fur prized them again, and cut off 500 Men, Women, 
and Children, 
Mother Oppecancanovgh highly refented the Incroachments 
Majjacre. that had been made on his Dominions by the late 
Grants, and had contriv'd another General Maflacre, 
but the Englifh were fcatter'd up and down in fo ma- 
ny feparatePla.ntations,that 'twas impoflible for him to 
deftroy them at once, without an entire Conqfteft, to 
w^hich he cou'd not pretend. However, he order'd the 
Savages in all Qcrarters to MalTacre the Borderers, and 
himfelf and his Indians were the mofi: a£live of all in 
deftroying thofethat had fettled on 7>?r^-River, by the 
Natives c^drdPamau^ikee^vfhQTQ he him felf kept his rude. 
Court, and had fix'd the Seat of his Empire. This 
Prince is by Mr. Smith faid to be Powhatan's Brother. 
He was of a large Stature, a noble Prefence, and un- 
derftood the Arts of Government as well as 'tis pof- 
fibie for.a Man to do, who was entirely unacquainted 


The Hifiory of Virginia . 241 

Iwith Letters. The Indians by Tradition report, that - 
;he was not related to their King Powhatan^ but came 
|froni a far Country which lay South-Weft of theirs. 
jAnd by their Defcription of it muft be near Mexico^ 
pr the Mines of St. Bar be. This A 61 ion of Oppecan- 
?afjough provoked the Englifh fo much,that they never 
wond give the Savages Peace, but continu'd to make 
War upon them till they took their Emperor, and 
ed him into Captivity v for Sir William Berkley hear- 
ng he was at fome diftance from the place of his 
ifual Refidence, march'd againft him with a Party of 
-Jor{e,furpriz'd,and took him Prifonerin the Weft ern j'^-Z^ex j^^ . 
^arts of Henrico County. Sir William intended to Empror 
end him "to the King, but a Souldier in revenge of Oppt^-an- 
he many Miferies th^ Colony had endur'd by his In-canough, 
urfions, fhot him in the back, of which Wound he 
ily'd. Before his death he carry'd himfelf with a Mag- 
lanimity truly Royal. He was very old, worn out 
lith age, and the Hardftiips of War. His Eye-lids 
p-ere fb heavy, he cou'd not fee without the help of 
is Servants to lift them up. When he was a Prifo- 
er, hearing a Noife about him, he caused them to be 
^fted up, and perceiving *twas the noife of a Rabble 
iiat were then come to fee him, he refle£led with In- 
ignation on the ungenerousTreatmentof the Englifti, 
ji making a Sight of him, and expofing him to the 
jifolence of the Multitude •, and calling for th.Q Go- 
prnour Sir William Berkley^ he faid. Had it been my 
hrtune to have taken you^ I ivou'd not bafely have expos d 
p as a Show to the People, 

On the Death of this Emperor, the Nations whom 
2 had fubje£led, became afraid of the Power of the 
nglifti. There remained no Prince of an equal 
enius to keep fo many Ceverai Kingdoms united. 
jhey fet up Sovereigns of their own, and their 
pength being weaken'd by this Divifion, the Eng- 
j'fh were no more afraid of any Difturbance by them^ 
ililefs it were thofe who lay neareft to them, and 
pfequently were more liable to be (urpriz'd by them, 
lit Sir William Berkley nudQ Peace with all of 'em, 
|id the Savages knowing they cou'd get nothing by 
|Var, kept it a long time unviolated. 

The manner of Oppecancanough's Death is varioufly 
Hated by the Writers that have made any mention 

K of 

24'2 The Hifiory of Virginia' 

of if, fome fay he was kiird in the A£lioii wheai 

Sir William Berkley came to furprize him. Others J 

that he was taken and committed to Prifon, where hei 

dy'd. The moit authentick account of it is what w@i 

kllock. have taken from the Author of the Hijlory of Virginias 

'Tis certain, that wdth him the Power of the Indiansi 

was entirely deilroy'd. The Colony was in a fair wa.^] 

of improving this great Advantage, and there were 

no iefs than 15000 Men, befides Women and ChiL 

• dren, on the Place. When News came of the 

Troubles in England^ w^hich naturally affefted 

ail the Colonies: Befides, that the Relations and 

Friends of the Inhabitants were involv'd in them; 

they depended on that Kingdom for Supplies ant 

Prote£Vion, and a con ftant Market to take off tbi 

Commodities their Plantations produc'd. Virgimi 

for a while was more concern'd in them, thai. 

any of the other Settlements. For Sir Wdlian 

; Berkley flood out againft the ufurp'd Powers i 

England^ after the Murder of King Charles the Firft 

sind by his Loyalty hinder'd the Commerce of th 

Planters there with their Friends and Correfpondenl 

at home. Their Supplies of Provifions were cui off 

Their Tobacco lay on their Hands ^ and the Firg 

n'lans were oblig'd to fubfift by themfelves, whic 

they were now in a Condition tc do, for the Plants) 

had great Stocks, ^occo Head of Cattle, an infinil 

number of Hogs *, Beef and Pork were t6 d, 2. Stone 

Wlieat and Barley very cheap,but fewBeafts of Burdei 

for there were no more than 200 Horfes and Mare 

. . , and 70 AiTes at this time. However, as much as the 

^ abounded in Provisions, they cou'd not long ha^ 

iiipported themselves without alliftance from Englan^ 

nor hav.^ beeri able to have kept up their Stocks f< 

want ct ether Necelliries, for their Maintenance 

Such . -working Inflruments and Tools, Hows, Axj> 


The Parliament of f/^^te^' who were very careful 
fecure the Flantations,ieni: a Squadron of Men of W» 
to the Wefl Indies, under the Command of Sir Geor 
Afctie^ with Initruclions to reduce BarbadocSj t' 
Carlhtee liiands, and the Northern Colonies to t^i 
Obedience. We fbajl fee in the Hiftory of Bari- 
does^ what Sir George did at that Ifland^ from wheil' 

The Hifiory of Virginia. 24? 

he detach'd Capt. jD^;/;?i/, with a fmall Squadron ofCr.rr^ ;, 
Ships to Land Ibme Forces, and drive S\tWttltam>:^^[''-^<^ii^^s 
Berkley out of Virginia. Sir: William ftill contiau'd ^' ,^>*"J;^ 
his uniliaken Principles of Loyalty. He hir*d k>mQ'^'i^}^!'^^^^^ 
'Dutch Ships that were then in his Harbours, ^nd J^ P^r/i^i- 
'made a brave Refiftance. The Virginians being ani ^^^^^^ 
mated by his Example, Capt. Dennis attacked them 
:o no Purpofe ^ and finding he fhou'd lofe z great 
iiany Men, and perhaps not fucceed at laft in his 
Enterprize by Force, he had recourfe to Policy, 
rie gave out that he had two very rich Cargoes of 
Goods belonging to two of the Council aboard one 
bf his Ships, and if they did not Surrender them- 
elves to him, and engage the reft to ^q fo too *, he 
vou'd detain the Merchandize. The Council were too 
Arell inclin' comply with the Wickednefs of the 
rimes. 'Twas only the Governour who was v/illing 
hazard all, rather than fubniit to thofe Powers, to 
vhom three Potent Kingdoms had already fubmitted- 
"le wou'd hearken to no Terms till the two Coun- 
cilors, whofe Hearts were bent on the fafety of their 
joods, engag'd the Majority of their Brethren to a- 
free to a Surrender •, and Sir William was not fo very 
efolute, as to pretend to oppofe both an Enemy with- 
>utv and a Faftfon within his Government *, fo he w'ls 
orc*d to lay down his Arms, and retire to his Plan- 
ation. We cannot omit corre£ling a Miftake of the 
iiftorian we have often mention'd in 'his Hiftory, 
vho fays Capt. Dennis was fent by Oliver, He has 
un into the vulgar Error of thofe, who call all the 
jovernments from ikit King's Death to CromweWs^ 
Hiver's'^ Whereas Cromwell did not turn out the 
lump, till tvsTO or thre^ years after Sir George Ay^ 
'"^ue's Expedition. 

He w^s himfelf in Scotland then, and had nothing 
do with the Admiralty of England j further than as 
lis Councils influenc'd the Affairs of tlie Common- 
vealth. When he was adually in PofTeffion of the 
ale Adminiftration, he bufy'd himfelf ahout the 
Hantations, as much as any other part of the Eng- 
ith Dominions, and Virginia fell under his Cogni- 
:ance as well as the reft. 

We read in an old Hiftorian, that Major General 
'mtz.^ who was made Governour of the Leward 

R 2 Ifla?7ds 

244 The Hifiory of Virginia. 

I/lands by the Parliament, fail'd from St. Chrifiopher'%- 
to Virginia^ before Sir George Ay f cue fent Benni^^ who 
it feems by that Author found the BuTmefs done to his 
Hand, and that Country the only Retreat for Ca- 
valiers, was forc'd to fubmit on Terms of Indemp- 
Co/.Diggs Col. Diggs was firll made Governour of Virginia, 
Governor, by the Parliament, during whofe Government no- 
thing remarkable happened. He was fucceeded by 
JMr. Ben- Mi\ Berne t^ and he by Mr. Matthews, The tw^o 
net Go- laft Governours only were put in by Oliver. Tho 
M^^V t- ^^^ ^^"^^ Hiftorian fays, That Diggs^ Bennet and 
thews^^ * ^^^t^^ip^, were all Governours during the [mail time 
Governor, '^^ Cromwell's Prote^lorate. If fo, there muft have, 
been fome other Governour between Sir Willi amr- 
Berkley y and Col. Diggs ? If not the changing of Go-wi 
vernours was not fo extraordinary as he pretendsJJ 
Before the end of our Hiftory, we fhall more than \ 
once find three Governours in feven years 'y for fo 
long it was from Sir William Berkley's lubmiiiion, to 
Oliver's Death •, and this was the lefs rare, becaufe 
Mr, Matthews dy'd in his Government. 
' The Trade of Virgmlcf flourifh'd in thofe Days, 
notwathftanding the A£l which paft in one of Crom- 
2^f//'s Parliaments, to break off that Colonies corre- 
fpondence with other Nations, and to prohibit their 
Exporting or Importing any Commodities whatever, 
but what ihou'd be loaden aboard Englifh Ships, navi- 
gated by Englifh Seamen : Which A£f, commonly 
caird. The j& of Navigation^ v^as juftify'd after the. 
Re{l:oration,by another Aft of Parliament to the fame 
purpofe, but with feveral Reftriftions and Prohibiti- 
ons, by Bonds, Securities, &c. Sir William Berkley 
having fhewn a great Concern always for the goodi 
of the Colony, was mightily belov'd by the People^ 
On the Death of Mr. Matthews^ when they were 
without a Governour, they immediately call theiii 
Eyes upun him, and by an obliging Violence coni: 
peird hmi to aflume the Government ^ which howh 
ever he wou'd not confent to, unlefs they all promisV 
to join wuth him in venturing their Lives and FoK-f 
tmie iox the King, who then w'as in Exile, but nqi 
at that time in Fr^;^^" ^5 as our Hiftorian affirms. 


The Hiflory of Virginia. 245 

This was indeed a very bold Action, for as yet 
there had no News arriv'd of O/^Wr's Death, and 
tht Anarchy in England that fucceeded. 

The Virginians accepting of the Terms he pro- 
posed, he accepted of the Government, and, we are 
told, forthwith Proclaimed Charles II. King o^England^ 
Scotland^ Franc e^ Ireland^ and V^irginia, It happen 'd 
well for him and his Colony, that King Charles 
was not long after reftor'd to the Throne of his An- 
eeftors*, yet we don't find that the King gave 
Six William Berkley any greater Reward than conti- 
nuing him in his Commiilion, and making him one 
of the Proprietors of the Province of Carolina^ when 
he ere£led it into a Principality about the Year 1 66^ . ^P^^ ^"^^"^f 
Sir William going for England to Congratulate his ?^ Moin- 
Ma jefty on his Reftoration, left Col. Francis Morrifon ^^"* ^' 
his Deputy. 

When he came to Court, he was gracioully received 
by the King, who in Honour of his Loyal Firglnians^ i 66qp 
is laid to have worn a Robe at his Coronation, mad^ 
of the Silk that w^as feht from thence; Co\. Mor- 
rifon in the mean time behav'd himfelf to the Gene- 
! ralSatisfaftion, of the Plantation. He order'd the Laws 
; to be revis'd and collected into a Body, to be lain be- 
i fore the AiTsmbly at their next Seffion. He took the 
I fame care of the Church, as he did of the State„ i^/^V Bf k- 
j He regulated the Parifhes , fetled the Minifters ''^'^'"^'''- 
' Allow^ances, got a Revenue for the Support of the 
1 Government, and other Laws for the Encourage- 
}; ment of • t\iQ Linen and Woollen Manufactories, tao, 
breeding of Silk-w^orms, Tanning and Salt-works. 
While the Deputy-Governour was fo bufy'd for the 
Service of the Colony, Sir William Berkley was 
in England^ taking his InJ[tru6lions from the King, 
for his fi|ture Conduft. His Majefty order'd him to 
promote Husbandry, Manuia£lures, Silk and Vine- 
yards, that all Ships Trading to Firginia^ fhoui'd go 
to James-Town^ and be enter'd at the Cuilom-Houie 
Uhere before they broke Balk ^ which Order was 
J giv'n with an Intent that by it the People might be 
j tempted to come thither and dwell there, for the 
I convenience of Trade •, and had it been obey'd, it 
might have encreas'd the number of Buildings in 
I that City, which is now much lefs than it was four- 

K s ■ fcore 

246 The 0ftory of Virginia. 

fcore years ago, every Body coveting to live at kis 
Plantation, and fettle where he thinks he fhall have 
the bed Crops and Conveniencies of Shipping. This 
is the R^aion that there are ^o few Towns in Firginiaj 
and thofe that are there, fo very fmall. Sir William 
being riiliy inftru£led by the King, how he fhou*d pro- 
ceed oii his Pvetorn to his Government, fet fail from 
England to Firginla^ where he arriv'd in the Year 
156-2. I ^^2. and immediately put the People upon impro- 
^ir Willi- vinp their Plantations, and advancing Manafa£lures. 
am Berk- He'funimon'd an Affembly, and got an Aa pafs'd for 
i^3S ^0' i^y^^^iing (^{ J'a7nes-To^Nr\. Each County w'as to build 
%mJOY, ^^ niany'Huures, and fome aaually built their Quo- 
ta, which notv^'ithftanding the Ad, were converted 
into Taverns and Eating-houfes, and the Town was 
very little the bigger for 'em. 

By Sir Williams Behaviour on the Revolutions in 
England^ one may perceive he was no Friend to the 
Puritans. Before the Civil War, he procur'd fevere 
Laws to be made againft them, and now he had an Aft 
pafl, laying great Rejftraints upon them, which not 
only drove many People out of Virginia to Maryland 
and other Colonies, but kept others from coming 

Txho the Order for all Ships to enter at James- 

Town was difpens'd with, yet the rigorous Circum- 

fcription of Trade, by the Aa of Navigation, the 

Perfecution of DifTenters, and the low Prices of To- 

Clmours bacco, rais'd great Clamours among the Virginians^ 

m Virgi- fon^ented by fome of CromweWs Soldiers, who had 

^^' been baniih'd thither. 

At lail the Mutiny grew to fuch a Head, that ieve- 
ral Planters and others enter'd into a Confpiracy againft 
t^?i Government : The Servants were the Chief Pro- 
moters of if, with a Defign to kill their Maflers, 
in d feize their Plantations : Among the fe one i5^r- 
Berl-in- ku-.jead^ a Servant to Mr. Smith of Pvrton in Glofter' 
head'iG^- County, was ont^, and he repenting, difcover'd 
jpimcy. it. Upon which notice was Tent to the Governour • 
at Cree}?fpri?:g., his Seat fo call'd, Who underftanamg ; 
that the Confpirators were to rendezvous at Poplar ■ 
Spring n^rc Turton^ fent a Party of Militia-Horfe to ^ 
furprize inem as they came. Accordingly fome were 
taken, others made their Efcape^ and informing their t 
" •' Fellows 

The Hiflory of Virginia. 247 

Fellows of the Difcovery of the Plot, prevented 
fuch as were on the Road, fi'om coming to the Place 
appointed. Four of the Confpirators werehing'd '^ 
Berkinhead h2id his Freedom, and 200 /. Sterling be- 
ftow'd on him for. a Reward •, an Anniveriary Day of 
rhankfgiving was appointed on the i^th of Sept^ 
the day on which the Plot was to have been put in exe- 
cution. The King hearing of it, fent Orders to oaild a 
Fort at James-Town^ to curb the Mutineers, and ferve 
br a Retreat to the Governour on the like Occafion •, 
which Orders were never obey'd. The F'irgmians 
being loath to be at the Charge, when the Dinger was 
3ver ^ they only raised a Battery of fome fmall 
Pieces of Cannon. A very poor Defence, if ever 
they fhou'd be forced to make u^e of it. 

In England another A<51 of Parliament pafl:, v^hich 
was thought to be a Hardship upon this Colony. It 
Prohibited their having any Foreign Goods bat what 
were firft landed in England^ and thence exported tp 
them. This reduc'd thQ Price of Tobacco ftill 
[ower, and rais'd that oi all European Goods. They 
in return prohibited, by an Ad of their AiTembiy, 
the Planting of Tobacco for one Year, in order to 
keep up the Demand for it ^ but this Ad had not 
the deflr'd effed-, becaufe the Province of Maryland 
i-efus'd to confent to it, and ftock'd the Market 
iufiiciently to keep down the Price. They attempt- 
ed again to have the Planting of Tobacco flinted, 
and the Agents of Carolina and Maryland^ who were 
then ^t James-Town^ confented to it. But the Go- 
vernour of Maryland evaded it, and Proclaimed the 
A£l void. Thus the poor Planters drudg'd on to 
their Lof?, their Tobacco yielded little or nothing, 
and all forts of Goods that were imported from £«- 
rope J bore very high Prizes, which' was enough to 
raife Difcontents and Murmurs, and produce th^ Di- 
ftu r ban ces that foon after happen'd. 

Tho the Virginians had all the Reafon in the World 
to exped a Complyance from XhQ People of Mary- 
land^ yet they condelcended to fend Agents to St. Af^- 
r)/'s,the Capital of the Provinces, as it were to Petition 
tor their Goiifent. In which they were unfucceisful 
alfo *, the Governour telling *em, Hs wou'd not cdl 
m j^ffembly on btrnpofe, 

R 4 About 

248 The Hijlory of Virginia. 

About this time there were Attempts made to pre- 
vent Ships unlading any where at the Mailer's Plea- 
fure, that no Forreign Goods might be imported, 
which had not been landed in England, 

It had been found imprafticable to oblige all Ships to 
enter ^.tJames-Torpn^ and afterwards difperfe themfelves 
up and down in the feveral Rivers whither they were 
bound ', and were us'd to unload their Cargoes, and 
load again, even at the very Doors of the Merchants 
to v^^hom they were confign'd ^ which gave them ma- 
ny Opportunities of bringing in prohibited Goods ^ 
wherefore his Majefty order'd that Forts fhould be 
built in the feveral Rivers*, that all Ships fhould ride 
under thole Forts -, and thofe Places only be the Ports 
of Trade. -, 

Had thefe Orders been obey'd, it would necefTarila 
have caus'd People to have reforted to fuch Places! 
Houfes would have been built, and Towns rais'd i4 
degrees^ without the Force of an A61 ^ which has 
little Influence on the Wills of People, and in Free 
Government?, where Mens Properties are con- 
cern'd, the Laws are always tender of ufing too much 
•Violence^ unlefs the immediate Safety of the Common- 
wealth requires it. 

The Plague and Fire happening at London when 
thefe Forts" were about to be built, put a ftop to thei 
Undertaking, and it never was profecuted afterwards ; 
for want of which, the Dutch often infulted the 
Coafts in the Wars between England and Holland^ 
and took the Ships out of the Harbours. 

To defend them againftany Invafion from the E^ 
neniy, a few Batteries w"ere rais'd, which contributed 
little to their Security. :■ ' 

Sir IVilliam Berkley^ to remedy the Evil of the low 
Price of Tobacco, earneftly recommended, and hear- 
tily encouraged the Silk and Linn en-Man ufadures; 
Pot-Alh and Hemp : He fet an Example himfdl 
at his own Plantation \ and it had been well for xM 
Colony if they had induflrioufly followed it. ^ 

The Indians all this while continu'd quiet ^ indeed 
they durft not offend the Englilh, who were now 
grovv^n fo powerful, that they could fend an Army oJ( 
<5" or 7009 7vlen into the Field, and leave twice as many 
^X home to look after their Plantations. 


The Hificry of Virginia. 249 

He fent out Capt. Ban with 1 4- Englifh, and 1 4. In- 
dians, to make Difcoveries. This little Company ^^'^'^«' 
went from Appamotox in CW/^^-County, and in ieven turers, 
days time reach'd the Foot of the Mountains, which 
they crofs'd with great Difficulty in three days more *, 
and then defcended into fruitful Vallies, where they nifcove- 
found an incredible Quantity of Deer, Elks, Buffa- rks. 
loes and Turkies, fo tame, that they would fuffer them 
almoft to reach, them. They alfo found Grapes as 
big as fmall Plums. 

Farther forward they came to a Rivulet, which de- 
fcended backwards. They travel I'd down that Stream 
feveraldays, and coming to fome Cabbins, they could 
perceive that Indians had lately been there, and as 
they fuppos'd fled away at Capt. Batt and his Compa- 
-iiy*s approach. 

^ The Savages he had with him could not be perfwa- 
ded to pafs fome Marfhes that were beyond thofe Cab- 
bins. They faid there liv'd a Nation a little farther 
that made Salt, and fold it to their Neighbours *, that 
they {uffer*d no body to return who had been amongft 
them : And notwithftanding Capt. Batt us'd all the 
Arguments he could think of to perfwade them to go 
forward, the cowardly Indians would not ftir a ftep 
farther *, fo the Company were forc'd to return. 

On the Report Capt. Batt made to the Governour 
ofhisTravels and Adventures, Sir William Berkley i'e- ■ 
folv'd to go in Perfon : He had made Preparations for 
it, nam'd the Man who was to have been his Depu- 
. ty Governour, got the AlTembly to pafs an A61 in fa- 
vour of the Enterprize f, and juft as things were ready 
for his Departure, Col. Bacon's Rebellion broke our, Col^ Ba- 
which ruin'd the Defign. ^ <^^"'^ ^' 

In the Year i sjo. 4\or 5 Years before Capt. Batt's ^dlion. 
Enterprize, Col. Collet with 9 Engliih Horfe, and 5 
Indians, march'd up in the Country -, and fo did Major 
Harris vfith 20 Englifh Horfe, and 5 Indians :, but to 
as little Advantage as Batt's : After whom, Sir William 
gave a Commiilion to a German Surgeon to difcover 
the South- Weft Parts of Tirgima, 

He went along the Foot of the Mountains as far as 
the Lake Sherre^ and ditcover'd them to be paya- 
ble in two places. This Man reported, that while he 
was in an Indian Town near the Mountains, there 


25© The Hljlory of Virginia. 

came 4 Savages on an EnibafTy to the King of that 
y Town, from a King who liv'd beyond the Mountains. 

He brought back an Emerald, and feme Spaniih 
Money which he had of the Indians bordering oa th^ 
Lake there ^ and this rais'd Conjeftures, that the 
Spaniards are feated near ^the back of thofe Mountains. 

The Rebellion we are going to ipeak of, bdng 
one of the moft extraordinary Events that ever hsp- 
pen'd in the Englifh, Plantations, we fhall be largi^ in 
our Account of it^ which we have taken from publick 
and private Authorities. 

The Author of it, Col. Nathaniel Bacon^ Jvn, was 
a Gentleman who had been liberally bred iu England^ 
having ftudy*d fome time at the Temple i He was young, 
bold, a£^ive, hand fome, and eloquent: His Merit ad* j- 
vanc'd him to tlie degree of a Couniellor '^ and hisi 

food Qualities got him the Love and Refpeftof the^ 
*eople, who were at that time very much difafFefted., 
with the Government, and ready to take Fire •, which . 
Bacon perceiving, blew up the Coals of DifTention a- 
mong them fo much, that at laft it buril: out into a 
Flame. J 

Before we come to the Fa6^, it will be proper to 
let the Reader into the Canler^ of the Peoples Murmurs 
and Relentments *, of which thefe four were the chief; 

The Cau' I. The low Trice of Tobacco in England \ and the 
fesofh^ high Prices of all Goods exported thence to Virginia. 

2. TPje Grants made by King Charles, of fever al 
Tarts of their Country to Noblemen in England ^ 
in fome of which feverd of their Plantations were . 

3. The Burdens laid upon them by the Parliament 
in England *, and Taxes by the A(fembly in Vir- 

4. T/iC Dlfkurbances given them by the Indians, j 

Of airthefe Grievances, that of the Grants was the 
moft intolerable : Their Property being given away 
from them, after they had been at great Trouble, Ha^ 
zard and Charge, to make Settlements. 

The AlTembly taking the bad Condition of many of 
the Planters, by the vexatious Suits, and the Expence 
they were forc'd to be at about their Titles to their ' 


: ■ flantations, into Confideration *, deputed Mr. LW- 
' \ei Secretary of Firginla^ and Col. Tarh to go to 
kngjtand^ to repreient the Matter to the King, and pe- 
ition for Redreis. 

A new Tax was levy'd, to defray the Charge of 
leir Voyage ^ and this was the more burthen fome, 
ecaufe the Agents did not fucceed in their Negotia- 

After a Year's Patience in waiting for News from 
hem, they had Advice, that thert were little hopes 
ifRedrefs. Upon which they grew outragious *, and 
■ iheir Rage end ^d in Rebellion. King Charles hearing 
I if it, would not hearken to their Agents Remonftran- 
lies ^ and thofe of them who had Money, were fbrc'd 
o compound with the Grantees for 3 or 400 /. a 
Vlan. rr 

The Indians ever fince their laft Maffacre, had kept The Mi- 
/ery quiet till lately : And now they began to be trou- msflk^ 
>lerome at the Head of the Bay of Chefapeak^ and on 
heir own Frontiers. Thofe at the Head of the Bay 
js*d to' trade with« the Dutch in Momdas^ fince call'd 

When the Indians travelPd thither, they paft, go- 
^ng and coming, by the Frontiers of Virginia^ mn 
traded with the Virginians *, who had the firft of their 
jMarket, and the Choice of their Furs. While the 
Dutch ftay*d at Monadas this Traffick went on very 
peaceably •, but afToon as the Englifh, who had poP 
fefs'd themfelves of New-York and the Trade, under- 
flood the Advantage their Countrymen in Virginia 
made of it, they treacheroufly fet the Savages againft 
them, and fucceeded lb well, that inftead of calling 
on them as Friends, they never came, but to murder 
or rob them. 

The Indians on their own Frontiers were provok'd 
by the Lofs of their Trade, which decayed daily ^ and 
by Sir William Berkley's Attempts for Difcoveries, 
which they apprehended was intended to deftroy 
them *, and therefore, whenever they had an Oppor- 
tunity, they never fail'd to Ihew their Hatred and 
Cruelty to the Englifh *, who being grown peevifb by 
their LofTes and Grievances, were glad of an Occafion 
of venting their Fury on the Indians *, and on the Cry 
€5f Murders committed by them, moft of the poorer 


2^2 The Hi ft or y of Virginia, ■ 

fort demanded to be led againft them, refolving utter- 
ly to extirpate all tht Nations of the Savages. The^ 
gathered together in riotous and tumultuous Bands 
running from one Plantation to another, without 
Head, ci'ying out againft the Barbarity of the Natives 
the Murder of their Countrymen, and engaging mort 
and more every day to undertake an Expedition foi 
Revenge. : 

sirtWiX. The Governour, who was jealous of his Preroga- 
Berkley tiye, would not fuiFer them to judge when 'twas fit tc 
oppfes^^ make War •, and the more they were for it, the nlort 
Bacons obftinate he was not to allow them to take Arms ■ 
^ejigns. However, they con rinu'd their Meetings, and Col 
Bacon fell in with them ^ approv'd of their Zeal for the 
Service of their Country, aggravated the Calamitiei 
they endur'd by the Indians, and complain'd of the 
Want of a Regulation in Trade. 

The Multitude were tranfported with Joy that they 
had got a Man of his Quality and Merit among them '^ 
Baconc/;{>a.nd immediately chofe him their General : Which 
ftn Gens' Poft he accepted y and by his Eloquence and obliging 
ral by the Carriage To charm'd them, that they were all to a 
Fso^le- Man entirely at his Devotion. 

He knew the Danger of the Step he had taken, anc 
yet his Ambition, or his Intereft, ffor 'twas thought 
his Deiign was to engrois the vyhole Indian Trade to 
himfelf) ftill fpur'd him on to open Rebellion. He 
mufter'd his Men, exercis'd them, and prepar'd them 
for A£lion, the Pretence being a War with the Indi- 
ans, which was at that time a, very plaufible one : To 
reconcile his Ambition with his Duty, he fent to 
tie Governour for a Commiffion :; and order'dthe 
MefTenger to reprefent thQ Mifchiefs the Savages did, 
fo deplorably, that Sir William might think himlel 
oblio a by the.Necedity of their. Affairs, to make him 

The Council had fuch an Efteem of Col. Bacon*'. 
Merit, that the Governour did not thi^ik it fafe to de . 
ny his Requeft flatly j (b he anfwer'd the MefTenger^; 
He would confidt the Council^ and fend him word what 
Refolution they came to about it. But Bacon had not Pa- 
tience to flay for the Refult of their formal Debates. 
He fent again and again to Sir William^ toilTueouta 
CommiinoDj and difpatch it away to him, that he 
*V ■ ^ ' ■ - ^ ^ ; ■ niight 

The Hifiorj of Virginia. 255 

niight lead the Voluntiers againft the Indians *, fay- 
ing^ They had already chofen him for their General •, and 
he and they refoh'd to begin the War^ whether the Go- 
vernourfent htm the Commijfion^ or not, 

Twas out of Caution that he defir'd it, to juftifie his 
taking Arms -^ and finding Sir William prevaricated 
with him, he with forty of his Men in his own Sloop, 
went to James-ToYi"^ himfelf, to get what he wanted : 
He took his Seat at the Council- Board, like a Man, 
who, far from having committed a Fault, deferv'cl 
Thanks for his Zeal for the Publick Good, and againft 
the common Enemy. 

He laid before the Council the miferahle State of the 
Borderers *, how they were plunder' d and murdered hy the 
Savages ^ and how ready the Voluntiers were to drive 
them from the Borders^ and prevent fuch Calamities for 
the future *, if they had a Warrant to dofo. 

The Governour inftead of granting Bacon a Com- He quar- 
miilion, commanded him todifperfe^ and for fpeak-'^e/i with 
ing too freely before the Council, fufpended him : By ^^^ Gover- 
w^hich he exafperatedaMan, who had it in his PowQt"^^' 
to be reveng'd, when he himfelf had not Strength 
fufficient to oppofe him. 

Bacon broke up from the Council-Table in a heat ^ 
and went out, with an Intention to retire to his Men. 
Sir William ^Wd a long Boat, and made after 
him '^ fending away fome Horfe to flop him when 
he landed at Sandy-Fointy the Place he defign'd to go 

His Orders were obey'd here *, and Bacon forc'd to 
return to James-Town. The Governour inflead of 
chaflizing ibis Infolence, receiv'd him yerygratioufly •, 
and by fair Words, endeavour'd to diflwade him from 
his intended Enterprize : But Bacon was refolute, and 
perfifled in his Demand of a Commiiiion, knowing 
Sir William durft not do him any hurt ^ when there 
were near 1000 Men in Arms, who would leverely 
have revenged whatever Puniiliment had been infil- 
led upon him : Befides, while they w^ere diipu- 
ting the Matter in Council, frelh News came of 
Murders and Robberies committed by the Indians ^ 
which feem'd to warrant Col, Bacoi/s Defign and De- 


254 ^^^ Hi/lory of Virginia. 

However the Governour, who was as jealous of his 
Prerogative, as he was zealous for the Welfare of the 
Colony, would not grant him the Commillion, be- 
caufe it look'd as if it was extorted from him, and that 
there was a Power in Virginia fuperior to his own. 

Bacon feeing he could get nothing by fair MeanSj 
made his Efcape out of James-lown^ and ported awa;^ 
Comes to to the Voluntiers ^ of whom he led <? or 700 to the 
James- Town, and drew them up in Battalia before the State- 
Town ^ Houfe, where the AiTembly were fitting •, fo that he 
mthhts Yadi now t\iQ Governour, Council, and Aflemblyol 
Army, Virginia in his Power ', and may be faid to be Mailer 

of the Colony. 

forces the The AiTembly, befides that many of them wifh'd 

Govermr ^^ji ^q Bacon's Enterprize, were afraid of offending 

w^iudtoj^jj^^^ (o they drew up a Commiilionthemlelves, and 

fon prefented it, with an Addrefs to Sir William BerUey, 

defiring him to fign it. 

By this Commillion, he was conftituted General oi 
all the Forces in Virginia *, and Sir William^ much a- 
gainft his Inclination, fign'd ir. 

As foon as Bacon had it, he march'd towards the 
Frontiers, and was chearfully foljow'd by his Men *, 
and no doubt, had not Sir William Berkley done what 
he could to hinder his Proceedings, thefe Forces, un- 
der fuch a General, would have conquer'd all the Na- 
tions of the Indians to the Mountains. 

'Tis true, the Virginians did not want Room, yet 
the Savages were fo falfe and cruel to them of late, 
that it feems to have been their Intereft to have got rid 
of fuch troublefome Neighbours*, and fo the People 
oi Virginia generally thought at that time. 

When Bacon had modeftly withdrawn his Troops, 

to leave the AiTembly free, the Governour prevail 'd 

with them to confent that his Commiflion (hould be 

BcU^prO' revoked, which was done : Then Sir William pro- 

ddmd d ci^ji^y^ him a Rebel ^ commanded his Followers to de- 

^^ • liver him wp, and difperfe, on pain of being treated 

like Traitors : He alio iiTu'd out Orders for raifing the 

Militia •, and made Preparations for a Civil War. 

The People were generally exafperated at this dou- 
ble Dealing with CoL Bacon'^ and his Soldiers unani- 
moufly refolv'd to live and die with him. Inflead of; 
marching againll the Indians, as they defign'd, they 


The Bipory of Virginia. 2$$ 

demanded to be led back to James-Town •, and in their 
March they fell upon the Lands and Houfes of fuchas 
fided with Sir William. 

The Governour fled to jiccomackj on the other fide The Go- 
of the Bay, hoping the Inhabitants of that County, "vemorflys 
which was at a diftance from thofe Parts where Bacon r^ *'^- 
had the greateft Intercft, would efpoufe his Quarrel ^ 
having ftill no better Difpofition to Peace, than be- 
fore he had proclaini'd Col. Bacon a Rebel. 

A little Moderation in him would have remedy*d 
thefe Diforders, which put the King and Colony to 
looooo /. Expence to compofe them ^ and would have 
endanger'd the Ruin of the Country, had not Ba- 
con's Death prevented it*, for upon the Governour's 
leaving James-Town^ and abdicating the Government, 
Col. Bacon affembled the Gentlemen of the Country 
at Middle-Plamation •, himfelf and four others of the ^ ^^!', 
Council figning the Writ of Summons*, where they .'^^P^'* 
publifh'd a Declaration of the occalion of their meeting, ^" 
and an AfTociation to ftand by Bacon againfl all Oppo- 
fers, till the King was fully informed of the Matter, by 
Perfons deputed oy General Bacon. 

They declared, among other things, that Sir Willi- 
am Berkley had fomented and flird -up the People to a 
Civil War^ and withdrawn himself from his Government^ Jni puh- 
to the great Ajionijhment and Vnfettlement of the Coun-Ujh aDs- 
try. That the Army raised by Bacon was for the puhlick cUramn 
Good *, and that the Country jufhify'd him in all his ^git^nji the 
Proceedings. • ^ Governor. 

In the mean time Sir William was bufy in getting his 
Friends together,to make head againft the Rtbelsowhofe 
Reafons wou'd have had little weight with King CW/f/, 
while they argu'd with their Swords in their [Hands* 
The Governour was ftill obftinately bent on reducing 
Bacon by Force •, and in order to it, feveral Sloops were 
provided to tranfport the Men he had rais'd over the 
Bay. Some of his 'Parties met with fome of 5^cf??2's, 
and Rencounters happen 'd ^ in which fome Men were 
kill'd, and fome taken. 

Thus every thing tended to a Civil War, which 
muil: have had very terrible Effe£ls, for Bacon's Men 
were refolute, and enrag'd at the Hardfhips they en- 
dar'd*, and Sir Willia?n Berkley's^ animated by the 
IvOyalty of their Leader, were as furious and impla- 

/ cable 

256 The Hijiory t?f Virginia, 

cable as the Generals, whom they call'd and treated 
as Rebels. 

Bacon was much Superiour in Numbers ^ but the 
Governour depending on Supplies from Enghnd^ 
aifur'd himfelf that He fhou'd at laft be too ftrong 
for him, and all his Adherents. 

The King when he was inform'd of this Rebellion, 
was fo far from hearkning to the Pretences of Bacon's 
Aflembly, that he order'd a Squadron of Men of War 
to be fitted out, and a Regiment of Soldiers to em- 
bark aboard it for Virginia. This Squadron was com- 
manded by Sir John Berry ^ and fet Sail about Chrift^ 
i^7<^. mas^ in the year 157^. The Hopes of thefe Succours 
confirm'd the Governour in his Severity, and all 
Terms of Accomodation were offered to no purpofe. 
Such was the dreadful Profpeft of Affairs in Virginiay 
Co/.Bacon when happily for the Peace of the Colony Col. Bacon 
^^^^' dy'd at Dr. Greens Houfe in Gloufier-Connty. He 
was privately bury'd, and the Place kept very fecret, 
to prevent his Enemies infulting his Body, as would 
have been done, cou'd the Corps have been found ^ 
for ftrift Enquiry was made after it, With a Defign 
to expofe his Bones to Publick Infamy, 

The Death of the General broke all the Meafures 
of the Malecontents *, Col. Ingram^ his Lieutenant 
General, and Col. Walklate^ his Major General, laid 
down their Arms on promife of Pardon. The reft fol- 
low'd their Example, and Sir William Berkley return'd 
to James-Tow'Uj after Bacon and his AfTembly had been 
Sir W'[- ^^c)ut fix Months in PolTeflion of the Government of 
liam " ^^^ ^^^ Countries on that fide of the Bay, and had in- 
Berkley fii-^enc'd the Affairs on the other fide. Peace being 
returns, reilor'd, the Governour had leifure to punifh the Cri- 
minals ^ but having promis'd them all Pardons,on their 
Submifiion,cou'd not do it without breaking his word. 
Col, yoh}7 fon J md Col. WalUate were turn'd out of all 
their Places, and incapacitated of bearing Offices 
in the Colony for the future. As for his Proceeding 
with the refl, he cou'd not come to any Refolution, 
till he had Orders from England^, which he did not 
receive •, for that Affair was left to Commiflioners,. 
that were Tent on purpofe by King Charles^ to inquire 
into if, and the Lord Cole pepper who fucceeded him.^ 
in the Government^ was mtrufted with the Power of 


The Hijlory of Yirgmh. 257 

punifhing or pardoning thofe who had a hand in the 
Difotders committed in the late Rebellion^ which 
were very fatal to the Country. 

James-TowRy the Capital of the Colony, was burnt 
to the Ground by Capt. Richard Lawrence^ an Officer 
ander Bacon^ who, when his Men refus'd to fet fire 
to the Houfes, did it with his own Hands: and 
thus this Unfortunate City , which never deferv'd 
that Name, fuffer'd fo much, that ihQ has not (ince 
recovered ev'n the Condition (he was then in. 

All Sorts of Improvements were negleded , 
Stock ran to ruin, the Indians taking an Advantage 
of thefe Confufions, fell upon the Borders, and but- 
cher 'd the Inhabitants without Mercy. They de- 
ftroy'd the Plantations on the Frontiers fo much, 
that the Virginians have hardly to this day been able to 
plant them and ftock them, much lefs to extend their 
Bounds : Tho the Savages are brought fo low that 
their Liberty is precarious, and they are little better 
than Slaves to the Englifh. Bacony^z.^ dead, and the 
Country in Peace before Sir John Berry arriv'd with 
his Squadron and the Regiment he had aboard, 
which landed in February following. The Souldiers 
were kept in pay, tho there was no Employment '^<^77'l 
for them *, and foon after Sir William Berkley went 
hx Englandj lQ2iVing Herbert Jeffreys^ Efq*, his Depu- ^1^^!^^^.^ 
ty Governour. Sir William fell fick on his Arrival in Jeffreys 
England^ ^nd hisSicknefs confined him to his Chamber ^y^. ^1- 
till he dy'd. The King who all the Reafon in thfiputyGo' 
World to be pleas'd with him, enquired often after vmwr. 
his Health, and forbad him to hazard it, by making 
too much hafte to Court. Sir William never faw his . ^.,.. 
Majefty. However he had the fatisfadion to hear ^^ Y>Qrk^ 
the King had done him the Honour to declare. He j^y ^/.^ f^ 
highly approved of his Conduft in Virginia, England, 

He had been Governour of that Colony from the 
Year i<5'4o, to i<?78. when he dy'd. In all thir° 
ty eight years, if we take in the Time of the Ufur- 
pation, when his Commiffion was virtually in force, 
tho not adually. 

I He was doubtlefs a Great Friend to it by encoura- 
ging Manufactures and Building. And whatever Incon- 
jveniencies he was drawn into by the Warmth of his 
Loyalty, or Zeal for the Church, ought to beexcus'd 

S for 

[ 258 The Hiftory of Virginia. 

for the Honour and Honefty of the Man's Intentionso 

Thofe who liv'd on the Spot, have a great Refpeft for 

his Memory, and they who are the beft Judges of his 

His Cha- Merit, always fpeak of him as a wife and a juil Go- 

railer. yernour. 

Mr. Jeffreys's firft Care after Sir William Berkley's 
Departure, was to make Peace with the Indians : To 
that purpofe he held an AfTembly at Middle Plama- 
tion^ where Bacon's Convention met, a.nd Overtures 
of Peace^'were agreed on and concluded in May^ ^^77^ 
On the 29th of that Month, the Kings of the feve- 
ral Nations were invited to come and fign the Peace, 
and Partake in the Rejoicings of that Day, which the 
Governour celebrated with more than ufual Solem- 
nity, in Commemoration of his Ma jelly's Birth and 
happy Reftoration. 

The Indian Kings and Queens came to the Place ap- 
pointed, and were kindly receiv'd by the Commiffio- 
ners and Council ^ And Silence being Proclaim'd, 
A Solemn ^^^ Articles of the Peace were Publickly read, anc 
Veace rvrrj: Q^ch of them expounded by Interpreters. Aftei 
tk Indians, Yrhich the Queen of Tamunke was deiir'd to come 
within the Bar of the Court to Sign the- Treaty 
in behalf of her felf. and feveral Nations thai 
vfere united under her Subie£lion. She did it chear 
fully, and delivered the Inftrument to the Governour 
of v/hichhe gave her back the Counter-part •, and or 
th^ Exchanging thofe Inflruments lh.t Field-piece! 
were difcharg'd. 

The Queen, and the . other Indian Princes were 
nobly entertain'd by the Englifh , and the nexi 
day return'd to their Kingdoms. This is tht 
lail formal Peace that was made with the Sa 
vages. Aud now they are funk fo low, that if the] 
fhou'd dare to give the Englifh any Difturbance, 
Troop of Militia-Horfe vvou'd cut 'em all to Pieces 
They do the Virginians more good than harm b^ 
their Trade and Services, and are fuffer'd to enjo^ 
the vain Name of Kingdoms, thol Kentiflj Town is an 
Empire, compar'd to the biggeft of them, as wil 
appear in another Chapter. The Governour am 
AfTembly had giv'n the Law to them in this Treaty 
which, the they thought hard meafure, they wer 
•oblii^'d to comply with. 


The Hijlory ^Virginia. 259 

Mr. Jeffreys dy 'd the following Year, and Sir Henry 167S. 
Chkkely was appointed Deputy-Governour in his Place. i'/V Henry. 
I He did nothing Extraordinary, or worthy to beChickely 
^^ remembred, except procuring an Aft of the AfTem- j?^/'^^?^ 
bly, for building Magazines at the Heads of the four ^^^^^^^^'^ 
! great Rivers, where Men in conftant Pay were or- 
! der'd to keep Guard, and Stores of Arms, and Ani- 
\ munition were laid up, to the great Terror of the Sa- 
I vages. The fame AlTembly obferving that Tobacco 
) was frequently imported from Carolina and Maryland^ 
|pafl an Aft againft it, to ftreighten tho{e Colonies for 
iwant of Shipping, 

In the Year 167 9. the Lord Colepepper^ whom the ^^79- 
King had made Governour of Virginia^ arriv'd there, Jl^^ ^^^^ 
and brought with him feveral Afts drawn up in Eng- *-°^^^P' 
\land^ to be paft into Laws. v^mr^^ 

He fummon'd an AfTembly, and the Members un- 
fderflanding he had a Power to call fuch to an Ac- 
count, as had been concern'd in Bacon's Rebellion, 
to keep him in a good Humour, paft feveral Afts, 
wherein the Authority and Intereft of the Gover- 
nour were inlarg'd, and he in return gave his Con- 
fent to fome that were grateful to the Country. 

The luord Colepepper obtain'd a Salary of 2000 /. a 
year of the King, which before was but 1000 /. He 
on account of his Quality, got an Allowance of 1 50 /. 
k year for Houfe-Rent, and turn'd the ufual Prefents 
made him by Mafters of Ships, of Wine or Provi- 
ifions, into a certain Sum of Money, fettling the Rate 
kXsos, for each Ship above one hundred Tun, and 
20 ^. for each below that Burden, which Duty has 
[ince been levy'd as ftriftly as if it had been given 
by an Aft of the Aflfembly. Befides thefe Advanta- 
ges, hisLordfhip had one in view, thatwou'd have 
turned very well to account, had it taken effeft. The 
AlTembly taking into Confideration their Lofs by 
jlowering their Coin, which had occafion*d the Goun- 
itry's being almoft drained of it by Exportion to Places 
jwhere it paft for more than it did in Firglnla^ or- 
dered a Bill to be brought in for raifmg it. 
! The Governour interpofing in the matter, told 
jthem, it was the King's Prerogative to alter the Va- 
llue of the Coin, and the Prerogative being intrufted 
iwith him, he wou'd do it by Proclamation. The Af- 
I S 2 fembly 

26 o The Hiji^ory of Virginia. 

fembly darft not oppofe fuch an Argument. Thofe 
were not times to difpute thePrerogative Royal \ fothe 
Governour's Reafons were allow'd^ and the Aft dropt, 
His Lordfhip having gain'd his Point, privately 
bought up all the light Pieces of Eight he could get 
at 5 J. the Piece -^ and then put forth a Proclamation, 
to raife the Value of them to 6 Shillings : He foon af- 
ter produc'd an Order to pay and disband the Regi- 
ment that had been fent over by Sir John Berry •, and 
accordingly he paid them off with thofe Pieces at 6 s.i 
piece J and they were forc'd to take them at that rate. 
ThisLord however found very great In con venienciei 
by his railing the Coin, as well on account of his owr 
Sallary, his Duty on Ships,as of the King's Taxes,whic} 
were paid in Pieces of Eight, at <5" j. a piece : The lof 
was like to be more than his Gain, by injuring the pooi 
Soldiers. He affefted a Defpotick way of governing 
and by his Proclamation repeaPd feveral Laws. Th< 
Virginirms began to be afraid that the A£ls of thei] 
AfTembly would fland in force no longer than tb 
Governour fhould think fit •, and that his Will am 
Vleafure would be fet over them inftead of Laws anc 

This occafion'd frefh Murmurs*, and had not Ba 
ccris Rebellion been fo lately fupprefs'd, it might havi 
ended in Mutiny. The AfTembly at their next Seliion 
to put a ftop to the like Evils, pafl: a particular Ai 
to provide againfi; the ill Conveniences of them. 

The Lord Colepepper did not flay quite a Year ii 

Virginia^ before he embark'd for England i He lef 

Sir Henry Chkkely his Deputy Governour, the Coun 

try well fettled, and the Crop {o good, that the Plan 

ters made too much Tobacco, by which the Marke 

was glutted, and the Price fell yet lower : And thi 

ji Riot d' pi'oduc'd a new Riot ^ for fome of the Inhabitants, t< 

^cwToi'^f- raife the Price, agreed with their Neighbours, nOj 

€0. only to deftroy their own Tobacco, but all the Plant' 

round the Country, where-ever they found them 

while they were yet in their Beds. 

Accordingly they cut up their own nrft *, and thQi 
did {q in other Plantations, whether the Owners con 
iented, or not; 

They dellroy'd a great deal of fvveet-fcented Toj 
bacco, and threatened, to cut up all *, but they ha<| 


The Hiflory e?/^ Virginia. 261 

not Courage enough to go through with their Defign. 
The Offenders were feiZ'd, imprifon'd, try'd, and 
were , condemn'd to be Hang'd : Their Plant- 
cutting being adjudg'd to be Felony and Sedition *, 
and was declar'd to be fo by an Aft of the next 

The Lord Colepepper returning in the following i^8p, 
year, began to think of trumping up his Title to the . 
Northern Neckj a large Territory, containing feve- 
ral Counties. 

Thefe Counties had the Privilege offending Repre- 
fentatives to the AfTembly, as w^ell as the other : And 
the Affembly being the Supream Court to which all 
others were to appeal, he w^as afraid his Propriety 
would never be allow'd by them *, wherefore he con- 
triv'd to get the Appeals out of their hands ^ and to 
that end, rais'd fuch Divifions between the Repreien- 
tatives and Council, that the former pretending to 
: the fole Power of Appeals, were encourag'd in their 
■ Pretences fecretly by the Governour,till he had Inftru- 
! £tions from the King ^ to w^hom having reprelentej 
the Quarrel to the difad vantage of the Reprefentatives, 
; his Majefty order'd that all Appealsjfeould be made 
to the Governour ancf Council : Arw now this Noble 
I Lord thought he might put in his Claim to the Nor- 77^^ iQf.^ 
[ thern Necky by a Grant from the Crown. There Coelpep- 
j were feveral others concern'd in tki Patent*, and per^m 
I thefe he bought off: After which, he.prevail'd with tbe Nor- 
I his Coufin Mr. Spencer^ Secretary of Virglnlay who ^^^"^"^ 
liv'd in thQ Northern Necky to fide with the Patent-, ^-'^^^ 
which he did till.he dy'd : For his Lordihip, notwith- 
ftandinghe had broken the old Coiifritutionof the 
AfTembly, thought fit to proceed by fair Means, and 
engage as many of the Inhabitants as he cou'd to own 
his Propriety ^ as he did Col. Philip Ludwelly when 
he was in E'agla/id^ in the Year 1 690, 
: , This Gentleman undertook to manage his Matters 
1 for him ^ but could make nothing of it. 

Col. George Brent ^ and Col. William Fltz^hifghj who 
aUo were Inhabitants of the iV^f^, ^^g'^g'^? as CoL 
5 Ludwell had done, to ferve him as their Proprietor :, 
) but had no better Succeis than Col. LvdwelL 

The People of the Neck addrefs'd the AfTembly, 
and they to the Ki ig *, which had no effed,, becaufe 

S ? they 

^262 The Hiftorji of Yirgmn. 

they had no Agent in England to follicite the Affair : 
So the Inhabitants being tir'd with exp.£ling Relief in 
vain, and weary'd by vexatious Suits with the Pro^ 
prietor's Agents, thought it their Intereft to com- 
pound with him, and pay him Qait-Rent. The firfl 
that did it w^as Col. Richard Lee^ one of the Council ^ 
w^hofe Example was followed by the reft : And Col. 
Robert Carter^ another of the Council, and one of the 
greateft Freeholders of the Northern Neck^ is at this 
time the Proprietor's Agent. 

We have been the longer on this Propriety, be- 
caufe it w^as the Occafion oF altering the Conftitution, 
of the Government ^ and befides is a very large Par- 
cel of the Colony. 

In other things his Lordfhip's Adminiftration waS' 
very commendable ;, he regulated feveral Abufes that 
had crept into the Pra£):ice of the Courts., and pre- 
vented uiQ Chicanry, fo much complain'd of in i»g-^ 
te^, which was beginning to corrupt the Law, and 
lellen'd the Expence the Clerks had contrived to 
put their Clients to. Hedemolifh'd the Forts built b^ 
Sit Henry Chickely^ they being a great Charge, and 
of little ufe to the Country : In their itead, he pro- 
cur 'd an Aft to be pafl, for fome Troops of Horie to 
range on the Borders by turns, till there was no more 
fear of the Indians. 
5^85. In thQ year 1 6- 8 3 . he r etu rn'd to England^ and would 
Francis go thitlier no more : upon which Francis Lord Hovpardi 
^^'[^^ow of Effingham was fent over Governour. The Lord 
ard of Et Qclepepper had declar'd his Kinfman Mr. Spencer Prefi- 
Cofxrmr ^^nt of the Council ^ tho there were other Mem- 
bers w^ho with morereafon pretended to that Honour.' 
being 'Elder than he ^ and the oldeft Counfellour us'c 
.always to be Prefident •, as the Prefident in the Ab^ 
fence of the Governour, or Deputy Governour, al- 
ways fupplies his Place. 

hix. Spencer's Prefidency was attended with nothing 
5^-g,^ remarkable. And the next Year, 16-84. the- Lore 
^' Howard arriv'd, with the fame Refolution to get Mo 
ney as his PredecefTor had done : He condefcended td 
jliare the Fees with his Clerks *, oblig'd all Law^yer 
and Schcolmafters to take out Licenles to teach am 
plead -^ for which they paid according to their Abili 
ties : He extorted exceiiive Fees for feaiing Probat 

The Hifiory of Virginia. 26 j 

of Wills, and Letters of Adminiftration, without 
confidering the Value oftheEftatesoftheDeceasVi ;• 
He threw Men into Prifon, and kept them there 

■: without Trials : He repealed Laws by Proclamation,, 
as much as in him lay , for the judges did not mind 
thofe Proclamations, but allow'd the Laws to be in 
as full force as ever, one excepted *, and that was the 
Law for paying Qtut-Rent^ "by which the Planters 
were permitted to pay Qiiit-Rent in Tobacco at 2 d- 
a Pound Tobacco falling afterwards, that Law was 
repeal'd by Proclamation, and the Payment deman- j 

il ded in Money or Tobacco at a Penny a Pound. 

; To which Order the Firginlans ^ahmitt^dj no Man 

' daring in that Cafe to ftand Trial with tlje Gover- 

;nour, efpecially becaule the Quit-Rentwas referv'd 
in Money by the Words of his Patent. 
This Lord, by many other Exaftions, fo exafperated 

\ the Colony, that they' fent Col. Ludwe/lovi^x to Eng- 

j landy to make their Complaints to tliQ King. Mr. 

i Ludwell did all that could be expedled from a wdfe 

; and a faithful Agent ^ but did not prevail to have his 

''. Lordfhipremov'd. 

We are oblig'd for Connexion of things, fometimes 
to make bold with Chronology ^ and the Conveni- 
cnce the Reader will find in it, will, we hope, more 

! than excufe the Freedom we take, 

; In the Year 1^85. that fevere Duty, which has fo 1^85. 
long loaded Tobacco, and been the occafion of felling ^'^^^^^^P*?/ 

' many thou fand Hogiheads, at 12^. a Hoglhead, ra- ^^ ^^^^^"^"^? 

■ ther than pay the Cuftom and Charges, wasimpos'd 
on this Commodity, three Months after KingJ ames\ 
coming to ih^ Crown: It v/as obtain'd when the 

' Parliament were in a warm fit of Loyalty, juft on the 
Duke o^ Monmouth's Landing. 

The Bill h.?A been read before, but 'tis thought 
would not have pafs'd fo eafily, if the Duke of Mon- 

' mouth had not landed opportunely, and quicken'd it 

I by his Rebellion. 

' This heavy Inipofition has been a great Difcourage- 
ment to ths Indufrry of th.Q Plantation, and is the 

j fource of all tliQ Miferies the Planters fince uiffer'd, 

! having kept them poor, and depriv'd them of the 

I Means to fupport themlelves in thQ long War that 

I follow'd upon the Revolution, 

S 4. The 

264 The Hifiory of Virginia. 

The Lord Howard fummoa'cl an AfTembly *, who 
laid the firfl Tax impbs'd upon Liquors imported from 
the other Plantations. The Pretence was for rebuil- 
ding the State-houfe •, which had lain in Afhes ever 
fmce Capt. Lawrence burnt James-Town. 

His Lordfhip alfo ere£led a Court of Chancery -^ 
and took away that Jurifdiftion from the General 
Court: He affum'd the Office of Chancellour *, and 
the Counfellours were his Matters. He would not 
hold this Court in the State-houfe, becaufe the Gene- 
ral Court us'd to fit there: And therefore in oppofi- 
tion to them, he heard Caufes in a Dining-room in a 
private Houfe. 

He exafted exorbitant Fees in his New Court ^. 
and made it turn very much to account. This No- 
velty was laid afide on his Lordlhip*s going for Eng-- 
land ^ and the General Court again refum'd their An- 
tient Jurifdiftion •, which was as old as the Colony. 

As the Lord i/oTj?^ had fhown an extraordinary^ 
Joy on King James's Acceflion to the Throne ^ an 
Account of which waspublifh'd in the Gazette : So he 
as joyfully proclaim'd King William on the Revoluti- 
on '^ and foon after went for England^ leaving Natha- 
Nath.Ba- niel Bacon Efquire, Father of Col. Bacon^ Prefident : 
con _E/^; During whofe Adminift ration the Projed of a College 
^jrv^' ft^ft^^S^^* A Scheme of it was drawn up by the 
feton?^ Projedors, and prefented to the Prefident and Coun- 
pot, ^-^Y ^ ^^^1^^ approving of it, the Matter was prepared to 
be laid before th^ AlTenibly. 
The Prefident had not time to call one himfelf ^ for 
Fran. Ni- 'twas not long before Francis N^cholfon Eiq*, arriv'd, , 
cholfon ' with thQ Charadler of the Lord Hovpard's Lieutenant. 
sfqiLieuu This Gentleman on his Arrival, fludy'd to grow Po- 
^overnor, pular, by all the vv^inning Arts which Perlbns in Pow 
er make ufe of, to engage the People : He made hinv 
felf familiar with them •, was follicitous about impro- 
ving Trade, and encouraging Manufactures : He in- 
ftituted Publick^ Games ^ and allotted Prizes to fuch \ 
as exceird in Riding, Running, Shooting, Wreil- 
ling, and Back-fword. He enter 'd heartily into the,; 
PxvjQtt of the College; 

That the Projeft mi^ht not ftand ftill for want off 
Encouragement from the AfTembly, which was not 
thm fitting, a private Subfcription was proposed, 


The Hifiory of Virginia. ^65 

and agreed to by the Governour, and two thou fan d 
five hundred Pounds fubfcrib'd *, Mr. Nkholfon and the 
Council fetting the other Gentlemen of the Colony a 
good Example. The London Merchants al(b contri- 
buted generoufly towards it: And in the next Year, 
when the Lieutenant Governour fummon'd an AfTem- 
bly, the Matter was mov'd to them *, who zealoufly 
engag'd in it, drew up an Addrefs to their Majefties 
King William and Queen Mary^ to grant a Charter 
for it :^ and fent the Reverend Mr, James Blair into 
Englandj to prefent it, and follicite the Affair. 

The AlTembly pafs'd an A£t for the Encourage- 
ment of the Linnen Manufactures, the Leather Trade, 
&c, and another for Cohabitation : Yet all the Laws 
for it avaird nothing •, no Town was built by them ^ 
lior even J^mes-Town rebuilt to the State *twas in be- 
fore 'twas bVrnt in the Rebellion. 

Mr. Nicholfon pay'd an extraordinary Refpe£b to 
thefe and all other Afts of the AfTembly, governing 
himfelf always flridly by them in the General 

The Lord Howard was difmifs'd from being Pr inci- 1692. 
pal Governour in the Year 16-^2. and his Place fup- "Slrr Edm. 
ply'd by Sir Edmund Andres *, who had been Gover- Andros 
nour q{ New-England. Governor^ 

Sir Edmund arriv'd in February •, and began his Go- 
vernment with calling an AfTembly. Thefe Repre- 
fentatives were fo manag'd by the Governour, that 
they fufpended the Law for Cohabitation, which 
the Merchants of London v^GrQ againfl *, and found it 
for their Eafe and Advantage to have the Trade alike 
open in all parts of the Capital Rivers ^ and the Ma- 
ilers of their Ships could not endure to think of lying 
under a Fort, or at Key, when they could come up to 
thQ Door of a Planter or Pallor *, live merrily and 
plentifully at his Houfe, and^^unload and load at 

In England^ Mr. Neal^ the famous Proje£lor, had 
procur'd a Patent to be Pofl-Mafter-Gieneral of thole 
Parts of u4;;.erica. This AlTembly took the Patent 
into Confideration, pafl an Aft in favour of it '^ but 
by reafon of the diftance of one Houfe from another, 
'twas found to be impradicable. 

266 The Hifiory of Virginia, 

Low- In the following Year there happened a moft violent 

thorp'^ Storm in this Province, which ftopt the Courfe of 
philTranf. ^]^q antient Channels, and made fome where never 
Vol. 2. p. ^YQYQ any : By which means, between the Bounds of 
^^^' Virginia and Newcafile in Fenfilvania^ are many na- 
vigable Rivers for Sloops and fmall VelTels. 

Sir Edmund Andros was very fond of introducing 
the Statutes and Laws of England *, and even fuch as 
related to particular Cuftoms in that Kingdom *, which 
was like to have brought all things into Confufion in, 
the Courts of Juftice : For the A6ls of the AfTembly 
being defpis'd, thofe Laws that were the beft Title 
moft of the Planters had to their Eftates, were forc'd 
to give way to Cuftoms and Uiages adapted to the 
Tenures in England : By which the Virginians were 
alarm'd, as if they were all at once threaten'd to be 
outed of their Holds. 

No body knew what was Law *, and a great Man 
was fo free, as to declare frequently, They^ had none 
of them any Right to their Lands i Tho what he meant 
by it was a Myftery he either cou'd not or wou'd not 

Sir Edmund brought over the Charter for the Col- 
lege ^ and Dr. Ihomas Bray went thither to be Pre- 
lident of it :, carrying with him a Library, well cha- 
fen for the Ilfes it was to be put to. 

Several Profeflbrs alfo were preparing to go over^ 
but all that was done and given towards it came to 
nothing : The People were very ready to fubfcribe, 
but not fo ready to pay in their Money : However, 
Contributions were fent from England \ which were 
promoted by the Example of their Majefties King 
William z.vA Queen Mary^o^QAouoxMh Memory yw^ho 
by their own Royal Bounty, invited others to aftift fo 
charitable an Undertaking : And there was Money 
enough rais'd to build^the College •, of which the Foun- 
dation was laid fooii after Sir Edmoud Andros's Ar- 

This Gentleman fet up feveral Manufactures, and 
Fulling-Miils*, and was earneft with the Planters to'; 
propagate Cotton : He regulated the Management o£ * 
the Secretary's Office ^ which had been mightily ne- 
glefted lince Bacon's Rebellion. He commanded all 
tbe Publick Papers and Records to be forted^, and kept 


The Htfiory of Virginia. 267 

in exaft Order •, and when the State-houfe was burnt, 
h^ was careful to have them preferv'd ^ and all that 
could be fav'd, to be again forted and regifter'd : He 
put the Clerks into a Method of difpatching Bufmels ^ 
and by thefe and other commendable Afts, went a 
great Avay in gaining the Efteem of the People. 

He was endeavouring to find out eafy Means tore- 
build the State-hovfe^ which might not be burdenfome 
to the People-, and in all likelihood would have 
efFefted it, Iiad his {lay been longer. 

In the Year i ^-^^ 7.' Admiral iV^-z^/rs Squadron, which 
had been at the Havana looking after Monlieur Toin- 
ti^ and the French Squadron, touch'd in their return 
home^LtVirgima: The Admiral, CommodoYQ Afeesj 
Capt. Lytcotj Capt. Holms^ Capt. Bellwood^ Capt. 
Byer^ Capt. Studley^ Capt. Foflerj all the Dutch Cap- 
tains out of 6 but one, and moft of their Men, were 
dead of an Infe£lious Difeafe •, which the Remainder 
of their Crew brought to Firglnia wath them : And 
the Infe£lion fpread in James-Town^ and the Country 
on that River carrying ofFfeveral of the Inhabitants: 
The Plantation continu'd fickly a long time af- 
ter it. 

In November^ i^i)8. Colonel Nlcholfon^ who 153^^ 
went from Firglnia to Maryland^ returned to . Vir- coh NU 
glnia^ with the Character of Governour ', He re- cholfon 
mov'd the Seat of his Government from James-Town Governor 
to Middle-Plantation-^ where he began to build a 
City in Honour of the King •, mark'd out the Streets 
in the Form of a W. and caird the Town Williamf' 

He procured a ftately Fabrick to be built there, o- 
ver againft the College •, and gave it the Name of the 
Capitol, Some Perfons, who were not endow'd with 
any publick Principle, were againft this Expenie : 
The Impofitions with which they were loaded in 
England and Virginia^ keeping them always low. And 
now a Tax of 1 5 j. upon each Chriiiian Servant *, and 

«.irw v3iiipb iCLUiu a nome wiin nor aoove one tnirct part 
of their Loading ^ but t]i^ next was healthy and plen- 

^ About 

^68 The Hifiory ^Virginia. 

i7©0. About the Year 1700. a Pirate came iiito L)/«^^- 
( ven-Bz-j^ near the Mouth of James-River^ and took 

outfome Merchant-Ships that were fall'n down there^ 
in order to fail for England. It happened that a fmali 
VefTel came into the Bay, and faw the Pirate engag'd 
with one of the Merchant-men, This VelTel flipt by 
the Pirate, and got into the River '^ where the Sho- 
ram., a Fifth Rate Man of War, Capte Pajfenger Com- 
mander, lay, being newly arriv'd from England. 

There was another . Man of War, a Sixth Rate, 
Capt. Aldred Commander, in Elizabeth'KivQr *, but 
that was on the Careen, fitting out for a homeward 

The Mafter of the fmall VelTel pofted to Kiquotm^^ 
where the Governour happen'd to be at that time, 
to fend away his Difpatches for England *, and Capt. 
Pajfenger was alfo gone thither to wait upon him, and 
pay his Refpefts to him on his Arrival. 

When the Captain heard of the Pirate's being in the 
Bay, he was for haftening to his Ship as faft as he 
could, in hopes to come up with him. The Gover- 
nour defir'd him to ftay a little, and he wou'd 
accompany him *, fo he and Capt. Pajfenger put to Sea ^ 
and getting between the Capes and the River, forc'd 
. the Pirate to come to an Engagement. 
The Go- The Fight was fharp and bloody ^ but at laft the 
vmor ^ Pirate ftruck, and furrender*d. at Difcretion •, the 
'^^^^^^^^^^^'■^'° Captain of the Privateer and his Crew being to be 
left to the King's Mercy. 

It was reprefented by the Agents of the Colony of 
New-Tork to King Willlamj that Firgima being fe- 
cur'd from the Indians and French hy New-York^ as by 
a Barrier, the Virginians ought to contribute towards 
building the Fort there. 

The King referred the Matter to the AfTembly of 
Virginia ^ and the Governour thinking it a rea- 
fonable Propofal, very zealoudy efpous'd it. The 
AiTembly however drew up a Remonftrance againft 
it, to this purpofe , That neither the Forts then in Be- 
ing^ nor any other that might he htiilt in the Province of 
New- York, could in the leaji avail to the JCkfence and 
Security of Virginia •, for that either the French or the 
Indians might invade that Colony^ and not come within, 
J 00 Allies of any fuch Fort, 



The Hijiory of Virginia, 2 

This Remonftrance put a flop to the Affair in the 
Aflfeiiibly : Whereupon the Governour contributed 
the i) 00 /. hinifelf, the Sum that was demanded €>f the 
f^irginians'^ This was fo generous an Aftion, that it 
feems to bear Tome Refemblance with that Roman 
Spirit, which the Heroes of all Ages fince have been 
proud to imitate ^ and the Glory of it, was, what all 
the Governqur's Enemies admir'dand envy*d. 

Col. Quarry of Virginia^ then in England^ declar'd 
in a Memorial, delivered to the Council of Trade af- 
ter Queen Anne\ Acceflion to the Throne -^ That as 
foon as Governour Wicholibn found the Jlffembly ofYiT" 
ginia wou'd not fee their own Inter eft^ nor comply with her 
Majeflfs Orders^ he went immediately to New- York ^ 
and^ cut of his great Zeal to the Queens Service j and 
the Security of her Province^ he gave his own Bills for 
poo L to anfwer the Quota of Virginia *, wholly depen^ 
ding on her Majefty's Favour^ to reimburfe him out of 
the Revenues of that Province, 

And as Col. Nicholfon was generous in promoting 
the Security of the Province of New Tork^ fo was he 
to encourage fuch as fought for the Defence of that of 
New- England in the time of the Indian War : When 
two New-England Women having furpriz'd and killed 
10 or 12 Indians, and had a Gift from the AfTembly 
there, he fent them alfo a very noble Prefent. 

In the Year 1701. the Governour hearing the 1701 
French Privateers were bufy on the Coafts, laid an 
Embargo on all Ships, to prevent their going out, 
and falling into their hands. The fame Year fome 
Camels were brought thither in fome Guinea Ships *, 
Thofe Beafls would carry 1200 Weight: But we have 
not heard how they thriv'd there •, and fuppofe the 
Virginians fucceeded with them no better than the 
Barbadians ', who were foon forc'd to lay down that 
fort of Carnage. 

On the 8th oWBoher^ 1703. there happen'd a very 1 703 
violent Hurricane at Virginia -^ which was the more 
remarkable, becaufe that Country is not fubje£l to fuch 
Accidents. In thisTempeft feveral Ships were driven 
afhore in their Harbours f, and others damaged in their 
Mafls and Riggings and much Mifchief done by it in 
the Plantations, 


^ 270 The Hiflory of Virginia* 

1704. In the following Year Col. Nicholson returned to 
England^ having in his Government deferv'd a better 
Chai/fi£^er of the Province of Virginia^ than the late 
Author of the Hiftory of that Country is pleased to • 
beftow upon him. The Reception he met v^uth at 
Court, is a fufficient Demonftration that her Majefty 
approved of his Condu£l •, and all the World muft 
condemn that Hiflorian, otherwife Judicious and Elo- 
quent, for fullering a private Pique to prevail over 
xSx^ Juftice and .Gratitude which was due to the Me- 
rit of the Govern our. 
George He was fucceeded by George Earl of Orkney^ Lieu- 
Earlof tenant General of Her Majefty's Armies*, whofe 
Orkney Deputy is Benjarnln None Efq*, During their Autho- 
Governor. rity nothing extraordinary has happened in F'irginla ^ 
Benjamin .y^r}jic}^ Colony is now in a lafe and flourifhing Conditi- 
'vr^^% on, having no juft reafoh to complain of any thing buti 
Wvemr ^^^^^ Taxes, which the Prefervation of their Re- 
* ligion and Liberty at this time makes neceffary. 


Containing a. Geographical Defcriftion of Vir- 
ginia ; Of the TownSy Ports^ Rivers^ 
FortSy Src. 

TN the former Chapter we have Ihewn how feveral 
•*" Provinces, that at firfl went all under the Name of 
Virginia^ were divided from it, by Patents granted 
to other Proprietors *, who gave them other Names, 
as New- England'^ Neiv-Tork^ Maryland^ &c. to the 
North*, und Carolina to thQ South: All which were 
a part of the Country that was by Queen Eliz^aheth 
cali'd Firginia,^ 

Inprocefsof Time that Name was loft to all, ex- 
cept the Tract of Land lying along the Bay of Chefa- 
peac *, in which are included Firgmla and Maryland j 
and both in common Diicourfe, are ftill cali'd Fir- 
ginia : But the Province that's properly fo calFd, is 
bounded on the North by the great River Patowmack ^ 
which parts it from Maryland •, and on the Souths 


Tk Hifiory of Virginid.. 271 

by Carolina : On the Eaft it has the Virginian Sea \ and Bounds, 
on the Weft and North- Weft, thofe WildernefTes 
that have fo often been in vain attempted, to be Difco- 
j cover 'd -^ and are fuppos^d to ftretch thenifelves to the 
i Californian Sedi, 

The Bounds of this Country are not well fettled ^ 
, and in the Year, 1 703. the AfTenibly had it under Con- 
I fideration to fix them : But by common Computati- 
[ on^ 'tis reckon'd to reach 200 Miles North from 
s Point Comfort at the Mouth ofChefapeac Bay, and two 
I hundred Miles South, including all the Land, Weft 
(and North- Weft, from the Weftern or ^j^Vg/w^;?, to 
I the Calif ornian Sea, with the Iflands on both Seas with- 
[ in I o o Miles of the Continent. 

I Both this Province and that ofi^ryte^ are fitu-Che(ape- 
I ate on the Great Bay of Chefapeac *, whofe Mouth is ac Biy, 
r Cape Henry on the South, and Cape C^^r/^j on the 
North. The Water in* the Channel is for the moft 
part 9 Fathom deep ^ but in - fome places not a« 
Dove 7. 

The Bay is eighteen Miles broad ^ and lies in 3 7 
Degrees North latitude. It runs about 100 Leagues 
up in the Country *, and is feven Miles over, 60 
Leagues within Land. This is what our Modern 
Sailors call the Capes of Virginia. 
; It receives into it abundance of Navigable Rivers ^ 
which, like thofe in the North o^ England, flowing in- 
to the Humher^ all loofe thenifelves in this Bay •, (o big, 
that 'tisfaid all the Shipping in Europe zzxi ride there, 
in it are feveral little lilands ^ fome of which are 

Virginia \%^i^\(^Q^ into 25 Counties*, in which are 
4P Parifties', 34 with Incumbents on them, and ly 
vacant. The latter are diftinguifh'd by the Let- 
ter 7^. 

We ftiall begin with thofe that lie on James-Kiverj 
the moft Southern in the Province: 'Twas, as has 
been faid, call'd Powhatanhy thQ Indians. Here the 
Englifti fir ft fettled, and built two Forts for their 
Defence : but thQ^Q are fmce demolilh'd. It runs 
1 40 Miles up in the Country *, and is near a Mile 
broad as high as James-City, The firft County on 
the Sou til fide of it^ is Norfolk County ', which bor- 
ders on C<:ir<'//?/^, 


272 The Hifiory of Yirgimz. 

In this Shire ftands the Parifh of Elizabeth \ it 
contains 1 1 20 ip Acres, and is watered by £//2:^^f^^- 
River, which rifes in it, and runs into James-KwQV^ 
between Eaft-Bdiy and Wefi-B^.y, The next is, 

Frirtcefs' Jim-County ontheCoaft: In which are 
^8305 Acres of Land, and the Parifh of Lynhaven V, 
bdow Cape Henry^ The next is, 

Nanfemund-County ', In which are 15 1172 Acres 
of Land, and three Parifhes *, Vpper Farijh^ Lower 
Varifl}^ and Chuckatuck^ all vacant. The River Nan- 
famond rifes in this Shire, and falls into James-KivQ^y 
2ihGWQ Benne fsCxQtk, The next is, 

Ifle-of'Whit e-Connty \ In which are i427^<5' Acres 
of Land, and two Parifhes, Warwick-Squeek andiV^n?- . 
port. Here's alfo a Spring that vents alnioft as great 
a Source of Water as Holy Well in Wales. The next 

Surry-Cownty : In which are 1 1 1 050 Acres of Land, 
and two Parifhes, Southwark V* and Lyons-Creeh 
The next is, 

Henrico-Countyj the upperniofl on the South-fide 
oi James'RivQi"^ it contains 148787 Acres of Land, 
and two Parifhes, Henrico and BrifloL The next over 
againfl it on the North-fide of the River_are, 

Pri72ce George and Charles-City ^ Counties : In 
which are 1612^9 Acres of Land, and three Parifhes ^ 
Martin Brandon^ Wyanoke^ We ft over. The Parifhes 
in the three laft Counties are all fupply'd with^i- 
niflers. In the County di Henrico^ there was a Tov^n 
caird Henricopolls^ which is fall'n to decay. Twenty 
Miles above the Falls, is the Monacan Town, where 
the French Refuges have fettled j and next below 
Charles-Coyxxity on the North-fide of the River is, 

J ame s 'Coxmty \ In which are loSjd'a Acres oft 
Land, and five Parifhes, of which one lies on the 
other {\d.t of the River, as does part of the Coun- 
ty. The Parifhes are Wallingford and Wilmingtony 
James-City J Mercha?us Hwidred V. on the South-fide > 
of the River, and Bruton. This is reckoned the chief I 
County, becaufe, 
X James-City^ ftands in it, in a Veninfula on thC! 
North-fide of Jajnes-Kis^i^ about 40 Miles from the^ 
Mouth of it. There are feveral Brick Houfes in it 9 
and Taverns and Eating Houfes, for the Convenience 1 


The Hifiory of Virginia. 

of Voyagers and Travellers : But the Buildings are 
not many nor contiguous, not above ^^o or 70 Hou- 
fes in alh In this Town there v^ere formerly two or 
three Forts, and many fair Streets j but they have 
been ruin'd by Fire and Revolutions in the Govern- 
ment, or rather in th^ Diipofition of theGovernours.' 
The Removal of the Courts of Juftice to Williamjiadt^ 
by Col. Nicholfon *, His refiding and holding the Sef- 
Ifions of AlTembly and General Court there, and the 
i building the College there, help'd to keep James- 
Town in the mean Condition he found it *, and the 
(Humour of the Virginians to live upon Plantations, 
(eem*d to forbid that City to hope for an Increafe of 
iHoufes and Inhabitants. Not far from James-City 
!Sir William Berkley built a handlbme Houfe for hisRe- 
lidence, call'd Greenfpring^ where is a Spring fo cold, 
that 'tis dangerous to drink of it in the Summer tirne^ 
[n the fame County Hands, 

1 Williamshurgh '^ Which before the late Governouif 

removed thither, was caird Middle Vlantation ^ 'tis 

ibout 7 Miles from James-Cit^ within Land. In this 

ifownare 20 or soHoufes, and the Publick Affem- 

i 3lies and Courts are held there ^ yet neither thefe 

Advantages, nor that of the College and Academy 

bunded there, cou'd procure it a better Figure than 

hat of a Country Village. Here is a fmallFort or 

ather Battery mounted with io or 12 Guns, which 

vere brought thither from James-City by order of 

3oL Nicholfony who caus'd a State-houfe or Capital 

be ere£led, and feveral Streets to be laid out in the 
'orm of a W'^ but we do not hear that a V, or one 
ingle of it is yet finifh'd, or ever likely to be fo : For 
is probable that whenever the Government, or the 
'eople fhall think of building a City, they will re- 
am to their Old Capital, James-City. The next 
bounty to this is, 

Tor^-County. It lies between the two Rivers, 
'ames-KiNQtj and Tork-KiVQXj and contains <5'o7<5'7 
icres of Land, and three Pariihes ^ Hampton^ V, 
or^, and New-Fohfon, The latter ftands at the 
4outh of r^r^-River. The next County to it 

1 WarvoichCoxxnty I In which are 3844.^ Acres of 
ind, and 2 PariOi^s, BmbyY^^^ndk Mulberry'l{\xxidi K 

T Ths 

i274 "^^^ Hijlorj of Virgmid.. 

The River Pokofon riles in it, and runs into the Bay 
of Chefapeac near the Mouth of Tor^- River. The next^j 
to this is, " 

Eli^ai/cth-Citj and County, the leaft in Vlrginlay 
containing but 2iJooo Acres of Land, and one Parifh. 
Etlzabeth-CiVjy which tho never very great, is ie& 
than when 'twas ^.rft' built : It had then leveral good 
Kouies of Brick and Stone, and a Fort was'rais'd there 
in the Dutch- War •,, all which are Ruins already, 
there, being a fort of Fatality which attends :Iie Towns 
in P^Ypniay h that they are like never to come to aa^ 
fhing, unlefs the very nature^ of the Inhabitants i% 
quite alter 'd *, for "they have now nothing fo little iii 
their thoughts, as the building of Tow^ns. The Pariilir 
Church of Ellz^aheth-City is fupply^d wuth a Mini' 
Her. Croiling thQ Neck of Land to 'pokofon^ we 
come to the Mouth of lii^'^-^/^'^'r, which the Indi- 
ans caji'd Pamunly^ a Name the upper Branch of this 
River in King P|^'^&;2's County flill retains. 
' This River is navigable 6q Miles vyrith Great Ships^ 
and' with Ketches and Sloops 3 o more. It runs the fam^ 
Cburfe with5^^;»^j^-Psiver for an 100 Miles, and fo nea-i 
itjthat in (onie Places 't4s not above 5 Miles over Lane 
from, one to the other ^ which Land between i}i^m 
being Jo yvel! accomodated for Navigation, and k 
near two fuch great Rivers, is beft inhabited*, anc 
here the Richeft Planters are {eated. After the lafl 
Indian Maffacre, 'twas proposed to draw a Pale fr oil! 
one River to the o.ther, and wholly clearing th« 
Country of Savages, to live fecure betv/een the twc 
Rivers, wdiere they had the Conveniency of Ship! 
coming within a few Miles of every Houfe •, w< 
mu.{l go up higher into the Country, and followdn^ 
the Courfe of the River through Elizabeth^ War 
wick and ror/^-Counties, before-mentioned, w^e com< 

New Kent '^ Containing. 171514 Acres of Land 
This is one of the largefl and moll: populous Coun 
ties in Virginia. Tis w^ater'd by the Southern Brand 
of the River Te^r^, and has two Parilhes^in it^Blifslam 
and St. Peter's, The Vv^eilera Bounds of this County; 
and the next, are certain Hills, out of which ilTu'i 
forth a Glittering Sand, like t}iQ Filings of Brafi 
which Sand' was, as is ihewn in the Hiftoryj mifla 


The Hifiory of Virgmm. 27 

ken, for Gold by the firft Planters. The next Coun^ 
ty to this nearer the Falls is, 

pNg William-County : In which are 843 24. Acres, 
and one Pariih, St.J^^^^s : PammkyKivQr runs thro' 
It J .'tis the Southern Branch of Tork-KiwQr. On the 
pouth of this lies, 

\ King and Queem-County : Containing 151716 A- 
cres of Land, and two Parifhes, Straton- Major ^ and 
jSt. Stephens. Chicohomony-KivQr rifes in it, and falls 
[into James-Kiyer^ near Bromfield's Plantation. From 
; J County, returning thro* King William-County^ 
|and New-Kent, down the North-j(hore of Tork-RivQU 
'we come to, 

Gloucefier-County^ the beft PeopFd of any in the 
Country. It has 142450 Acres of Land in it, and 4. 
Parilh^ Churches, Perfo, Abington^ Ware and King- 
don, 'Tis parted from, 

j Middlefex-Countyyhy the River PrankitmJi^vjhich is 
navigable twenty or thirty Miles up,containing 4^500 
Acres, and one Parilh, Chrifl-Churck The County 
ot MiddlefexliQS on the South Shoar of Rappahanock- 
River, which is very broad, deep, and navigable 
!4o Miles within Land, where 'tis remarkable that the 
Beads of r-^r^-River and Rappahanock-KivQr, iiTue out 
Df low marfhy Ground, and not of Hills and Moun- 
rains, as other Rivers do. Above Middle/ex, towards 
'he Falls, is Rappahanock \ or, 

EJfex-County : Containing 140^20 Acres of Land. 
|[n this County and Middlefex lies the Great Swamp, 
yc Bog, caird the Dragon-fmampy 'tis near 60 Miles, 
long, and is over-run with Bryars, Thorns, and wild 
Beafts,which herd there,becaule the Place being almoft 
maccellible, the Inhabitants can't come at them, at 
leaft not fo eafily as in the Woods and Savana's. In 
this County ftands three Parilhes, South Farnham. 
Sittingburn V, St. Marfs, The South-fide of it is wa- 
:er'd by MattapofTy^thQWQRcm Branch ofr^ry^-River, 
Which is Navigable. Above it are the Counties of, 
i Richmond md Stafford: A Survey of which I have 
riot feen ^ they are new Counties, and are not in the 
m Surveys, going all by the Name of RappahanocL 
m thefe are three Parilhes, North-Famham in 
^chmmdy and St Pauls V, and Overworton in Stafford- 
^ounty. The next below it, hQtYJQQix RappahanocL 
mPatowmacky is, T 2 Wsfi- 

276 The Hijlory of Virginia. 

Wefimoreland'QoxknVj^ Y^hich is very large ^' but: 
our Author has, not communicated the Number of-: 
Acres. It has two Parifhes in it, Copeley and WaJJmg- 
ton. Below it lies the County of, . 

Lcinc after ^ On the North-Siiore of Rappaharioch4- 
River ^ 'tis watered by the River CarromaWj or Coro-' 
toman^ which runs into P.appahanock-'KiVQX.^ about 
3 Leagues from the Mouth of it. There arc two, 
.. Parifhes in this County, Chrlft-Cburch and St. Marys. 
Whlte-Chappcl. The next to this and the laflinthe. 
Province on the South Shoar of Pamvmackj is, 
■• 'Northumberland-County : In which are two Parifli- 
Churches, Fairfeid and BoivtracyY j3.nd Wiccomoco, 
There is a River oi the lame Name Wiccomoco^ 
which Riles in this County, and runs into the Bay, 
at the Mouth of Patowmack-Kvj^r^ which is the Nor- 
thern Bounds of F^rg/W^, and divides it hon\ Mary- 
land. The Neck of Land from IVkcomoco to the Bay 
is What goes by ttiQ Name of the Northern Necky 
which we often in ention'd in ihQ firft Chapter. 
We muil npwr crofs over the Bay: and all along the 
Shoar from Cape Charles^ at the Moutii of the Bay, to 
the River Poce??iokej w^hich divides it from Maryland 
on the Eaftern Bounds, the Province of Virginia ftill 
continues, and there are two Counties in it : 

Accofnac}, ^ Which retains its Indian Name. This 
is the largefi: County in Firginia^ and contains 200^23 
A^cres of Land. 'Tis not fo Populous as thofe on thii 
other fide of the Bay, and has but one Parifh in it, 
that o{ Accomack y WpAch is without a Minifter. The 
River Chifjorrejfcx rifes in this County, as do feveral 
others of lefs Note. The other County is, 

Northampton : A narrow County that runs 
along in a Neck between the J^lrgmianStd,^ and 
the Bay of Chefapeac, Cape Charles^ in the nioft Sou- 
therly part of it, is oppoiite to Cape Henry^ and 
thoie tw^o Points of Land are what is commonly caird, 
The Capes of f^irginia. This County contains 99^^^ 
Acres of Land, and one Pari fn Church, that of Hun^ 
g^;>v,\Yhich is alfo without a Minifter. Thus we have 
viuted the whole Province, and have taken notice of 
the moft remarkable things*, but as there are not 
Towns, nor Mines, nor other places worthy the Rea-* 
der's Guriofitv :, fo our Relation wants that Variety 

The Hifiory of Virginia. 2 j-j 

of Obje£^s which renders fuch Defcriptions delightfuL 
The Apelch(Can Mountains are in the Weflern Bound's 
of Virgiiua^ and are ftor'ci with .Minerals, if we may 
believe fome Travellers who have fpoken of them, 
but we don't find that they have been of any other 
Advantage to the Virginians^ than to furniih them 
wdth Earth, for the Experiments of their Virtuofo's 
at the College. The whole Country is water'd with 
Rivers, the mofl noted of w^hich we have treated of", 
the Falls of each of thofe Rivers, are but 15 or 2» 
Miles diftant from one another •, and befides them, 
there are North-RivQr^ EaflermGli-Kv^tr^ FungotequCy 
Apumatuc^ Poyanketankj and others, that are Navigable 
many Miles, and well flor'd with Fiih. The Tides 
are fcarce difcernable wdien the Winds hold at N. W. 
but at other times they flow as they do in England^ 
only they feern not fo large, which is thought to be 
occafion'd by the Tides difFufmg it felf into fo ma- 
ny Rivers. The Original Springs that make all thefe 
Rivers, rife at tht Foot of the jippalUan or Apelch^an t.Q\yxh: 
Mountains *, but t}iQ Catara£ls or Falls are . 60 or joVhil, 
Miles diftant from thofe Hills. IheShoars are fovTranf. p. 
the mofl Part Sandy. What Stones are there, are ai- 567, 5680 
moft all of 'em hard and tran [parent. Some will cut 
Glafs like Diamonds, and are equal to 'em in Luflre. 
TheCliftsof thefe Rivers are full of great Veins of 
Iron Mine, and generally all the Highlands under the 
Mould are a meer Rock of Iron : The Charge of 
raifing an Iron- Work is fo great, that no Body in 
Virginia dares ventures on the Expence, or the Plan- 
ters are fb intent on Planting Tobacco, tliat they neg- 
left all other Improvements. 

There was another Town built in James-Co\x\\ty^ 
C2i\Vd. Dales Gift '^ but 'twas ruin'd by the IncmTions 
of the Indians, Fire, and other Accidents. The 
Country lying between TorhBS.vtx^ and 'james-fKivQVy 
is the bell inhabited. The Banks of the former are 
full of Plantations ', and the beft Tobacco growing 
there, the Trade of th^ Colony tends moil that way. 
We have el fe where obferv'd m what Counties the 
Indian Nations ilill remain. Their Towns are very 
fmall, and their Houfes or Huts ilich mean DwellingSj 
that they are rather like the Cabbins of Xh.Q Slaves in 
theSugar-Iflands, than the Habitations of free People. 

T 3 The 

278 The Hifiory of Virginia. 

The abundance of Rivers occafion abundance of 
Mills in this Country *, fome of their Springs fend 
forth fuch a glut of Water^ that in lefs than half a 
Mile below the Fountain-Head, they afford a Stream \ 
fufficient to fupply a Grift-mill. All thefe Rivers 
are full of Creeks, in which the Planters employ an \ 
infinite number of Sloops and fniall Boats, to convey 
their Tobacco and Merchandize from and to the Ships 
that lie in the greater Rivers, or in the the lefs. We 
have faid little of the greateft River of them all, Fa- 
towmacky becaufe *twill as properly come under the 
Article of ^^ryte^, being the Boundary of that Pro- 
vince, on the Weft ern- fide of Virginia, It cannot be 
expeAed that in fo little a Map as that is which is 
annex'd to this Hiftory, lb full a Defcription can be 
made diVirginiay as in the large one ^ but this is the 
neweft Survey : And the Country is divided into 
the Counties that are the prelent Divifions of it, 
there being at this time 5 new ones ^ Prince Georgey 
Princels Anne^ King William^ King and Queen^ Rich- 
mond and Stafford, In the former Surveys there were 
but 19 Counties: In this all of them are included, 
together with as many Plantations as wou'd ftand in 
fo much room ^ and the fame Care has been taken in 
the Maps of the other Countries. 


The Hijlory (?/ Virginia. 279 


yf the Inhabitants ; and jirfi of the Indians : 
Their Government ^ Religion, Manners^ 

. and Cujloms : Of the Englifb^ MaJlerSy 
Servants , and Slaves : Their Numbers^ 
Strength and Way of Living. 

^itTHEN the Englifh firft difcover'd Firginla^thQ In- 
^^ dians were divided into feveral Nations, as, the 
Cecongthans^ t\iQ¥/eanocks^ thQ Arrahattochy xh^ jip- 
kemetocks^ the Nanfemimds^ the Chefapeacs^ the Paf 
\ahogesj who poilefs'd the Ground where James-City 
LOW Hands. Thefe Tribes or Divifions inhabited thp 
(Country lying on the River Powhatan^ or James-Ki- 
•er. On the River Pammh there dwelt the Nations 
£ the Tomgtanmds^ and the Mattapaments. On 
luppahanock^ or Toppahamck-KivQXj thQ Manahoacs^ 
he Moraughtacimdsj and the Cuttatawomens. The 
Country on which the Englifh landed, whenCapt» 
parlow and C's^^t.AraUas difcover'd it, was call'd Win- 
landacoaj and the King of it Wingina. It lies South- 
ivard of the Bay of Chefapeac^ near the Frontiers of 
ylorida. Sometimes the King of one of thefe Nations 
Inade War on thg reft^, and conquered three or four 
jp[ them ^ the Dominion of which generally after his 
peath, feU back to thQ natural Princes of thofe Cbun- 
Iries. All theie Nations are now entirely rnin'd, 
kcafion'd partly by their Teuds among them felves, 
.nd partly by their Wars with thQ Englilh, who are 
Mafters of all the Countries which they formerly 
:\>(lers'd : The Englifh for their Convenience, or out 
f:^ Humanity, fuffer'd them to enjoy their Lives, and 
Liberties, and frequently entered into Leagues with 
|hem, which the fiithleis Savages kept no longer than 
Ihey were forc'd to it. Thofe who dwell upon the 
Borders of the Province, v^/hich only retains the Name 
of Virginia at this day, ^vere the moil treacherous 

T 4. anil 

280 The Hljiory of Virginia. 

and cruel to the Englifh of all the Indian Nations. 
The People of Wingandacoa were affable and cout-; 
teous to the firft Adventurers, while Grangammeo'\ 
Wingma's Elder Brother reignM. His Wife alfo didi 
many good Offices to the Englifh, who afterwards at- 
tempted to fettle on the Ifland of Roenoh : But after 
Gra-ngammeo's Death, Wingina^ who perhaps likV 
them better for Dealers than for Neighbours, behav'd 
himfelf very treacheroufly towards them ; And when- 
a Party of *em was going towards the Kingdom of thei 
Mangoacs^ in quefl of Copper Mines, he ftir'd \x\ 
ieveral Tribes againfl them, and particularly Temoa*. 
tan^ Prince of the Moratoes^ whofe Father Enfenon 
prevented his falling upon them *, ^.ndMenatonon Kin^; 
of one of thofe Tribes,courted their Friendfhip by Prei 
fents of Pearl,as did Okifco King of the Weopomeocs^wh 
Submitted to become Tributary to the Queen of Eng 
land. Wingina finding all his Contrivances to deflro^ 
\ them were difappointed, thought it his Intereft tc 
affe^ a Friendfhip for them, as the other King 
did', but this Friendfhip lafled no longer than til 
he had an Opportunity to fhew his Treachery, an< 
when he thought he had 'em at an Advantage, he fel 
upon them, who putting his wild Army to flight, too] 
him Prifoner, and cut off his Head. The Englifl 
being forc'dto abandon thofe Settlements, Capt.5;«^ft 
.founded the prefent one, as we have elfewhere related 
in the Dominions oiPorohatan^ King of Wicomoco^wh 
warr'd with tat EngHfli ail his Life-time, except a fe^ 
Intervals of Peace, and the fame did his SuccefTo 
Oppecancanongh^ the lafl Prince of ^ny Fame of th 
Savages. They fell to decay after his Death, ani 
tho they committed feveral Murders on the Borders 
'twas rather like the Sallies of Robbers from their lurk 
ing Holes, than the Incurfions of a warlike Natior 
They are now brought folow,that the Englifh are no 
in the lead fear of them, having it in their Power 
extirpate them whenever they pleafe •, but they ferv 
them in Hunting and Fowling, and other Services 
which is the chiefefl:, if not the only Caufe of thei 
Prefervation. One may judge by Oppecancamugh 
Greatnefs, who we are told cou'd bring 20000 Me; 
into the Field, tha.t had all the Indian Tribes bee 
iinitedj it wou*d have been impoffible to have mad 

r The Hijtory of Virginia* 281 

a Settlement with fuch fmall Numbers as the Englifh 
brought over, or from time to time fent to Virginia, 
Of all the Nations that were then in being ^ at which 
time two or three thoufand Bow-men liv'd in a Town 
together, the few that remain are fcatter'd up and 
down on the Frontiers of the Englifh Plantations ^ and 
tho they live in Towns, or what fome call Cities, we 
may perceive by the following Account of them, they 
are reduc'd fo low, that the Hand of Providence ap- 
pears vifibly in their Deftruftion. 

They are much more afraid of the Indians who in 
habit higher up in the Country, than of the En- 

tlifh j to whom they pay Tribute of three In- 
ian Arrows, and 20 Beavors Skins, each Town, for 

On the North- fide of the Bay, 

In Accomac are 8 Towns, vitl. 

Matomkin^ Lately almoft depopulated by the Small- 

Gingoteque^ What is left of this Place is now part of 
th.Q Kingdom of a Prince, who reigns 
bver a Nation oVMaryland-lndhns. 

Kiquotan^ Almoft ruin'd. 

Matchepungo^ Some few Families remain there. 

Occahanockj There a few Families are alfo yet in being. 

Pungoteque^ Governed by a Queen ^ a fmall Nation. 

Oanancochy Has but 4 or 5 Families. 

Chiconeffex^ Not many more. 

NandvyGj Governed by an Emprefs, to whom all 
the Nations on the Coafts are Tribu- 

Gmtgafcoe^ In the County of Northampton^ border- 
ing on Accoma^^ as numerous as all 
the other Nations put together 

On the South- fide of the Bay are, 

Wyanoh^ In Prince George County, almoft come 
to nothing. The Remains bf^ this 
Tribe are gone to live with other 

-- ■ Appa- 

282 The Hifiory of Virginia. 

Appamatiox^ In Charles-City, Thefe live on Col. 
Byrd's Lands \ about 7 Families : 
Tiiey wei.e formerly a great Nation. 

NbttawayeSy In Surrey, This King can raife 100 
Bow-men ; the moft thriving People 
of all tliQ FUrginlafi'lndims, 

Menhering^ By Nanfamund i Has about 30 Bow- 

Nanfamundj About 30 Bow-men^ and increafe of 

Famunkye^ In King William County, has 40 Bow- 
men J they decreafe. 

Chickahomony^H^s 1 s Bow-men -, they increafe, and 
were a powerful People when the En- 
glifh firft landed here. 

Rappahamck^ In Effex j has but a few Families *, and 
they live fcatter'd on the Englifh 

Tort'Tohago^ In Richmond^ 5 Bow-men. 

Wiccomoco^ Of which Nation there are now but 
three Men living, who retain the 
Name of their Kingdom, and the 
particular Cuftoms of their Anceftors. 
Of this People, Powhatan was at firft 
King, and conquered feveral others af- 
t^r them. If thefe three Men have a 
King, he muft be of the fame Rank 
with Trincolo in the Tempeft, the 
Nation being much of the fame fjze. 
Thefe Men are very proud of their 
Original, and live by thenifelves, fe- 
parate from either the other Indians 
or the Engliih. 

Were all thefe Nations or Tribes united, they 
f ould not raife foo fighting Men : A poor Army, com- 
pared to the Virginian Militia '^ which, as we iball 
make appear in this Chapter, confifts of near 10000 
, Men. 

Thoie miferable Wretches ftill follow the Religion 
and Cuftoms of their A.nceftors *, and are not become 
either more pious or more polite by the Company of 
the Englifh. 


The Hiftory 0/ Virginia. 2< 

As to their Religion, they have all of 'em fome dark 
Notion of God \ and fome of them brighter ones, if 
my Author may be believ'd, who had this Confeffion 
from the Mouth of an Indian, That they believ'd God 
was univerfally beneficent : Jhat his Dwelling was in 
j Heaven a bove •, and the Influences of his Goodnefs reached 
\to the Earth beneath : That he was incomprehenfible in his 
Excellence 'j andenjoy'^d all pojfible Felicity *, That his Du- 
ration was eternal *, his FerfeEiion boundlefs ^ andy That 
'■ loe pojfejfes everlafiing Indolence and Eafe. So far the 
Savage talk'd as rationally of the Being of a God, as a 
jChriflian Divine or Philoibpher could have done : But 
Iwhen he came to juffcify their Worfhiping of the De- 
vil, v^^hom they call Okee^ his Notions were very He- 
terodox : He faid, Tistrue God is the Giver of all good 
^Thtngs^ but they flow naturally and promifcuoujly from 
him 9 that they are Jhowefd, down upon all Men indyiffe- 
\rently^ without DiJiinBion : That God does not trouble 
Ihimfelfwith the impertinent Affairs of Men '^ nor is con- 
\ cern'd at what they doj but leaves them to make the mofi 
[eft heir free Willy and tofecure as many as they can of the 
\good Things that flow from him : That therefore it 
\ was to no purpofe either to fear or worjhip him : But 
; on the contrary ^ if they did not pacify the evil Spirit^ 
[he would ruin their Healthy Feace^ and Plenty^ 
lie being always vijiting them in the Air^ Thunder^ 
StormSy &c. 

I As to the Idol which they all wor(hip, and is kept 

j in a Temple, call'd Quiocafan ^ He feem'd to have a 

i very indifferent Opinion of its Divinity, and cry'd 

out upon the Juggling of the Priefts— This IVian does 

not talk like a common Savage -^ and therefore we 

may fuppofe he had iludy'd the Matter more than his 

Countrymen *, who for the generality pay a great 

! deal of Devotion to the Idol, and worlhip him as their 

I chief Deity. 

Their Prieils and Conjurers are highly reverenc'd 
by them : They are given extreamly to Panwawing 
; or Conjuring : And one of them very lately conjur'd a 
I Shower of Rain for CoL Byrd's Plantation in a time of 
'1 Drought, for two Bottles of Rum. We are not apt 
i to give Credit to fuch fupernatural Events ^ and had 
I we not found this in an Author who was on the Spot, 
I we ihould have rejeded it as a Fable» 


«84 T'he Hiftory of Virginia; 

Their Priefts promife fine Women Eternal Springs 
and every Pleafijire in Perfe£lion in the other World, 
which charmed them in this '^ and threaten them with 
Lakes of Fire and Torments, by a Fairy in the Shape 
of an old Woman, They are often bloody in their 
Sacrifices *, and offer up young Children to the Devil. 
They have a fuperftitious Ceremony among them, 
which they call Huskanawingj and is performed 
thus j They fhut up ten or twelve young Men, the 
nioft deferving among them, about 20 Years of Age, 
in a ftrong Inclofure, made on purpofe, like a Sugar 
Loaf, and every v^ay open like a Lattice, for the Air 
to pafs through. They are kept there for feveral 
Months *, and are allow'd to have no Suftenance, but 
the Infufion or Decoftion of poifonous intoxicating 
Roots ^ which turns their Brain, and they run ftark' 
mad, . , 

By this 'tis pretended they lofe the Remembrance 
of all former things, even of their Parents, Treafure,' 
Language, as if they had drunkof the Water of Obli-' 
vion, dipt out of the Lake Lethe, 

When they have been in this Condition as long as 
their Cuftom dire<n:s, they lefTen this intoxicating Po- 
tion ^ and by degrees the young Men recover the 
Ufeof their Senfes: But before they are quite well, 
they are fhewn in their Towns ^ and the Youth who 
have been huslanaw'dj are afraid to difcover the leaft' 
fign of their remembring any thing of their paft 
Lives *^ for in fuch cafe they muft be huskanaw'd again ^ 
and they are difciplin'd To fever el y the fecond time, , 
that it generally kills them. 

After the young Men have paft this Trial, they are 
Coucaroufesj or Men of Quality in their Nations; 
and the Indians fay they do it, to take away from Touth 
all childifi ImpreffionSj, and that ftrong Partiality to Per-, 
fons and Things^ which is contraEied before Reafon comes 
to take place. 

The Indian Priefts, Xo command the RefpCifi: of the 
People, make them (elves look as ugly and as terrible 
as they can. The Conjurers always Ihare with then|^.i 
in theiV Deceit, and the Gain by it : The Indians con-i" 
fult both of ihem before they go on any Eaterprizei 
There are no PrieftelTes or Witches among them.> 
They ered Altars on every remarkable Occafion :,% 

The Hifiory of Virginia. 2S5 

and have Temples built like their ccnimon Cab- 
bins, in which their Idol ftands, and the Corpfe of 
their Kings and Rulers are preferv'd. 

They have no fort of Literature among them ', and 
their way of communicating things from one to ano* 
ther, is by Hieroglyphicks. They make their Ac-. 
counts by Units, Tens, Hundreds, &c, asthe Englilh 
do*, but they reckon their Years by Cohonks or 
[i Winters ;> and divide every Year into fiveSeafons! 
I^The budding time, the earing of the Corn, the Sum- 
ijier, the Harveft, the Winter. 

The Months they count by Moorfe. They divide 
the Day into three parts *, The Rife, Power, and low- 
ering of the Sun: And keep their Accounts by Knots 
on a Stringy or Notches on a Stick Of which Capt. 
Smith relates a pleafant Story •, That when the Prin- 
icefs Tocahonta came for England^ a Coucaroyfe^ ot 
Lord of her own Nation attended her ^ his Name was 
Vttamaccomack : And King Powhatan^ Focahonta\ 
Father, commanded him when he arriv'd in England^ 
to tell the People, and give him an Account of their 
Number. Vnamaccomack^ when he came alhore, 
got a Stick, intending to count them by Not- 
ches •, but he foon found that his Arithmetick 
wou'd be to no purpofe -, and threw away 
his Stick. At his Return, the King ask'd hini^ 
How many People there were? and he reply 'd, Cmmt 
the Stars in the Sky^ the Leaves upon the IreeSj and 
the Sand on the Sea-fiore^ and you will know how many \ 
for fuch is the Number of the People in England. 

They efteem the Marriage- Vow asthemoftfacred 
of all Engagements *, and abhor Divorces r Adultery 
}s the moft unpardonable of Crimes amongft them. 
I C Their Maidens are very Chafle *, and if any one 
of them happens to have a Child before Marriage, 
I her Fortune is Spoilt This Account contradicts 
others that defcribe them to be common Proftitutes ^ 
but the Indians and the Virginians difown the Scan- 
dal, which fome Authors lay to their Charge : They 
are very fpritely and good-humour'd, and the Wo- 
men generally handfome. Their manner of hand- 
ling Infants is very rough *, As foon as the Child is 
born, they plunge it over Head and Ears in cold Wa° 
ter, and-then bind it naked to a Board j making a hole 
K in 

M The Hiftory of Virgmia- 

in it mthe proper place for Evacuation. BetweeiVf 
the Child and the Board,they put fome Cotton- Wool' 
or Fur, and let it lie in this Poflure, till the Bones' 
feegin to harden, the Joints to knit, and the Limbsi 
to grow ftrong. Then they loofen it from the Board, 
and let it ci:awl about where it pleafes. From this 
Guflom 'tis faid the Indians derive the Cleannefs and 
Exaftnefs of their Limbs, which are the moft per- 
i^dt for thefe Qualities in the World. Some of 'em 
afe of a Gygantick Stature, live to a greater Age, 
and are ftronger than others^ there being never a^ 
Dvvarfe, crookd*d, bandy-legg'd, or ill-lhapen Indian 
to be (een. Some Nations of 'em are very tall and' 
tege-limb'd, and others are fhort and fmall : Their ' 
Complexion is a Chefnut brown and Tawny. The3^/ 
paint themfelves with a Pocone-root, which flains 
them of a reddifh Colour. They are clear when they 
ai'e Young. Greafmg and Sunning makes their Skin 
turn hard and black. Their Hair tor the moft part is 
cole-black *, fo are their Eyes : They wear their Hair 
cutafter feveral whimfical Modes *, the Perfons of Note 
al#ays keeping a long Lock behind. The Women 
wear it very long, hanging at their Backs, or twifted 
up' with Beads, and all the better Sort adorn their 
Meads with a kind of Coronet ^ the Men have no 
Beards, and to prevent their having any, ufe certain 
Devices which they will not communicate to the Eng- 

Their Cloaths are a Mantle girt clofe in the middle, 
and underneath a Piece of Cloth ty'd round the Wafte,' 
and reaching down to the middle of the Thigh. 
The conimon. Sort only tie a piece of Cloth or Skin' 
round their Middle. As for their Food they boil, 
broil, or roait all the Meat they eat : Homony is their 
{landing Dilb, and confills of Indian Corn foak'd,', 
broken in a Mortar, and then boil'd in Water 
over a gentle Fire for lo or 12 Hours together. 
They draw and pluck theirFowl, skin and paunch their 
Qiiadrupedes *, but drefs their Fifh with their Scales^ i 
on, without gutting : They leave the Scales, Entrails' 1 
and Bones, tiii they eat the Fifh, when they throw" 
t\iQ Offals away. Their Food is chiefly Bevors, Tur- - 
tie, feveral Species of Snakes : Broth made of Deers j 
Humbles, Peafe^ Beans, &c. They have no fet': 

Meals , 

The Hiftory of Virginia. ^%f 

\ Meals, they eat when they are hungry •, and drink 
! nothing but Water. Their Bread is made of Indian 
; Corn, Wild Oats, or the Seed of the Sun Flower : 
I They eat it alone, and not with Meat. 
I They travel always on Foot, with a Gun or Bow. 
I'f hey live upon the Game they kill *, and lie under a 
iTree, upon a little high Grafs. The Englifh prohi- 
I bit them to keep Corn, Sheep, or Hogs, left they 
j ihould fteal their Neighbours. 
i When they come to Rivers, they prelently patch 
up a Canoo of Birch Bark, crofs over in if, and leave 
jit on the River's Bank, if they think they fhallnot 
I want it, otherwife they carry it along with them. 
I Their way of receiving Strangers is by the Pipe 
j eft* Calumet of Peace : Of the latter Tero Hennepin 
Ihas given a large account in his Voyages*, and the 
Pipe is as follows ^ They fill a Pipe of Tobacco, 
larger and bigger than any common Pipe, light 
lit, and then the chief of them takes a WhifF, 
gives it to the Stranger, and if he fmoaks of it, 'tis 
I Peace *, if not. War: If Peace, the Pipe is handed all 
ground the Company, 

The Difeafes of the Indians nre very few, and eafy 
I to be cur'd : They for the moft part arife from excet 
i five Heats and Colds, which they get ofFby Sweating. 
I As for Aches, and fettled Pains in the Joints or Limbs, 
i they ufe Cauftick-s and Scarifying. Their Priefts are 
I their Phyficians *, and from their Childhood are 
; taught the Nature and llle of Simples ^ in which their 

I Knowledge is excellent *, but they will not communi- 
cate it, pretending 'tis a Gift of God *, and by the My- 
fliery they make it the more valuable. 

Their Riches con lift in Furrs, Peak, Roenoke, and 

II Pearl. Their Peak and Roenoke are made of Shells *, 
j the Peak like an Enalifh Buglas ^ the Roenoke is a 
i piece of Cockle, driird through like a Bead. Before 
[: the Englifh came among them, this Peak and Roe- 
\ noke were all their Treafure, but now they fet a 
\ value on their Furr and Pearl, and are greedy of fcra- 
'i ping Quantities together. The Pearl is good ^ 
il and formerly was not lb rare as 'tis at this time. 

i They had no Iron Tools before the Englifh brought 
j'em over: Their Knives were fharpen'd Reeds or 
\ Shells ^ their Axes fharp Stones : They rub'd Fire, by 


288 The Hiftory of Virginia* 

turning the End of a hard piece upon the Mq of one | 
that is foft and dry, which at laft wou'd burn. The^ | 
fel rd great Trees by burning them down at the Root, ! 
having ways of keeping the Fire from afcending : \ 
They hollow'd them with gentle Fires, fcrap'd the j 
Trunk clean *, and this made their Canoo's, of which \ 
fome were 3 o Foot long. They are very good Handi- 1 
crafts Men ^ and what they do is generally neat and 

In the firft Chapter we have faid enough to fhew, 
that the Government of the Indians was Monarchi- 1 
cal : Their Kingdoms defcended to the next Heir, | 
Male or Female *, and they were very exaft in pre- ! 
fervingthe Succeflion in the right Line. If, as it of- j 
ten happened, one great Prince fubje£bed the other, | 
thofe Conquefts commonly were loft at his Death,and 
the Nations returned again to the Obedience of their i 
natural Princes. They have no written Laws *, nei- ! 
ther can they have any, having no Letters. Their 
Lands are in common, and th^ir Werowancesot Judges,, 
are all Lord Chancellours, deciding Caufes, and in- 
fii(fling Punifbments, according as they think fit 
Thefe WerowanceSj and the Coucaroufes^ are their 
Terms to diftinguifh their Men of Quality : The for- 
mer are their War Captains, and the latter fuch as 
have paft the Trial of Huskanawing. Their Pr lefts 
and Conjurers have great Authority among them. 
They have Servants whom they call Black Boys *, and 
are very exa«^ in requiring the Refpeft that is due to 
their feveral Qualities.-— And thus much of the Indi- 
ans, who from a State of Nature and Innocence, in 
which the Englifh found them, are now infefted with 
the European Vices of Drunkennefs, Avarice and 
Fraud, having learn'd nothing of the new Comers, but 
what has ferv'd to render their Ignorance the more 

We muft now treat of the Englifh Inhabitants, their 
Rife, Numbers, Diftin<flion, and way of Living. We 
have feen in the beginning of this Treatife, from what 
fmall beginnings the Englifh Colony rofe to the State : 
it is in at prefent : And it cannot be imagin'd, thatr 
the firft Adventurers there were Men of Quality and: 
Fortune, v/hatever the Proprietors in England were : ' 
Men of Eftate wou'd not leave their Native Country, 


The Hifiory ^Virginia. 289 

,)f which tliiQ Englifh are of all Men moft fond to 
eek an Habitation in an unknown Wildernefs : And 
jsrhat deter'd luch from going thither at firft, will al- 
ways deter them. 'Tis true^ as the Colony encreas'd, 
nd became fettled, Men of good Families, andfmall 
'ortunes, remov'd to Virginia^ thriv'd and grew 
rreat by their Induftry and Succels : And thus many 
ijentleraen of J^lrginia may boaft as good Defcents 
; thofe in England: But there's no need as yet of an 
ierauld-Office to be fet up at James-Town ^ and the 
'olony are in the right to make flight of fuch empty 
ifonours, in comparifon of the fubflantial Profit 
^hich is got by Planting and Traffick. Wherefore 
le honeft Merchant, and induflrious Planter, are 
le Men of Honour in Virginia •, and it would not be 
le worfe for England^ if Induflry and Honour were 
earer a-kin than Ibme vain Perfong-make them. 

Twas a long time before Virginia faw a Race of En- 
iifh born on tht fpot ^ which was occafion d by the 
ball number of Women that camb over *, the firft 
ilanters being fo hard put to it, that they made no 
Tuple to buy a Wife, and to accept of any Woman 
lat could give a tolerable Account of her Virtue* 
/omen were not fo fcarce afterwards *, when the Co- 
ny was come to a fort of Perfection, whole Fami- 
: ^s tranfported themfelves thither from England^ to 
end their Fortunes, and others to enjoy that Liberty 
] 'Confcience which was deny'd them at home, in the 
eign of Charles I. and his Son Charles II. Befides 
hich, feveral Royalifls remov'd thither during the 
I .ump and Olivers Ufurpations. 
J I By this means the Colony has fo encreas'd in 
j umbers, that there are now by the nicefl Gom- 
pitation near 70000 Men, Women, and Cliildren 
.. Virginia^ including t\iQ French Refugees, the 

habitants of the Northern Neck^ and the Negro Ser- 
jj.nts, who are but a few, in comparifon to the Sugar- 
jantations. Of thefe the Men are more numerous 
i; proportion than the Women, occafion'd by greater 
lumbers of them going over thither :^ tho of late 
(|ars^ it has been cuftomary for young Women, who 
l^e falFn into Difgrace in England^ or are ill us'd by 
.teir Parents, to tranfport themfelves thither ^ and, 
?i they fay, Try their Fortunes^ which have often been 

U very 

290 The Hiftory <?/ Virginia, 

very favourable. The People of Virginia arCj as i 
■England^ diftinguifh'd by the Names of Mailers an 
Servants. The Diftinaions of the Mafters are 1: 
their Offices or Birth *, and of the Servants, by fuc 
as are for Life, and fach as are for a Term of Yean 
tho Negroes and their Pofterity are all Servan 
for Life •, the white Men and Women for 
many Years as they bind themfelves : And if th( 
don't bind themfelves by particular Indenture 
the Laws of the Country oblige them to (erve till the 
'are four- and tvv enty Years of Age, if they are und" 
'Nineteen when they commence their Service: if 
bove, the term is fet to five Years *, and then they a 
as much entitul'd to the Liberties and Privileges' 
the Place, as any of the Inhabitants or Natives ai 
Their Mailers, when their Times are out, are oblig 
to give each Servant 1 5 Bufhels of Corn, and two ne 
Suits of Cloaths, Linnen and Woollen •, befides ea 
of them may take PofTeflion of 50 Acres of unpatent 
Ground, if he can find any *, which is a Privilege tli 
makesa Noife, and is tempting to the poor Creatui 
who go over, but is not worth the naming, for 
Crown will purchafe it at any time. 

The Laws oi Virginia take great Care for the got 
llfage of Servants, as \o Neceffaries, Diet and Cloatl 
And the Labour of the Country, which con fiflschii 
ly in Tilling, Manuring the Ground, Sowing ai 
Planting Tobacco is fo eafy, that as hard Work as * 
reprefented to be, the Day- Labourers m England a 
much the greater Slaves, if hard Work, and ha 
Living, are Signs of Slavery. 

The Servants and Slaves are never lifted in the^ 
litia of the Country *, but every Freeman from Si 
teen to Sixty Years of Age, is enroll'd, and oblig'd 
mufter once a Year. Their Number is in all 9^1 
of which 2^6^ are Light- Horfe, and 7i5i> Foot a; 
Dragoons, according to the following Schedule, tak 
in the Year 1703. By which the Reader will hav< 
clear View of the Strength of Virginia ^ without: 
eluding the Northern Neck^ or the French Refugees; 
xhQ Monachan-Tow^n^ which may encreafe the Nun 
ber of Souls to near 70000. 





The Hifiory of Virginia. 291 

(:„ . Chiidrei). goonT 

nS ' ''^'° '°'* '^'^^ J*' «+2 44* 
y2^^'^ "37 ^8d J551 a84 o 2,j 
•rork ^*^° "*^ "^^^ +°' '23 27s 

r^Jw/c* *'''' *^°* "+* 5*° '^S *22 

K&a/y, :^8^' t': :^^ '°i *^ '^^ 

V^tr-JiS«f '^'^* ^'^ '^'^ H 142 

P''.**^^^, lilt Toi roth''° ''' '"'' 

l^^i^nd Queen, is^^ 12+4 upsT*^ '^^ J°* 

W^/^*, J^'+ ^"* 320^ JP4 ,21 47, 

T^* 1*32 77« 85tf i^p 5^ 14J 

Ikhmnd ^*'"' '"^^ '^'^ 433 tjp 2i>j» 

4nu>^eland, T/' ,Y,l III: '" '' ^'' 
-.anca/ier, ' ^''f "^J '*°^ +J' '33 31S 
^mhumlerUnd " ** '^'+ ^^' +^ 22p 

i.cS, ''Zrf "r '" ''° ''^ 

^Northampton, ^!pt '°+' '''' «* '»' S" 

■f^ ' 2081 712 1^69 347 70 277 
6q6o6\ 2502s|5J583li)522l 2i^6^\7i^^ 

Befides the Englifh Inhabitants, there are now feve^ 
ilhundred of French Refugees Families, who were 
nt over thither by King William. Thefe Refugees 
Id a very rich Territory affign'd them, twenty Aliles 
)Ove the Falls of James-KivQt, on the South-fide of 
.e River, formerly the Habitation of a Warlike Na- 
M ot the Indiansjcaird th^Monachans'^mdi theTown 
gcre the French Proteftants fettled, is call'd the 

. ^ 2 Ths 

292 The Hiflory of Virginia, 

The AfTembly has granted them great Privileges, 
and been bountiful in their Charity to them, for 
their Encouragement. They are alfo very much ob- 
liged to the Generofity and Protedion of Col. Byrd^ 
whofe Friendfhip has been ferviceable to them on ilia- 
ny Occafions. They are an induftrious People ^ have 
made excellent Wine there, even of the Wild Grapes 5 
and are upon feveral Improvements^ which vvill b^ 
very much to their own Advantage, and that of tht 

'Tis computed that the Number of Souls which ei-^ 
ther came over at firft, or fmce, or have been borrilfli 
the Country, amounts to near twelve hundred French. 
And the Northern Neck being larger than the largeS 
of the other Counties, and almoft as populous, mk| 
contain about fix thoufand : So that the whole Nuiii-! 
ber of Souls in the Province ofFirgmiOj exclufive dl 
JUfaryland^ is about 70000. 

As to the Cufroms and Manners of the Vir^nians: 
they are the fame with the Englilh *, and one may aj 
well go i^out to delcribe the Manners and Cuftoms^ 
any one particular County of England feparate fro]^ 
the reft. 

Their Diet is fomewhat different •, fo is their Cldai 
thing, as alfo their Sports and Paftimes, and Difeafei 
occafion'd by the difference of the Climates : Befid^ 
Etdj Mutton, and Veal, which the Virginians hav 
in plenty, tho not To good in its kind as we haveii 
England^ they have Pork, Bacon, and all forts c 
Tame and Wild Fowl, better than any of the fevers 
Kinds that are in England, 

Pork is fold from i d.totd,2i Pound ;, a large Pa 
let for 6 d. a Capon for 8 d. Chickens ^ s.d. Dozen 
Deer 8 j. a Head. The Bread which the better foi 
of People ufe, is generally made of Wheat : The poo; 
er eat Pone, made ofOppone^ or Indian Meal. The: 
Kitchin-Gardens fapplys them with all forts of Root 
Sallats, and Pot-herbs. Their Drink is according 1 
their Gircumftances ^ the Gentlemen brew fmai] Be^ 
with Englifh Malt : Strong Beer they have froniB 
gland ^ as alfo French Wine and Brandy, with w^hid 
rhev make Punch ', or with Rum, from the Carihh 
Iflands, or Spirits of their own diftilling, from Af 
pies. Peaches, &c. Madera Wine; is the moft cor 

The Hiftory of Virginia. 29 j 

ion and the moft noble of all their frrong Drinks. 
'■:\iQ Poor brew their Beer with Mellafles and Bran? 
r Indian Corn dry'd in a Stove. They have feveral 
ther fprts of Potables, which are very wholefom and 
lea&nt. They burn Wood every where, tho there 
; Pit-Coal in many places ^ but Wood being To plen- 
■L that they may have it for cutting, no body has 
i|ought it worth while to dig for Coal. 
; Their Cloatks are brought from fe^te^ for Per- 
ons of Diftinftion, and are as much in the Mode as 
irtandCoft can make them : They are generally of 
he lighteft Stuffs or Silks, both for Men and Wo- 
nen. The Men for Coolnefs, as in other parts of the 
Veji' Indies^ wear in the Heat of the Summer Fuftian 
M Linnen Jackets ^ and the Women Linnen or Muf- 
;in Gowns. They have almoft all their NecefTaries, 
Ls to Drefs, from England. Their Buildings are as in 
England^ of Brick, Timber and Stone, the out-fide 
3f their Hoiifes being cover'd with Lime made of 
Dyfter Shells, much more durable than Englifli 

I Their Sports are Deer-hunting, Hare-hunting | 
Ibut different from the Englifh Chafe : They learnt of 
the Indians to come up to the Deer under the blind of 
I ftalking Horfe, as the Savages did under that of a 
talking Head: They teach aHorfeto walk gently 
by the Huntfman's Side, to cover him from the Sight 
of i'at Deer ^ and fo they have an Opportunity to kil} 
him. They have other ways of Deer-hunting3 but 
this being the moil remarkable, I have chofen to 
mention it in this place. 

Their Hares they hunt with Mungrils or Swirt- 
Dogs : The Hares generally hole in a hollow Tree^ 
jand^'then they are fmoak'd out by the Hunters. They 
jallb have other forts of Hunting, as Vermine-huntiiig, 
land Horfe-hunting-, the latter is much delighted in 
I by young People, who purfue m^ild Horfes with Dogs, 
! and fometimes without them. Thefe wild Horfes are 
{ {iich as are * fbal'd in the Woods in the Hill Country ^ 
\ and no body knowing whom they belong to^ every 
^ one is free to catch and keep as many as he pleafes : 
Tho they are of the Engliih Breed, they are as ihy as 
any Savage Great ute ^ but this fort of Cattle feldoni 

is fit for ufe, _. 

Us They 

294 The Hifiory of Virginia. 

They have fe veral other Sports, as taking wild Tur 
kies and Wolves in Snares, Fifhing, Fowling, and 
Catching of Beavers-, which is an excellent Paftime : 
Tis faid that thefe laft Creatures live in a fort ol 
Monarchy like Bees, and are very kind and obedient, 
to their Sovereign. 

The Difeafes moft incident to the Place are Colds,i 
caught by the irregular Conduft of People at theiii 
firft Arrival •, Gripes and Fluxes, occafion'd by thei 
fame means, the Englifh eating too greedily thei 
pleafant Fruits of the Country *, Cachexes or Taws^i 
which is a violent Scurvy, the Seafonlng here, as inj 
other parts of America^ is 2i Fever or Ague, which 
ihQ Change of the Climate and Diet generally throw^ 
aew Comers into-. The Bark is in Firgmia ^ SovaH 
reign Remedy to this Difeafe. 

The Virginians have but few^ Dolors among them, 
and they reckon it among their Bleffings, fancying 
the Number of their Difeafes would encreafe with 
that of their Phyficians. The few they have ftu- 
dy and make ufe of Simples moft, with which theif^i 
Woods are plentifully furnifh'd. 

We will conclude this Account of the Inha* 
bitants of Virginia^ with a fhurt Chara£ler of them ^ 
They are a prudent, careful, generous, hofpitable 
People, their Houfes being open to all Travellers, 
whom they entertain as'heartily as Relations or 
Friends ^ and that fordid Wretch who offends againft 
this laudible Cufcom of his Country, is the Objeft of 
every one's Conterrrp'^. 

As for thi Convenience of Society, the Gentlemens 
Houfes are at not much greater Diilance from onea- 
nother, th^ » they are in England, The Planters are 
akiioft all iociable *, and as every thing towards ma- 
king their Friends welcome is cheaper than mEn- 
gland J fo th.Q Entertainments there are larger, the 
Reception more fincere, and the Mirth of the Com- 
pany more hearty than in moil of our Gentlemens 
Houfes h among whom Kofpitality is fo far out of 
Faihion, that a Man v>^ho pretends to it is reckon 'd a 
Sot or a Bubbk *, and the coftly and pernicious Vi^ 
ces that were introduc'd in the place of it in the 
laft Ceritury, has ban fh'd it from that Country 
where it formerly £ourifti*d , to the eternal 
' - - . ' '- Praife 

The Hiftory of TixgmvSi. 295 

>faire of onr Anceftors, and the Sliame of tneir 

C H A P. IV. 

Of the Government of Virginia ; Of the 
; Lam^ Courts of Judicature^ Publick Offi- 
ces^ and Revenues. 

HE Government of Virginia was at firft by a Pre- 
« - fident, arid a Council of twelve. Mr. John White 
Ms the (irft Prefident^ and when the Prefidency was 
ibro^ated, there was a Gommiflion granted by tne 
Company or Proprietors in Engla-^d to Sir i homas 
7ates 'Sir George Summers^ mdC^^t. Newport^ to be 
oint Governours. We don't find tliat the Gover- 
lours and their Council had any more Power than 
^he Prefident and his Council ; but the Name gave^ 
iiiore Authority to their A^s in the Imagination ot 

„[bme Perfons. ^ , , ^ i 

I : When K.Charles I. diffolvM the Company, he conti- 
Wd the Form of the Government by a Governour and 
Council for the Execudve Power, and plac'd the Le- 
mflative in the AiTembly. The AITembly had been ap- 
ipointed before, and met f^veraVtimes duriiig the Go- 
vernments under the Company. The chief Court next 
to the Affembly is the General Ceurt^ held by the Go- 
Ivernour and Council, who are Judges of it, and take 
ICopnizanceof all Caufes Criminal, Penal Eccleha- 
iftical and Civil. There is no Appealfrom tins Court, 
llunlefs the Matter in difpute amounts in value to above 
Ithree hundred Pounds, and then Appeals lie to the 
baeen and Council in EngU72d, In Criminal Caies 
itVere never was anyAppeal,butthe Governour can par. 
■don Perfons for any Grime whatfoever, except Mur- 
ider, and reprieve ev'n fbr that till her Majeilys 
?Pleallire be known therein. Indeed the Governour s 
IPower in this and the other Plantations is very great : 
iHe is fubiea only to the Qiieen's Commanos, and re- 
Iprefents her Peribn in his Government *, heafl.-ritsto 
lordilTeats from the Ads of Affembly, as he tinnks 

U.^ fit, 

•()6 The Hifiory of Virginia. 

fit, and by his AfTent pafTes 'em into Laws. He«^ 
Calls, Prorogues and DilTolves the AiTembly: He Calls 
and Prefides in the Council : He makes Juftices of 
the Peace ^ all Officers of the Militia under the Degree 
of a Lieutenant General : Puts out Proclamations : 
Is the Keeper of the Seal of the Colony, anddifpofes 
of the Queen's Lands according to the Charter and 
Laws of the Country : all Payments out of the Trea- 
fury are order'd by him, or in his Name : He is Vice- 
AdmiralbyVirtueofa Com million from the Admiral- 
ty, and has a Salary of 2000 /.a Year *, formerly 'twas 
but 1000 /. and about 500/. Perquifites^ 200/. a Year 
was added by the AiTembly in favour of Sir William 
Berkley *, and the Lord Colepepper got it encreas'd to 
2000 /. a Year, and 150/. a Year Houfe-rent, which, J 
with the Perquifites, make it worth near 3000/. a 
Year to the Governour, and more if he opprelTes the 
People, as too many Governours have done. When 
the Governour and Deputy Governour are abfent, 
the Adminiftration falls to the Prefident of the Coun- 
cil for the time being, who has a Sallary of joo/.; 
a Year only, added to what is given him as a Coun-». 
fellor, w^hich is a very fmall Allowance. The Queen 1 
nominates the Counfellors by Letter or Inftruftion, 
which fays no more, but that they be fworn of th€ > 
Council. The Governour can fill up the vacant Pla- 
ces of fuch as die, or are remov'd without flaying for < 
Orders from England, Thefe Counfellors have anj 
^qual Vote with the Governour at the Council-Tabla] 
in many things, and are a Check upon him, if hel 
offers to exceed i\q Bounds of his Omimiflion, \m 
calling Aflemblies, difpofing of the Publick Revenue,?^ 
placing and difplacing Officers, Votes and Orderivi 
of Council,publiihing Proclamations, making Grants,, 
and palling' all Patents. They are the Upper Houfe i 
in i: he AiTembly, and claim a negative Voice to all 

Their Sallary in all is 350/. a Year, which is di^ 
videdamongfl them, according to their Attendances 
on General Courts and AfTemblies. The Lower 1 
Houfe of the AiTembly confiftsof the Reprefentatives 1 
of the Counties, two for each, and one for James" 
City, in all 51. The College alfo has Power byj 
their Charter, to fend a Member tP the AiTembly, / 
"• ? The^ 

The Hifiory of Virginiai syy 

The Aflembly-Men arechofen by the Freeholders, by 
Virtue of a Writ direfted to the Sheriff, which is read 
in every Church and Chappel in the County, and the 
Day of Elci^ion then appointed. The Privileges of 
thefe AfTembly-Men are the fame v/ith the Members 
of Parliament in England^2in6. the Power much the fame 
with that of the Houfe of Common?, only they are 
very much infiuenc'd by the Pleafure of the Gover- 
nour ^ and after their Afts have regularly paft the 
Lower Houfe and Upper Houfe, and have had the 
Governour's AfTent, they muft fend to England to 
ibe confirm'd by the Queen ^ but till i\iQ has declared 
her Negative, they are in full Force. Thefe AfTem- 
blies meet once or twice a Year^ as occafion requires. 
Be fides the Governour and Council, the Publick Offi- 

cers are. 

Ihe Auditor of the Revenue^ Dudley Diggs, Efq-^ 

whofe Salary is 7 1- pe^' Cent, of all the Publick 

TToe Secretary and Trefident of the Co-uncil^ Edmund 

Jennings, Efq-^ whofe Fees and Perquifites 

amount to above 400 /, a Year. 
The Ireafurerj William Byrd, Bff^ whofe Salary 

is 6 L per Cent, of all Money thatpaffes through 

his Hands. 
ColleBor of the Cuftoms^ Col. Gawen Corbin. 

Thefe are General Officers and Servants of the 
Colony. There are other little Officers ^ as Clerks 
of Courts, Sheriffs, and Surveyors, &c. The She- 
riffs Place of each County is very profitable by an 
Allowance of i o per Cent, out of all his Receipts and 
other Advantages. The Revenues of Virginia^ arife^ 

t. By 

Tk Hifory of Virginia, 

s. By the Qtieeii*s Quit-rents 2 /. I ^ 
for every 100 Acres. 5 

f . By the A£^ for the Support of 1 
the Goyernment, 2 s. for every J 
Hogfhead of Tobacco export- 1 
ed *, 1 5 ^. a Tun for every Ship ^ I ^ 00® 
€ d. Poll for every PaiTenger *, ^ 
Fines and Forfeitures, Waifs 
and Strays, Efcheats of Land, 
and Perfonal Eftate for want 
of a lawful Heir. 

|. By the kdi refcrv'd to be dif 
pos'd of bytheAiTembly, 4,d, 
a G ■ '^on on Wine, Rum and ^ 
Brandy ', i ^. a Gallon on i 
Beer,Cyder and other Liquors, r ^20® 
15/. for each Servant not be- 
ing a Native of England and 
Wales^ and 28 So for each Slave 
or Kegroe, J 

4, The College-Revenue, a Du- 1 
ty on Skins and Furs. ^ 

5/The Duty of i d. a pound on j 
all Tobacco exported to the I 
other Plantations, and not car- ^ 
ry'ddireaiy to£??gte^, King j 
William gave it to the Col- | 
lege. J ^^ 


200 /. a Year. 



The General Court, of which we have made fome 
mention, is alfo calFd the Quarter Court, as being 
held every Quarter of a Year. There are interi- 
our Co^jrts, which are k^pt every Month in each 
County, andarecaird the County-Courts, or Month- 
ly Courts, where Matters that are not of the higlieft 
Moment, fuch as do not relate to Life or Member, 
or exceed a certain limited Value, are try'd. From 
thele Courts there lies an Appeal to the Quarterly 
Courts . In which no Aftion can be origmally 
brought under the value of Ten Pounds Sterli^. 
Tiis ShsriiTs, Jaftices of the Peace, and other Offi- 


The Hijiory of VirginiB,. 299 

cers, are Judges of thefe County-Courts. In which 
every Man may plead his own Caufe, or his Friends 
do it for him, the Virginians underftanding their 
Intereft too well to incourage Lawyers •, believing 
that as Difeafes wou*d be brought in by Doftors, fo 
Lawyers wou'd create Suits *, a Mifchief we in £ffg- 
te^ all complain of, but defpair of feeing remedy'd. 
The Juftices of the Peace alfo hold Courts yearly in 
each County to look after Orphans, and take care of 
them and their Eftates, to provide for thofe Chil- 
dren that are Father lefs, and have no Body to pro- 
vide for them. The Laws of Virginia are the Afts 
of Parliament and Statutes of England^ which afFeft 
all her Majefly's Dominions in general^ the Sta- 
tutes and A£ls of the AiTembly, which relate only 
to the Affairs of this Colony, in particular Orders of 
the Queen and Council in England^ which in many 
things have the Force of Laws in the Plantations \ 
the Ufages of the Country, or the Civil Law, by which 
all Cafes in the Admiralty are adjudg'd. But there 
being an excellent Colle<n:ion of the Laws of this and 
all the other Plantations already pubiifh'd, I refer the 
Reader to it for a larger and clearer account of them. 

: CHAR V. 

Of the Churchy and Church- JjfdrSj and the 
College in Virginia. 

^W^HEN the Nobility, Gentry, Merchants, and 
y^ others, firftgot a Grant of this Country, and 
refolv'd to make a Settlement upon it, they receiv'd 
large Contributions t© carry it on from (everal De- 
vout Perfons, who were for propagating the GoP 
Ipel among the Indians, building Schools, Church- 
res, and Settling Minifters for their Converfion. 
II and Inftruftion. To this end a great Lottery 
ijwas fet up in London^ m^ Profits of which were 
I for the benefit of the Colony ^ and what inftiga- 
I ted many charitable People to put Money into it„ 
'were Hopes that i good part of it wou*d be iai4 

jx>o, The Hk^ory of Virginia; 

out on the ufe for which it was by them intended. 
This Lottery was drawn in St. Vaulh Church ^ but 
we do not find that the Money was employ'd asthofe 
Religious Perfons wou'd have had it^or that there have 
been many Converts made by the EngliOi in this 
Country. The Religion of the Virginians is the fame 
as in the reft of her Majefty*s Dominions : The Bo- 
dy of the People are Members of the Church of Eng- 
land. There are fome few DifTenters, and might 
have been more, had they not been perfecuted by 
Sir William Berkley. Whether Xh^ Virginians glorj 
in it or nor,^ or honour the Memory of this Governour 
the more for it, we can't tell •, but Puritans wer^ 
certainly always difcountenanc'd by him. In the Year 
i5'4i . Mr. Bennet Wc^nt to Bojion in New- England to 
delire in the Name of fome other Gentlemen, that 
two or three Minifters might be fent them, Mr. Thil- 
llpS'^ Mr. Thompfony and Mr. Knowles^ a late Dillen- 
ting Minifter in London^ came thither, where they 
were kindly enter raiii'd by private Perfons, but the 
Governour and his Council, forbad them to Preach| , 
and order'd, Thatfuch aswou*d not conform to the Cere- 
mmies of the Church of England fbau'd depart the 

There are forty nine Parifh-Churches in the Pro- 
vince, of whici thirty four are fupply'd with Mini- 
fters, and 15: vapant. It were to be wiih'd that 
care was taken to fapply them with fuch Divines as 
niight,by their Example as well as by their Preachin^^ 
invite People to a Religious Life j the Indian Dark- 
nefs being not more gloomy and horrid than what 
fbms of the Meaner Sort of Virginians live in, and 
their Parfons for tlie moft part don't tdke much Paiqs 
to lead 'em into the Light of xh^ Gofpel. In each 
Parilh there is a Church built either with Timber. 
Brick or Stone, and decently adorn'd with all things 
proper for the Celebration of Divine Service. & ' 
large Pariihes there's a Ghappel of Eafe, and fonifc - 
times two for the Convenience of the Parilliioners. . 
The Minifter of the Parilh preaches in them alter* - 
natively, and each of 'em has a Reader to read Prayers ^ 
in his Abfence. The Minifter's Maintenance is fettled ^ 
at i5'ooo /. Tobacco each, yearly, befides Perquifites, 
as 4.0 Jo. for a Funeral Sermon, 20 /. for a Marriage. 


The Hijlory of Virginia, joi 

The Pariili' Affairs aregovern'd by a Veftry of twelve 
Gentlemen chofen out of the Inhabitants ^ thefe are 
call'd the Patrons of the Church, and on the Death 
of one of them the Survivors ele£^ another in his 
Place, They have the Preientation ot Minifters, and 
the fole Power of all Parifh-A^eflhi^nts : No Man can 
be of the Veftry,but what fubfcribes an Inftrument to 
be conformable to the Church o^ England *, two of thefe 
are the Church- Wardens^whofe Bufinels it is to fee the 
Orders of the Veftry obeyed, to colle£V the Parifh and 
the Parfons Tobacco, to keep the Parifh Accounts, 
and to prefent all Profanenefs and Immorality, The 
Power of Indu£lion upon the Prefentation of Mini- 
ilers, is lodg'd in t\\t Governour's hands by Law. There 
are only two Presbyterian, and three Quakers Meet- 
ings in this Colony.. The Bifhop of London^ who is 
the Ordinary of this and all the other Plantations,ap- 
pointsa CommiiTary here, whofe Bufinefs istomaxe 
Vifitations of Churches, and have the Infpe£lionof the 
Clergy, for which he's allow'd tool, per Annum^ and 
by the ftri£l hand that the Clergy and Govern- . 
ment have held over DifTenters, they have been kept 
low in Virginia^ and never encreas'd there : The 
AfTemblies having done what their Governours wou'd 
have 'em, to difcourage them. 

In the Year 1 6\^, Sir W, BerUey then Governour, 
they paftan Aft to prevent DifTentingMiniflers preach- 
ing and propagating their Doftrines, They admitted 
none to preach in their Churches, but fuch as were 
ordain'd by fome Bifhop of the Church of England i 
And in 1 66^ .Sir William Berkley being ftill Governour, 
great Reflraints were laid upon them by a miflaken 
Zeal, to prevent their getting ground. Of what ill 
Confequence this has been to the Colony, 1 leave to 
thofe modQXzXQFirgifnans to deter mine,who think they 
ought not to facrifice the true Interefl of their Coun- 
try to the Revenge or Pride of a Party. In the firft 
Chapter of this Treatife, we have hinted the Project 
of a College, which afterwards was built at Middle- 
Plantation, now caird Williamshurgh^ moflly at the 
Charge of their late Majeflies King William and Queen 
Mdry^ who gave ioqoL towards it, and 20000 Acres 
of Land, the Duty o^ id, a pound on all Tobacco 
exported from Firginia and Maryland to the Planta- 

J02 The Hiftory of Virginia. 

tions, and the Surveyor-Generals Place, which was 
then vacant. He alfo granted them the Privilege of 
fending a Member to theAfTembly. The AfTenibly 
afterwards added a Duty on Skins and Furrs. Thei 
whole Profit amounts now to above 400 /. a Year 
and the Revenue encreafes yearly. The Foundation 
was to confift of 

A Prefident. 

Six Mafters, or Profeflbrs j the Chief Mafter was 

to have 100 /. a Year, 
100 Scholars, Graduates or Non-graduates. 

They were enabled to purchafe and hold to the 
value of 2000 /. a Year, and were to be governed and 
vifited by certain Gentlemen nanf d in the Charter, 
who were to be caird the Governours and Vifitors ^ 
and upon the Death of any one of them, were im- 
power'd to choofe another in his Place. One of thefe 
was to be RecHior, and their number in all to be i8. 
They were to name the Prefident, Mafters, and other 
Officers of the College, and had Power to make Sta- 
tutes and Ordinances. The„Building, when perfe^, 
was to confift of a Quadrangle, and two fides of it 
were carry'd up. The Kitchen, Brew-houfe and 
Bake-houfe were finifh'd. 

The Profefibrs were to read on all the liberal 
Sciences, on Agriculture, Architedure, Art Mili» 
tary. Navigation, Gardning,Trade, and Manufaftures, 
once a Week from Eajhr to Michaelmas^ and twice a 
Week from Michaelmas to Eajier, They began upon 
Experiments of Plants, Minerals, and were alfifted by 
the French in the Monachan Town *, their own Lead, 
Iron and Copper Mines in the AppalUan MounUms 
were under their Confideration, when the Fire put an 
end to their College and Studies. There were fuch 
Expe£lations of the Revenue, which wou*d be rais'd 
by all Tobacco exported to the other Colonies, that 
they talked of adding four itinerant ProfefTors to 
the Refident, each to have 120/. a Year, and 
thefe were to travel into Europe^ Afia^ Africa^ and 
the other Parts of America^ to make Inquifitions in 
natural and experimental Pnylofophy for the uff. of 
thisUniverfity: They were to take an Oath to write 

The Hifiory of Virginia. |o| 

nothing that they cou'd not prove to be true. The 
College was to bear their Charges, but they had no 
occafion to be atfuch Expence. 

The firft Prefident of the College was Dr. Tho- 
fnds Bray J who procured confiderable Contribu* 
tions in England j towards col[e<5ling a Libra- 
ry They proceeded fo far, that they had a Com- 
mencement there in the Year 1700. at which 
there was a great Concourfe of People ; feveral Plan- 
ters came thither in their Coaches, and feveral in 
Sloops from New-Toi% Penfilvania and Maryland, 
It being a new thing in America to hear Graduates 
perform their Academical Exercifes. The In^'ians 
themfelves had theCuriofity to comQ to Williamsburgh 
on this occafion, and the whole Country rejoic*d as 
if they had Ibme relifh of Learning. About this 
time the Clergy here tranflated the Pra£lice of Piety 
into the Indian Language, and the College intended 
to fend for a Printer from England. Since that a 
dreadful Fire feiz'd this Building before it was quite . 
finifh*d, and confum'd it to Alhes, under which the 
Projed feems to lie bury'd, and the Colony muft 
be in a better Condition than now 'tis, before thej 
can think of reviving it. 


jo4 Tk Hiflory ^Virginia. 


the Climate^ the Soilj ^nti its Produlti- 
cns^ as Trees^ Seeds^ Plants^ RootSy Fruits^ 
and Flowers. 

WE may imagine by the Situation of the Country, 
that th€ Climate is Healthy, and indeed it ge- 
nerally agrees well with Englifh Conftitutions. Tis 
full of Rivers, and conlequently the Soil very fruit- 
ful The Sicknefs that the Engliih who go thither 
complain of, is occafion^d by Folly, Intemperance, 
orCWlefnefs^ and afober prudent Man will not on- 
ly find every thing that preferves and confirms Health, 
but alfo all things that are charming by rhe Beauty 
of the Pro'ipecfl:, and the Delight, the Fragrancy 
of the Fields and Gardens, the Brightnefs of the Skye, 
and Serenity of the Air affefe the Ravi fh'd Sen fes. 
The great eft Difturbance the People meet with there, 
are ter^ribk Claps of Thunder, which however do 
very little Harm, the exceffive Heats of the Sum- 
mer, againft which the Inhabitants are defended by 
the cool Shades of the Woods and Groves, and fling- 
ing Infefts, as Frogs, Snakes, Mufcketa's, Chinches, 
Se«d-takes and Red- worms. The Rattle-Snake is 
nioft talk'd of, and his Bite without a prefent Appli- 
cation, is infallibly Death *, but the Remedies are fo 
well known, that there's ne're a Servant, and fcarce 
aSlavev/ho cannot cure it immediately, by applying 
the Rattle-ihake's Heart to it, which reftores the Pa- 
tient in two or three hours. Befides, 'tis very rare 
here, that thefe or any of the other poifonous Snakes 
are to be feen. The Musketa's are troublefome, 
like Gnats in Mariliy Ground in England^ but are on- 
ly found in the Fenny places there. They are ftronger, 
and continue longer than the Gnats in England, As 
to the other Infeds, there are ways to get rid of 
them, and the trouble they put the People to is not 
worth naming. The Winter in all Virginia does 
not continue above three or four Months, December^ 
January^ February^ and March^ of which thirty or 


The Hiftory of Virginia. jo- 

forty days only are very bad Weather. The Froftsare 
fevere, but attended with a clear Sky^, and don't laft 
long. The Rains are frequent and refrefhing, and the 
Heats of the Summer, which are moft violent in Jme^ 
Julyj and ^ugufi^ are much mitigated by them, and 
the frefh Breezes that are common in this Country 
contribute much to render the Heat tolerable to new 
Comers, and hardly fenfible to the Inhabitants. 

The Soil in general is a rich fat Mould 3 foot deep,' 
and under it a Loam, of which they make a fine 
Brick •, but according as the Situation is moift or dry, 
the Soil varies. Tis diftinguiih'd into 3 Sorts, Hlgh^ 
Low, and Marjhy, all which having Sand niix'd with 
'em, makes their Land warmer than Old England. 
The Highlands are moft Sandy : However they bear 
good Crops of Tobacco, only the Soil does not hold 
m Strength fo long as the Low-Lands, which are ve- 
ry rich, being a blackiih Mould about a Foot deep, 
and this Soil will hold its Strength 7 or 8 Crops, 
- without manuring. Their Marfh-Lands bear Sedges 
and Rufhes like ours, and are unimprov'd. Their Land 
x^ general is as good as m England. That at the 
Mouth of the Rivers is moift and fat, and produces 
Rice, Hemp, and Indian Corn. There are Veins of 
cold, hungry, Sandy Soil, where Huckleberries, Cran== 
berries, and Chinkapins generally grow. Alfo OakSg 
Poplars, Pines, Cedar, Cyprefs and Sweet-Gumms, 
Hockly, Sweet-Myrtle, and the Live Oak are found 
here in great Quantities. The Land higher up the 
Rivers is a various Soil, and ftor'd with Chefnuts, 
Chinkapins, Oaks, Walnut, Hickoryes, Dogwood, 
Elder, Hafel, Locuft, SafTafras, Elm, Alh, Beech, 
and Poplar. The Land at the Heads of the Rivers, 
and its Produftions, are alio various. Here are 
Trees of an incredible Bignefs , and Plenty of 
Pafture-ground, Phyfick-Earth, Dyers- Wares, Coal, 
Quarries of Stone, Iron and Lead Mines ^ Col Bird 
being at this time fearching for one, which was for- 
merly work'd, butdeftro/dattheMaflTacre, as is re- 
lated in the firft Chapter^ and Mr. Wittaker, Mini- 
fter of Henrico, before the DiiTolution of the Conv 
pany, wrote home. That not far from the Fall, there 
was found fome Silver Ore. Thus we fee rirginia a- 
, bounds in every thing that is for the Pkafiire or Pro» 

X fit 

o6 The Hiftory of Virginia* ^ 

fit bfthv Inhabitants. We fhall now defcribe fonie 
of the chief Produftions of the Soil, and fpeak firft 
of the Timber-Trees, of which the m©ft ufeful are 
Oak, Cedar , Cyprefs^ Firs •, two forts of Elm, 
Walnut and Alb. The Oaks are commonly of fo; 
prodigious Bignefs, that they will meafure two Foot 
iquare at 60 Foot high. The firll Ships that went to 
Virginia were us'd to Load with Cedar and Clapboard, 
but fome richer Commmodities have been exported. 
There is not much of this Timber fent abroad, tho 
the Country was then full of Woods ', they were fo 
clear from Bufhes, Bryars and Underwood, that a 
Man might have been feen above a Mile and a half, a- 
mong them ;, and the Trees flood at that diftance, that 
a Cart or Coach might have been driven between the 
thickefl of the Trees, they having no Boughs to a 
great Height, yet they were fo tufted, that they af- 
ford a very confortable Shade in Summer. Yet tho 
the Grapes are juicy and plenty, all that have at- 
tempted to fall into the Wine-Trade, to raife Vine- 
yards, and make Wine, have never been able to bring 
their Defigns to perfeftion. The Reafons are, becaufQ 
the Fir and Pine-tree, with which the Country a- 
bounds,are noxious to the Vine ', and the Experiments 
that have been made were in the Low-lands, fubje£l t 
the Pine, and near the Malignant Influence of th^ 
Salt Water. This ruin'd Monfieur Jamart a Frencf'^ 
Merchants Vineyard on ^^w^i-River, near Archer* s\ 
Hcpe-Creek v^nd Sir V/illiam Berkleys had the fame'''' 
Inconveniences, and the fame Fate. Several French 
Vignerons were ient over in 1621. the Year be- 
fore the MalTacre, and wrote over very promifingj, 
Letters of the Country and the Vineyard they werej 
raifmg */ but that Bloody Treafon of the Sava-' 
ges, put at end to them and their Undertaking, 
which the French Refugees at the Monacan Town talk> 
of reviving. . There are Plenty of Shrubs as well as 
of Timber, and befides the Berry, we have before- 
mention'd, there is a Briei* growing fomething like i 
the Sarfaparilla. The Berry is as big as a Pea round, i 
and of a bright crimfon Colour. Befides the SaiTafrasi 
Tre^^ whofe Root was formerly one of thebefl Com-'i 
modities that came from hence, here are feveral forts' 
of Gums and Drugs, and moll of the Shrubs that 


The Hijiory of Virginia. 

grow in England^ or other parts of Europe, The 
whole Country is interfpers'd with an incredible va- 
riety of Plants and Flowers, there being fcarce any 
kind of either, which does not thrive wonderfully in 
Virginia^ and the Fruits are equally plentiful and 

Of Stone-Fruits, they have here Plums, and Per- 
fimnions or Futchamimes. Here are three forts of 
Cherries, w^hich are as plentiful as they are in Kent^ 
and larger than the Englifh. The one grows in Bun- 
ches like Grapes ^ the other is black without, and 
red within. The third is the Indian Cherry, and 
grows up higher than the others do. Here is fuch 
Plenty of Peaches, that they give 'em to their Hogs^ 
fome of 'em calFd Malachotoons, are as big as a Le- 
mon, and refembles it a little. Quinces they have 
in abundance *, as alfo Pumpions and Muskmelons* 
The Plums that grow here are the black, and the 
Murrey Plum. The Englifh forts of Plums do not 
ripen (b kindly as they do in England, Their Wild- 
Plum is like our White-Plum, The Perfimmons or 
Putcham.imes are offeveral Sizes, from theBignefs of 
a Damefin, to that of a Bergamot Pear ^ when 'tis 
eaten ripe, 'tis as delicious as an Apricock *, but if 
green, is dangerous, and caufes Gripes and Convul- 
sions. Their Tafle and Colour refemble thofe of a 
Cherry, all thole Fruits grow wild, and without 
cultivating, as moft of thofe do that we have al- 
ready treated of. Apples and Pears are fo plentiful^ 
that 50 Butts of Perry, and as many of Cyder have 
been made out of two Orchards, few of which have 
lefs than 11 or 1200 Trees. The Bergamot and War- 
den are the mofl common. There's great ftore of 
Qiiinces in Virginia^ of which the People us'd to make 
Quince-Drink. Their MefTamines are a kind of 
Grapes^ the Cheinquamine's a kind of Frui^ re- 
fembling a Chefnut *, the Rawcamen,like a Goofeber- 
ry ', the Macoquez, a kind of Apple ^ Mattaquefu- 
niaucks, a Fruit like an Indian Fig •, Matococks a kind 
of Strawberry ^ Oconghtanamlns ^\ikQ a Caper, Figs grow 
as well there as in Spain -^ but Oranges and Le- 
mons do not thrive. Befides the Common Acorns, 
the Firginiam find another fort with which che Na- 
tives us'd to make a fweet Oil to anoint their Joints*^ 

X 2 and 




The Hiftory of Virginia. 

and another fort of Acron better than the Ordinary, 
the Indians dry'd and kept for their Winter Food, 
when Corn was fcarce : Of Boots, they have the 
Puccoon and iMufquarpern, the Juice of which is of a 
pleaiant Colour^and the Indians made ufe of it to paint 
their Bodies and Warlike Arms. The Tockawaeigh, 
a very wholfome and favory Root. Shumack, Cha- 
pacour, and the famous Snake-root, fo much :admir'd 
in England for being a Cordial, and an Antidote in 
all Peftilential Difeales. There is no kind of Gar- 
den-root, but what they have in perfection *, Sallad- 
Herbs, and Pot-herbs grow there fpontaneoufly, as do 
Purflain, Sorrel, &c. Their Flowers are as tine as 
any in the World •, fuch as the Crown-Imperial, the 
Cardincil-Flower, the MocCaiin-Flov\^er, the Tulip- 
bearing- La wr el, the Tulip-Tree , the Locuft liie 
the Jeflamine, the Perfuming-Crab-Tree, and the 
AfTentamin, a kind of Pink. They have plenty of 
Mufmelons, Water-Melons, Pumpions, Cufhaws, 
Macocks and Gourds. Their Cufhaws are a kind of 
Pumpions of a blewifh-green colour, ftreak'd with 
white. Their Macocks are a lefs fort of Pumpions : 
There are feveral kinds of them : The Savages never 
eat the Gourds, planting them only for the Shells, 
which ferve them inftead of Flaggons and Cups. The 
Indians had Peafe, Beans, and Potatoes, before the En- 
glifh came among them *, but the Staff of their Food 
was their Corn -, of which we have giv'n a large De- 
fcription in the Hiftory of New-England. 

Plantain of all forts grow wild in the Woods :, as 
alfo Yellow-Dock, and Burdock, Solomon's-Seal, Egri- 
mony, Centery, Scabions, Groundfel, Dwarf-Elder, 
Yarrow, and White Maiden-hair *, AXarum isgather'd J 
on the Sides of the Hills, and Soldanalla on the Bay-^ 
{\Aq. Their Dillany grows a Foot and half high : 
The Wate^, diftill'd from it, the bed Medicine for the '~i 
Worms: TheTurbiland Mechoacan, or Roots ex- ? 
^ly like 'em, grow there. 

Tobacco is the ftandmg Commodity of the Coun- . 
try, and is fo beneficial to the Planter, and fo natural 
to the Soil, that all other Improvements give place ta,^ 
that. Indeed they could turn their Hands to nothin ' 
that would employ fo many Slaves and Servants, an3^" 
require io little Stock to manage it, or take up fuch a { 

large !- 


The Hifiory (jf Virginia. 309 

I large Tra£t of Land ^ for the fame Ground that is 
I Planted every year with Tobacco, wou'd produce, if 
li Corn was {own there^more than all the Plantations in 
I America cou*d confume. This Plant is fo common in 
I England^ that we need not defcribe it: It grows much 
I like a Dock : And whereas in our Gardens it niuft 
I be nianag'd with as much care as the choicefl 
' Fruit or Flower, in Virginia they leave it exposed 
I to all the Injuries of the Weather, which is very fa- 
; vourable to it, and 'tis feldom that the Crop fufFers 
j by It. The Tobacco of this Plantation was not at 
j firft fo good as 'tis now. That of Brafil had once the 
Igreatefl Reputation all over Europe^ but now Virginia 
I and Maryland has the beft Price in all Markets. 'Tis 
I not known how the Indians cur'd theirs : They now 
I have it all from the Englifh. Tis faid they us'd to 
let it run to Seed, only iuccouringthe Leaves, to keep 
the Sprouts from growing upon and ftarving them. 
When it was ripe, they pull'd them off, cur'd them 
in the Sun, and laid them up for ufe. The Virginia 
Planters fow the Tobacco-Seeds in Beds, as the Gard- 
|ners in England do Colwort-Se^ds ^ they leave them 
Ithere a Month, taking care all that time to have them 
Iwell weeded. When the Plants are about the breadth 
!of ones hand, they are remov'd in the firfl rainy 
Weather, and tranfplanted into what they call Tobac 
Ico-Hills, In a Month's time the Plants will be a Foot 
[high, and they top them, and then prune off all the 
bottom Leaves, leaving only 7 or 8 on the Stalk, that 
jthey may be the better fed by the Top, and thefe 
Leaves in 6 Weeks time will be in their full growth. 
The Planters prune off the Suckers, and clear 'em of 
:the Horn-Worm twice a Week, which is call'd Worm- 
ling andSuckering •, and this Work lafls three Weeks 
jor a Month *, by which time the Leaf from green begins 
ko tprn to browniib, an d ro fpot, and to thicken, which 
p a Sign of its ripening. As fail as the Plants ripen, 
lyou niuft cut 'em down,leave 'em in the Field for half a 
pay, then heap them up, let em lye and (\veat a night, 
and the n^y^t day carry them to the Tobacco-Houfe, 
(where every Plant is hang'd one by another, at a con- 
venient diftance, for about a Month or 5 W^reks ^ at 
^he end of which time they ftrike or take 'em down in 
l^ioifl Weather, when the Leaf gives,or elfe 'twill crum- 

X 3 ble 

^lo The Hijlory of Yivgiim. 

He^o duft •, after which they are laid upon Sticks, 
and covered up clofe in the Tobacco- Houfe for a Week 
or a Fortnight to fweat, and then opening the Bulk 
in a wet day, the Servants ftrip them and fort them, 
the top-Leaves being the beft, and the bottom the 
worft Tobacco. The laft Work is to pack it in 
Kogfheads, or bundle it up, which is alfo done in a wet 
Seafon •, for in the curing Tobacco, wet Seafons are 
as neceffary as dry, to make the Leaf plyant, which 
wou'd otherwafe be brittle and break. They take a 
great deal of Pains with it now, and with all their 
Trouble can fcarce make it turn to account. The 
Englifh have carry 'd over a thoufand feveral forts of 
the Produftions of Nature, and have found all to fuc- 
ceed there : They have had fuch extraordinary Suc- 
cefs with Apples and Pears, that there's never a Plan- 
ter but has an Orchard, and makes large Quantities 
of Cyder and Perry, which is fome of their common 
DriT^^ks, and there is nothing in England belong- 
ing either to a Garden or Orchard, but what 
they have or may have there in as great or greater 


Of the Beafisj Birds^ and Fifh, 

^ H E Beads that are peculiar to this Country|l 

■ are the Aronghena, foniewhat like a Badger. 
The AlTapanic, or Hying Squirrel. The MulTafcus, 
a kind of Water- Rat. The Utchunquois, a Wild- 
cat. The OpaiTum, a certain Animal, whofe Fe- 
male has a Bag under her Belly, wherein fhe carries 
her young ones. The Woods are ilock'd with Deer, 
the fai:,ie in kind with ours in Etigland^ and larger and 
fatter for the moft part. Tnere are Racoons, Bea- - 
vours, Otters., Foxes, Wiid-vCats, Martins andJ 
Minks in the Frefhes. The Indians are dextrous in i 
catching them, and keep the Secret to the mfelves, that l 
they may prefer vc the Furr Trade, which othervafe '« 
the Englilh wou*d foon drive them out of. Lyons, Leo- 

The Hifiory of Virginia, j 1 1 

pards, Elks, Bears and Wolves, efpecially the latter, 
are met within Virginia^ tho not fo frequently as in 
feme other Parts of North America^ and the Wolves 
are not much bigger than Englifh Foxes. This Country 
was not over-ftock'd with any kind of Beafts, either 
wild or tame, when the Engliih difcover'd it, and the 
Cattle that are now to be found there, are all of 
Englifh breeding : Horfes are as plenty and as good 
as in England, 

Having mentioned the Flying Squirrel, we think 
the Reader will not be diipleas'd with a Delcription 
of it : This Creature has a fiefhy Subftance, which 
it extends in its skipping from one Tree to another, 
like Wings ^ and by the help of thefe, he will fly or 
rather Skip 3 o or 40 yards at a time, from Tree to 
Tree. The OpalTum has a Head like a Hog, and a 
Tail like a Rat, 'tis about the bignefs of a Cat :, and 
the Falfe Belly, in which the Female carries her 
Young, is thus defcrib'd by one that faw it. Tis like 
a loofe Skin quite over the Belly, which never fticks - 
to the Flefh, but may be look'd into at all times, 
after they have been concern'd in Procreation. In 
'the hinder part of it is an Overture big enough for a 
jfmall hand to pafs, and thither the young ones, after 
I they are full hair'd, and llrong enough to run about, 
I fly when any Danger a.ppears *, or when they 
go to reft or fuck, and continue to do fo till they 
have learn'd to live without their Dam. The ftran- 
geft part of this Defcription, is, that the young ones 
are bred in this falle Belly, without ever having been 
in the true one. They are form'd at the Teat, and 
grow there for feveral Weeks together, till they are 
in perfe^l Shape, and have Strength, Sight, and Hair : 
They then drop off, and reft in thi^ Falfe Belly, going 
in and out at plea fure : The Per Ton from whom we 
took the Defcription, fays, he has feen them thus 
faften'd to the Teat, from the bignefs of a Fly till 
they became a.s large as a Moufe. Neither is it any 
hurt to the old one to open the Bag, and look in upon 
her Young. Some Panthers, Bufaloes and wild Hogs^, 
' which yield equal Plea.fure and Profit to the Hunter, 
are caught up in the Country near the Heads of the 
Rivers. The reafon of there being few Sheep, is be- 
caufe the Country is not yet clear'd of Wolves ^ all 

X 4 other 

J 12 The Hiftory of Ylvgim^i. 

other Beafts that arc reckoned wild, do no damage 
to X\iQ Virginians^ flying from the Face of a Man 
whenever they fee one ^ and the Planters, by Pafture- 
Fences, fecure their Cattle and Hogs from them. 
There were no Rats nor Mice there, when the Eng- 
glilh firll landed •, but they foon multiply'd fo from 
the Enghlh Shipping, that once there was like to 
have been a fort of Rat-Plague among the Planters. 
The Virginian Water-Rat, or MufTafcus, fmells like ■ 
Musk. Pole-cats and Wefels are fometimes to bev 
feen there, but the Plenty of Hares and Rabbits make 
s amends for it. 

There is no Country more remarkable for the va- 
riety of Birds in it than Virginia^ where the Woods 
and Groves in the Spring, Summer, Autumn, and al- 
nioft all the Year, are render'd as delightful by the 
Mufick of their feathered Quires, as by ^i:,t Coolnefs 
of their Shades, or the Fragrancy of their Flowers. 
Among thefe t\\.^ Rock- Birds are the moft diverting :, 
They love Society fo well,that whenever they fee Man- 
kind,they will perch upon a Twig near the Perfon,and 
fmg the fweeteft Airs in the World. The next is the 
Humming-Bird, who revels among the Flowers, and 
licks oiT the Dew and Honev from their Leaves. Tis 
not half fo large as anEnglHli Wren, and its Colour 
iS a Ihining Mixture of Scarlet, Green and Gold. 
There are Black-birds with red Shoulders that come 
in prodigious Flights ci:t of the Woods about the* 
Fall of the Leaf ^ a fort o,- i^ightingal, whofe Feathers 
are very gay, of a Crinnbn and blew Colour ^ but it 
feldom or never fings. The Mock-Bivd comes in 
^<mX March and ftays till >,7^, and in bignefs and 
colour is like a Thrufh. The Herons there are very 
large, and the Partridges very Imall. There's great 
variety of Wild Fowl, as Sw^ans, Gsefe, Brants, 
Sheldrakes^ Ducks, ' Mallard, Teal, Blewings, 
Cranes, Curlews, Snipes, Woodcocks, Oxe-Eyes, 
Plover, Larks, Pheafants, Pigeons *, and which is beft 
of all 'em, wild Turkeys, much larger than our 
tame •, they are in Seafon all the Year. The Virgi- 
nians have feveral ingenious Devices to take them \ 
among others a Trap wherein 15 or 17 have been 
caught at a time. 


The Hiflory of Virginia. j i } 

As for Fifh there's fuch prodigious plenty of em, 
that 'tis hardly credible to an European. Some 
Df the Stories that have been told of it, are cer- 
tainly Romantick, and are rejected as fiftitious, 
fuch as Shoals of Fifh, fwimming with their Heads 
above Water, and to be taken by Hand, loading a 
Canoo with Fifh in the open Sea by one Indian, in. 
half an hour *, but 'tis certain that no Rivers in the 
World are better flor'd than theirs, and that the Vir- 
ginian Sea-Coafl abounds in Cod and Sturgeon, of 
which fome are eight foot long. Indeed there's fcarce 
any Fifh, but what may be caught either in the Sea 
or the Rivers, And yet there is only one fort peculiar 
to this Country, which is the Stingrafs. Tis good 
to eat, but has a long Tail with a very dangerous 
fting in it. There are other flrange Fifhes ;, but 
then they are alfo to be found in nioft parts of North- 
America *, fuch as the Coney-Fifh, Rock-Fifh,Cat-Fifb, 
and a Fifh in the form of a Dragon, to which there's 
no Name as yet affign'd in our Language. The 
Toad-Fifh, when *tis taken out of the Water, fwells 
till 'tis like to burft. Mufcles and Oyfters are very 
plentiful in Virginia^ and fo large, that fome of *eni 
are as big asa Horfes Hoof. Pearl has been often found 
in the Shells. The Indians had large, but the Eng- 
lifh found only Seed-Pearl, of which good Quantities 
have been fent to England, In the Spring-time the 
Brooks and Fords are fo full of Herrings, which come 
up to Spawn there, that 'tis almoft impoflible to ride 
through without treading on them. The Rivers are 
alfo at that time ftock'd with Shads, Rock- Sturgeon, 
and Lampreys, which faflen themfelves to the Sh^d. 
In the Salt Water at certain times of the Year, there 
are Shoals of other Fifh •, fuch as the Old Wife^ fome- 
thing like an Herring, and the Sheeps-head, which 
Virginians efleem in the number of their Befl. Black 
and red Drumms, Trouts, Taylors, Green-fifh, Sun- 
fifh, Bafs, Chub, Place, Flounders, Whitings, Flat- 
backs, Maids, Wives, fmall Turtle, Crabs, Cockles, 
Shrimps, Needle-fifh, Breme, Carp, Pike, Jack, 
Mullets, Eels, and Perch. Thefe are to be found 
in the Rivers and Brocks all the Summer long, 
^nd are eaten by the People. Thofe that follow 
are not eaten: The Whale, Porpus, Shark, Dog-fifh, 


514 The Hiftory of Virginia; 

Garr, Thornback, Saw-fiHi, Frog-hfh, Land-Crabs,' 
Fidlers and Periwinkles. Many of thefe Fifh will 
leap into Canoes and Boats, as the Englifh or Indians 
crofs a River •, and there's fuch Quantities of them, 
that they often tire the Sportfiiien with taking 'em: 
Whereas in England^ they' are generally tir'd for 
want of it. The manner of Fifhing-Hawks preying 
upon Fifh, is very diverting. The Sport is to be 
feen every Summer in the Mornings, and fonietimes 
all day long. Thefe Hawks are wonderful eager af- 
ter their Game, when the Fiih firfi: come in the Spring. 
In the dead of the Winter 'tis fuppos'd they fifh fur- 
ther off at Sea, or remain among the uninhabited 
Idands upon the Sea-Coafl. They have often been 
feen to catch iVq Fifh out of the Water, and as they 
were flying away with their Quarry, the Bald Eagles 
have taken it from them again. The Fifhing-Hawk 
will hover over the Water, and reft upon the Wing 
fome Minutes together, and then from a vafl heighth 
dart down direftly into the Water, plunge into it 
for the fpace of half a Minute, and at lafl bring up 
a Fifh with him, fo big, that he can hardly carry it. 
When he is on the Wing he fhakes himfelf fo flrong- 
ly, that the Water comes off of him like a Mifl, and 
then he flies to the Woods with his Prey, unlefs the 
Bald-Eagle intercepts him, and takes it away from 
him. This Bird, as foon as he perceives the Fifhing- 
Hawk, with his Game in his Mouth, purfueshim, and 
ffcrives to get above him in the Air, which if he can 
do, the Hawk lets his Fifh drop, and the Eagle leaves 
him to take up his Prey, w^hich he fhoots after with 
(uch furprizing Swiftneis, that he catches it in the 
Air, before it falls to the Ground. Thefe Fifhing- 
Hawks, when the Seafons are extraordinarily plenti- 
ful, will catch a Fifh, and loiter about with it in the 
Air, on purpofe to have a Chace wath the Eagle for 
it;, and if the Eagle does not come, heMl make a da- 
ring Noife, as if it were to defy him. This Sport has 
frequently been feen by the Englifh, and by the De- 
fcription of it mufl certainly be extreamly pleafant 
to the Speftators. 


The Hifiory of Virginia. 5 1 j 


Of the Coins in Virginia : Of the Trade to 
and from England, md other Farts of 
Europe and America : The Prodigious 
Revenue that the Cuftoms of Tobacco brings 
in : The Advantage that Trade has been 
to England, and the J^ifadv ant ages it lies 

npHO the common way of Traffick there is by Bar- 
-*■ ter or Exchange of one Commodity for another, 
or of any for Tobacco •, yet there is fome Silver Coins, 
Englifh and Spanifh, and were much more, till the 
lowering of the Value tempted People to export 
the Coin to the other Plantations, where it went for 
more than it did in Virginia, The Chief of their Coins 
lare either Gold of %e Stamp of Arabia^ or Silver and 
{Gold of the Stamp of Spanifh America^ or Englifh 
I Money. There's very little of either kind to be feen in 
ithis Country for the Reafbns above-mention 'd : The 
Government, round about it, often raifmg the Value 
of the Coin, is the Caufe th^tVlrglma is drained of the 
little it has. And 'tis impoflible to prevent this Inconve- 
nience, unlefs all the Colonies on the Continent were 
obliged to have one and the fame Standard for their 
Coin, which there have lately been fome attempts 
made to effeft, tho without the Succefs that was 
expe£ted and defir'd. The Scarcity of Money is (uch 
in this Plantation, that Gentlemen can hardly get 
enough for , Travelling Charges, or to pay Labou- 
rers and Tradefmens Wages. It occafions alfo the 
commencing many vexatious Suits for Debt, which 
by this means are contrafted. The Value of the fe- 
veral Coins that are there, is as follows : 


^i6 The Hifiory of Virginia. 

The Spanifli Double Doublon, • • 03 lo o® i 

The Doublon, confequently, • • 01 15 00 , 

ThePillole,^ 00 17 o*? 

Arabian ChQqiiins J • • • • 00 lo 00 
Pieces of Eight (except of Peru) ? 

• 1 • ^ ^ TXT • 1^7 00 o< 00 

weighing 1 6 penny Weight, 3 ^ 

French Crowns, 00 05 00 

P^rw Pieces of Eight, and Dutch p 

Dollars, »• = .•• ^ i- 

And all Englifh Coin as it goes in England, ^ 

The Trade of this Colony, as well as that of Mary-^ 
land, confifts almoft entirely of Tobacco ^ for thd| 
the Country would produce ieveral extraordinary^ 
Commodities fit for Trade *, yet the Planters are fo 
wholly bent on planting Tobacco, that they feem 
to have laid a^lde all thoughts of other Improvements. 
This Trade is brought to fuch PerfeiHiion, that the 
Virginia Tobacco, eipecially the fweet-fcented, which 
grows on Tory^-River, is reckonft the beft in tlie 
World, and is what is generally vended in England 
for a Home Confumption. The other forts, call'd 
Oranoac^ and that of Maryland^ are hotter in the 
Mouth ^ but they turn to as good an Account, be- 
ing in demand in Holland^ Denmark^ Sweden^ and 
Germany. Of this Commodity 30000 Hofheads have 
been exported yearly, which befides the other Ad- 
vantages that the Englifh reap by it, have clear'd 5 /. 
a Holhead in a Foreign Market, and encreas'd the 
General Stock of t\iQ Nation, 150000/. a year. 
The whole Trade of Tobacco is indeed one of the 
moil: Profitable of all the Englifh Commerce, it em- 
ploys above 200 Sail of ftout Ships every year*, and 
brings in between 3 and 400000/. to her Majefty's 
Treafury one year with another. Tho this Calcula- 
tion may feem too extravagant to fuch as know no- 
thing of this Trade, and to foniie who make guefTes of 
the Trade in general only, from their own in parti- 
cular, yet it will appear to be Modeft to all that have 
experience in the Matter. There are 200 Sail of 
Ships freighted with this Commodity Communibus 
Annisy from the whole Bay : In which we include 


The Hifiory of Virginia. j 1 7 

le Province of Maryland *, and, one with another,we 
iin't reckon they carry lefs than 300 Hogflieads 
f Tobacco ^ in all 70000 Hogfhiads •, of which half 
re fuppofe to be fold and fpent in England *, and 
leDuty of thofe 35000 Hogfheads, at but 400 weight 
f Tobacco each, will come to 8 /. a Hogfhead, and 
:8oooo/. for the whole. The other half which is ex- 
erted will not produce above a 'sth part fo much 
1 the Exchequer, becaufe all the Impofts are drawn 
ack, and part of the Subfidy, yet allowing but 
oGoo/. for the Duty of the 35000 Hogfheads 
xported, the whole Amount of the Cufloms for 
fie 70000 Hogflieads of Tobacco, will come to 
30000/. a year-, and fo much it certainly brings 
ito the Exchequer in a time of Peace. For in 
his War-time our Trade is more uncertain ^ and 
jufl Calculation of this Branch of it, in part, or in 
he whole,' cannot now be made, tho confider- 
kg that the Virginia and Maryland Merchants ^ 
ave efcap'd much better than thofe of Barbadoes^ 
Jamaica ^ and the O^Hribhee Iflands , our Efli- 
iiate, with fome abatement, according to the 
lumber of Ships lofl, may {land good. Some who 
pretend to be very well acquainted with the Virginia, 
trade, have aflur'd us, that 1 00000 Hogfheads have 
^een Ship'd off from Virginia and Maryland in a 
fear, and 40000 of 'em fpent in £>gte^ ; If fo, we 
[re rather too fhort in our Account than too long, 
both with reference to the Calculation of the Cufloms, 
bd the Addition the Trade makes to the National 
?tock. But we have kept as clofe to Truth as we 
tou'd by our own Experience, and the befl Informa- 
tion ^ and to render what we have faid the more cre- 
Bible to the Reader,'tis neceilary he Ihou'd know how 
jyaflly this Trade is improved in all Vvct^di England^ 
Ls well as in the Port of London, The Town of Xf- 
\verpool has had 50 Sail of Ships unlade at her Key from 
Ihentce in a Year, for feveral Years paft, reckoning 
tone 'year with another*, many of the out- Ports have 
bono Sail employ'd yearly in the Virginia-Tx^.^^^ 
land the City of Brijiol is faid to pay above ^0000 /. 
kyear Duty for Tobacco her felf, which will not ap- 
ijpear improbable, if what we are very credibly in» 
Iform'd by ^r^}?^/-Men is true, that one Ship belongs 


jiS The Hijtory of Virginia. 

ing to that Port, called the Briftol-Merchant^ ha 
paid 8 or loooo/. Cuftom, every year for thcf 
Twenty years lad gpaft. And very often 30 or 4( 
Sail of Ships have come into the Severn at a time 
bound for Brifiol •, befides Runners and Stragglers 
If the Out-ports together fend 100 Sail to Virginu 
in a year, as we think we have fufficiently prov'd ; 
London will more than make up the other 100 
And w^hat we have faid of the Trade and the Cu- 
Itoms, will feem v<;ry rational and certain. 

Befides the vaft Advantage that accrues to the 
National Stock, by the Exportation of Tobacco frotr 
England to all other Parts of Europe •, we mufl con; | 
fider, how beneficial this Trade is, by the .prodigi- 
ous Number of Hands it employs, and Families ii 
maintains, in England and Virginia : No lefs than 
Seventy thoufand EngliJJj Souls in Virginia ^ and 
as many in England* There are' vaft Quanti- 
ties of Manufaftures exported from hence dail]j 
to this Colony •, who have all their NecelTaries 
for Cloathing, Labour, aiid Luxury, from En- 
gland : And thofe Commodities that are fent hence 
lying moft among Handicraft-Trades, are fuch ai 
employ the moft Hands, feed the moft Mouths, and 
confequently are the moft beneficial to the Publick *, 
fuch as Weavers^ Shoemakers^ Hatters^ Ironmongers^ 
Turners^ Joiners^ Taylors^ Cutlers^ Smiths^ Bakers^ 
Brewers J Ropemakers^ HofierSy and indeed all the Me- 
chanicks in England :, their Manufactures being good 
Merchandile in Virginia^ .when the Ignorance or A- 
varice of fome Merchants diO not glut the Market 
The Commodities fent thither, befides Linnen, Silks, 
India GooQSy Wine, and other foreign Manufaftures, 
are Cloth coarfe and fine, Serges, StuiFs, Bays, 
Hats, and all forts of Hahe? dajbers Ware, Houghs, 
Bills, Axes, Nails, Adzes, and other Iron- Ware*, 
Cloaths ready-m.ade, Knives, Bisket, Flower, Stoc- 
kings, Shoos, Caps for Servants ^ and in ftiort^- 
very thing that is made in Engla-nd. * 

They formerly drove a conliderable Trade with 
Pipe-Staves and Hoops, from Virginia to Maderay 
Tercerasj Fial^ and the other Ifiands call'd the ui-' 
zores ^ but lately New-England, and New-Tork have v 
almoft driv'n the Virginians out of that profitable * 


I The Hijiory of Virginia. 319 

"fade. They ftill keep part of the Trade to and 
'om the Sugar-Iflands, on account of the Tork-River 
obacco, which is moft fmoak'd among the better 
)rt of People-, tho' the Oranoac will ferve thcNe- 
roes, and the worlt of the White Servants, as well 
r better than the fweet-fcented. The Firginia-MQr- 
hants and Planters export Tobacco, Cattle, and 
>rovi{ions to Barbadoes and the Leward Iflands ^ and 
a Exchange bring back Rum, Melafles, and Sugar. 
'or notwithftanding they make good Brandy of 
heir own, and might have Sugar from their Sugar- 
'ree, as has been prov'd by many Experiments ^ 
ret they are {o lazy, that they will be at no pams 
o provide themfelves with any thing which they 
an fetch elfewhere for Tobacco. There are fe- 
eral Trades which they might fall into, befide that 
)f Tobacco, and which would be a Service to that 
Commodity, becaufe the lefs of it was made, the 
greater Price it would bear. The Country is cer- 
tainly capable of large Improvements, by the Tim- 
)er-Trade, and its Appurtenances, as Pitch, Tar, and 
^ofin. They might alfo manufadure Flax, Hemp, 
Cotton, and even Silk •, the. three firft Commodities 
driving there as well as in any Country in the 
VVorld, and the Mulberry-Tree feeding Silk- Worms 
brmerly in abundance. Edward Biggs Efq*, was at 
?reat Charge and Pains to promote the Silk-Manu= 
Faaure, fmce it was given over by others *, but 
ivanting Encouragement, he alfo aave it over : Se- 
veral of the late Governours have, for Realons which 
they did not think fit to reveal, difcourag'd all fuch 
IS went about Manufadures *, and the Planters have 
been oblig'd to ftick to their old Drudgery, the 
Planting of Tobacco. Silk-Grafs grows there fpon- 
taneoufly in many places, and may be cut feveral 
times in a year. The Fibres of this Plant are as 
fine as Flax, and much ftronger than Hemp : A 
Piece of Grogram was made of it in Queen Eh- 
z,aheth's Reign, and prefented to her •, and V^t tne 
Engllfh neglea it, and make no manner ot Uie ot 
it 'i, not fo much as the Indian did, who made their 
Baskets, Filhing-Nets and Lines with it. The T/r- 
gimam might alio drive as good a Trade with Cat- 
tle and Provifioas , Horfes , Cows ^ Oxen , Bed, 

Pork^ ' 

j^o The Hiftory of Virginia. 

Pork, &c, as the People of New-England and Caro^ 
Una do to the Sugar-Iflands : But all their Thoughts 
run upon Tobacco, and they make nothing of thofe 
Advantages, which would enrich an induftrious Peo- 

Indeed the Naval Stores that might be brought 
thence to England^ for the Queen's and Merchants 
Service, are of fuch Confequence, that 'twould be 
well, if fome Care was taken to oblige them to 
Manufa£lure 'em, and due Encouragement was given 
to do it. It feems a little unaccountable, why the En- 
glijh^ whofe Plantations are fo well furnirfi'd with 
thofe Commodities, ihould be at the Charge of 
buying them in the BalticJi with Ready Moneys 
fuch as Pitch, Tar, Rofm, Turpentine, Plank, Tim- 
ber, Mafts, Yards, and Cordage. New-England md 
Virginia would plentifully fupply all our Naval 
Wants, and we fhould not then be oblig'd to the 
People of the North, who do not always deal friend- 
ly or fairly by us. The Virginians are fo far from 
thinking of improving thefe Manufaftures, that tho* 
they fee others fend thither to build Ships, they 
feldom or never do it themfelves. They not only 
neglea making a Trade of Provifions, but even to 
provide a necelTary Store againft an accidental Scar- 
city, contenting themfelves with a Supply of Food 
from Hand to Mouth ^ infomuch that if a fcarce 
year fhould come, there would not be enough in the 
Country to fubfift them three Months. The only 
Excufe that the Virginians can plead for their La- 
zinefs is, that their Induftry was never encourag'd. 
Their Want of Towns hinders them from receiving 
many Advantages by^he Fruitfulnefs of their Soil \ 
for the People who inhabited them would take thole 
Commodities off their Hands, which every Planter 
in the Country is furnifli'd with at home. By 
this Want of Cohabitation, they are uncapable of 
making a beneficial life of their Flax, Hemp, Cot- 
ton, Silk, Silk-Grifs, and Wool •, which might o- 
therwife ilipply their NeceiFicieG from their Towns \ 
and their Tobacco would enrich them, as we have c 
fhew'd elfewhere. The greateft of their Difcou- • 
ragemsnts is th^ high Duties on their Commodi- 
ties, th^ Cuftom being often ten times as much as 


The Hiftory of Virginia: 321 

ie Prime Cod. And [if it wants in Goodneft, t^re . 
jno Abatement fpr it, no Contideration for LofTes, 
k high Freights and Premio's of Infurance,for a fmall 
(rop, the Dearnefs of Hands, and other Accidents 
4ich may prove the Ruin of this Plantation : Fo^ 
4en his Goods come to Market, after Cuftom and 
te Faaor's Bill for Commiffion is paid, the Neet 
Iroceed comes to little. The poor Planter is not 
^^ly difappointed in the Value of his Goods, but 
|s Bills that he drew come back protefted, and he is 
IrcM to pay exorbitant Intereft, to prevent being fu'd, 
i.forc'dtofign Judgments to the Merchant there *, 
Iho, having got the leaft Hold of his Eftate, feeds 
\m infenlibly with Money, till the whole fallows 
; a mean Rate. If this Fate does not attend his 
ills, he is forc'd to buy the NecefTaries at home, 
; dear Rates, which he wrote for to England *, and if 
J poes upon Truft, 'tis atfuch Prizes, that a Ufurer 
uilies to extort, but Cuftom makes it look like 
wful. If he fells his Tobacco in the Country, the 
aaors take Care to beat down the Price fo low, that 
Will hardly pay for cultivating. How can all this;be 
miedy'd, you fay, in War Time ? By fecuring their 
"rade, which would make Infarances unnecefiary : 
nd how can it be fecur'd ? That Queilion has been 
) often anfwer'd to fuch as have the Care ot 
lefe things, 'tis needlefs for us to decide it here. This 
/e may venture to fay, that the fending a Ship or 
Wo to this or other Colonies, under Commanders 
/ho think themfelves Admirals, and defy all Power 
ut their own, will never anfwer the End. A Re- 
Irefentation of which was made to thofe that have 
he Management of thefe Afir^iirs, in which 'twas laid, 
^ey make it their Bufmcfs to oppofe Juthonty, and 
phen there is anyFa5lionin any F lace, they are fure to 
hin with themagamjl the Gcvernour'^ They wiii be m 
I Harbour for a V/eek together^ without once going out 
cruife-, by their ill Vf age of their Men, they force 
hem to run away from the Ship, and then they rum 
'he Merchants and Trade of the F lace, by prejjmg away 
ihe Seamen from the Veffels, Some Inftances of iht ill 
^radices of thefe Captains are mention'd. One oj tnemy 
hhen he was at Virginia, neither fpafd the Gentlemen of 
\he Comtry, the Queen's Officers, nor the Governour 

1 22 The Hijlory of Virginia. 

hmfelfy hecatife they would not fuffer him to marry 
Gentleman s JDaughterj when at the fame tmie he ha 
a Wife and Children at London. Vpon which he a, 
. tempted the Lives of the Gentlewoman's Father^ fever, 
cf her Relations^ efpedally of a very worthy Gentleman 
cnc Col. Cary, who courted the young Lady. The Gi 
vernour was forc'd to fecure the Peace : The Fri 
vince being all in an vproar by this Mans extravagar 
Attions. The Council of Maryland complain'd of ai 
other, reprefenting, He was fitter for Bedlam than . 
command a Ship. And another &tNeW'Tork^ When tl. 
Lord Corn bury ordered him to take fever at Fef[e 
leaden with Frovifions on her Majeftys Account^ t 
Penfylvania and Carolina, and convoy them to Jamaica 
excused himfelf faying^ His Ship was laid up^ and w 
^iggd. They might have been ready before Chriftmaj 
hut he would not go till the 2^th of March, promifir. 
then to fet Sail, However^ he lay in the Harboi 
tlll^ the latter end of May % all which time her Majefi 
paid Demurrage^ the Frovifions lying on board^ which 
great Dam.age. He refused to obey the Orders he r\ 
ceiv'd to touch at Carolina, and take thofe Fejfels ttj 
der hu Convoy. 

^ But fliouid we go about to write a Hiftory of a 
the Complaints that have been made againft fuc 
Officers as thefe, for their Mifcarriages in Americc 
one might add another Volume to thefe of the Plan 

We have alfo feen a State of Virginia^ drawn b 

. an Inhabitant of North-^;;zmc^, and prefented t 

A State'of^^^ Lords of Trade in England. The Feople are vet 

Virginia. ^*'^^'^^^<'^5 difpers'd thro'' the whole Province. Thei 

almoft: file Bufinefs is planting and improving Tobacct 

even to tbat^ degree^ . that moji^ of them fcarce allm 

ihemfelves time to produce their necejfary Frovifiom 

and confequently take little Leifure to bujy themfelvi 

about Matters of State. T^jey have always been ri 

fpeBful and obedient to Governm.ent^ &:c. Again, O 

every River of this Province there are Men in Numut 

from ten to thirty^ who by Trade and Fndufiry have gc 

very compleat Ejiates. Thefe Gentlemen take Caret 

fupply the poorer fort with Goods and Neceffaries^ am 

are fare to keep the?n always in their Debty and confe 

^imtly dependant m them. Out of thw Number ar 

' " chofo 

The Hijlory of Yivgmiz. g2| 

hfen her Majeflys Council^ the ^ffemblyy the Jnflkes 
nd Officers of the Government. Many of thefe Gen- 
lemen have apply'd themfelves if late Tears to procure 
wm their Governours good Laws^for the better Go' 
ternment and Improvement of the Country ^ &c. Again, 
f^ey confider this Province is of far greater Advantage 
1 her Afajefly^ than all the reft of the Provinces he- 
des on the Main ^ and therefore falfely conclude^ that 
hey ought to have greater Privileges than the reft of 
er Majefiy^s SuhjeFrs, Further, Ihe Affembly think 
hemfelves entitled to all the Rights a?id Privileges of 
n Englifh Parliament^ and begin to fearch into the 
lecords of that Honourable Hoiife^ for Prefidents to 
overn themfelves by. The Council imagine, they 
tlmojifiand upon equal Terms with the Right Honour a^ 
le Houfe of Lords. We think a great Part of what 
allows in this Reprefentation might have been (par'd, 
h we leave it as we found it. 

The Society for propagating the Gofpel, in the Ac- church 
punt they have pubIi?!i'ti-of their Succefs in Ame- A§drs. 
ka^ tell us, Virginia is divided into fifty Parifhes, 
,nd about thirty Chapels. Here was alfo a noble 
College, ere£led for the Education of the American 
ifouth, in the Studies of Divinity and Philofophy. 
}i Maintenance for the Students has been fettled, but 
i>y Diibfe is impair'd in many Places. Several Pa- 
I ilhes are not lupply'd with Minifters, particularly 
ti Princefs Anns County. There was no Mathema- 
!ical ProfefTor in William and Mary College. The 
^lociety have paid to Mr. Tyliard 20 L and to Mn 
iF^//^c^of£//;2:^^ff/?City Parifh 15 /. in Books. 

Of the College above-men tion'd, we have fpoken 
Iready, but fince that have met with a better Ac- 
|:ount of it. A flately Fabrick was rais'dj a Royal ^^^ ^^ 
Charter given^ with ample Privileges and Immimitiei^ Accouvt of 
'i pub lick Fund was allotted for the Endowment of it^the Socmy 
md a Prefident appointed with an honourable Sailary^for propa- 
\x. and in Honour of the Founder it was caWd 'WilYvSim gifting the 
tnd Mary College. But it could not be furnifiSd with ^^^f^^h 
Profejfors and Students^ nor advar>cd above a Gram-^^' ?• ^^^ 
Tier-Schoolj before the whole College was nnfortunately 
iejtro/d by Fire. And the great Service Col. Nichol- 
son did this Society, and the Cauie of Religion, in 
:his Province, while he was Goveniour, has been 

y 2 ,. ofte.i 

3^4 The Hifiory of Virginia.' 

often dcknowldeg'd by them, in Publick and Pri 

We have nothing further to obferve relating 
to Vhrglnia *, but that on the Death of Mr. None. 
my Lord Orkney^ Deputy in the Government of thi« 
Colony, Col. Hunter was appointed his Succeflbi 
in that honourable Poft, A^ D, 1707. On whid 
he embark'd for his Province, and in his Pa^ag< 
^ was taken by the French, and carry'd into France 
From whence he returned into England^ and no^^ 
waits for a Convoy to Virginia, 

We have only to add a Lift of the Chief Officers. 
Civil and Military, as is done in the other Parts ol 
this Treatife. 

Col. Hunter^ Governour. 
Edmund Jennings^ Efqj Prefident. 

'Dudley Diggs^ Efq*, 1 

Benjamin Harrifon^ Sen' Efq, ? 
Robert Carter^ Efq^ 
- JohnCujiis^ Efq*, 
The Reverend ~ Mr. Jame^ I 

Thilip Lvdwell, Efq; {►Counfellors, 

Henry Dnke^ Efq^ 
Robert Quarry^ Efq^ 
John Smithy Eiq^ 
John Lewi^y Efq^ 
William Churchill^ Efq, 

GommifTary to the Bifhop of London^ the Reverend 

Mr. James Blaire. 
Auditor of the Revenue, Dudley Diggs^ Efqj 
Secretary, Edmund Jennings^ Efq*, 
Receiver General, William Bird^ Efq*, 
Colledlor of th.^ Guilonts, Col. Gawen CorUn, 
Attorney General, Stephen Tompfon, 



37 -*■*-; 




•^fij ^llil 









C» H A F. I. 

Contdning an Account of the Difcovery ami 
Settlement of this Province^ and of dl 
the WarSj Fa5iionSy DiJlurbanceSy and 
other Events there^ from that time to the 

E are not ignorant of the Pretences o^ jjjf^Qy^yy^ 
the Concern 'd in this Province, who 
affirm, 'twas difcover'd by SebajHan 
Cabot, iMr. ArchdaU^ one of the 
Proprietors, in his printed Defcription of Carolina^ 
fays, Henry the VIIl^/?. about the Tear 1500. jurmfod 
Sir Sebaftian Cabot with Shipping^ {He woi born at 
Briftol, tho his Father was a Venetian,) to make a 
Difcovery *, and he fell t^pon the Coaji of Florida, and 
having fail'd along the Cmtinent a confiderade way 
North'Eafi^ return d. But this does not appear in 
any authentick Hiftorian *, nor that Sir Sebaftian Ca- 
bot ever got fo far to the South. 

Y I Carolit?^ ' 

5 2 (5 The Hiflory of Carolina, 

Carolina is the Northern part of the vaft Region 
of America^ which was difcover'd by "John Vonce de 
Leon J in the Year 1512. He made Land about 30 
Degrees from the <j£quator^ near the River of San 
MMt(Zo^ the moft Southerly part of this Province. 
He fail'd thither from the Ifland of Vorto Rico^ and 
gave the Country the Name of Florida^ for that the 
Face of. it has the Refemblance of a continual 

America. . ^'^^ Spaniards, who paffionately defir'd to fecure 
* it to themlelves, eig^ht Years afterwards fent Vafquez^ 
de Ay Hon to make a further Difcovery of it, as belong- 
ing to Charles V. in whofe Name 5^ Leon had taken 
PofTefiion of it. He came upon the North Coaft, 
and caird the North North- Weft River by the Name 
of Jordan. He did nothing memorable, except 
this infamous Adlion, of inviting many of the Na- 
, tives aboard-, his Ships, where when he had got 
them, he hoifled Sail, and carry'd them into mifera- 
ble Bondage. 

In the Year 1 521^. Charles V. Emperor o^ Germany 
and King of Spain^ fent Pamphilio Narvefi to Florida^ 
who ftay'd fo long in the South-Weft part of this 
Country, which is th.Q moft barren, that, fays my Au- 
thor, they were fain to eat one another^ his Crew having 
fpent their Provifions. 

Ten Years afterwards Ferdinando a Soto came 
hither in the fearch of Gold and Silver Mines, ha- 
ving a little Army of poo Foot, and 500 Horfe. 
Himfelf, and three Parts of his Soldiers, dy'd, ei-" 
ther thro' Want, or by Sicknefs, or the Indians ^ 
and the reft were led back by Lewis Mofcos to New 
Spain J tho not without great Difficulty, for the Na- 
tives fetting upon them leveral times in their March, 
kiii'd ail that fell into their Hands. 

This unfortunate and expenfive Expedition fo dif- 
courag'd the Spaniards, that for feveral Years they 
made no more Attempts in thefe Parts, and indeed 
• they fearch'd no further than that Part of the Couti- 
nent which lies oppofite to the Gulph of NewSpainy 
and not within and beyond the Streights of Baha?na^ 
which includes that part of the Country we are now 
treating of, and which is the moft fertile and rich, 
abounding in feveral merchantable Commodities. 


The Hijiory of Carolina. 327 

The French perceiving thQ Spaniards negle£lecl this 
long Tr a (ft of Land, Admiral C<9/%;2j/, in the Reign 
o^ Charles YK. procur'd two of the King's Ships 
I to be fent thither, the Command of which he gave 
to Jean Rihaut^ who after a Voyage of two Months, 
arrived at the River o^ Dolphins^ between that of 5^;^ 
Matuo^ and that of A%, lying about the 30th De- 

The next River to that o(May^ he cali'd the Sei?2e, 
The next to that, t\it Somfjje :, then the Loire ^ then 
the Charente^ and t\\Q Garonne. At the Mouth o^ At- 
bemarle KiwQr^ then cali'd the 6'r^^r River -^ the Port 
being fafe and commodious, he built a Fort, which he 
called Charles Fort^ and gave it the Name of Vort 
\ Royal^ in 3 2 Degrees of La titude, bordering on F^li-gi- 
\ma^ now North Carolina^ where the liril Settlement 
; was made by any European Nation. 
j The Civil Wars raging in France^ Rihaiifs Sol-r 
' diers mutiny'd, for want of Supplies. The Natives, 
'tis true, were very kind to them, out of Hatred to 
the Spaniards'^ but they could not furniih them 
with many NecefTaries which they wanted ^ and the 
Admiral was fo engng'd m Politicks at home, that 
he had not Lei(ure to provide for the Wants of his 
Colony. So Ribaut having made fome Difcoveries 
in the North-Eaft part of Florida^ re turn 'd to France^ ^hici 
and in his Return, if Credit may be given to an old 
Author, his Company were reduc'd to fuch Extre- 
mity, that they kill'd and eat one of their own Men -, 
and probably would have done fo by others, had , 
they not accidentally met with an Englifi Ship, the 
Mafter of which furniOi'd them with fome Provifi- 
ons. A Peace being concluded 2 Years after in 
France^ between the Papifts and Proteftants, Collgny^ 
who was then in Favour at Court, procur'd other 
Ships to be fent to this Country, which v^as nov/ 
caU'd Carolina^ from Fort Charles^ as that w?s from 
the French King, The Command of thofe Ship?^ 
, and the Men aboard, was given to Lewi^ Laudoner^ 
who was order'd to carry on the Settlement He 
arriv'd here the lothoijune^ i^6x, with 3 Ships, 
and was kindly receiv'd by the Indians^ but could 
find no Gold and Silver Mines, tho he fpent much 
Labour and ^Time in fearch after then]. His Provi^ 

T 4 % ^/ fwi 

328 The Hijhry of C2Lrolim.] 

fions being almoft all gone^ and the Natives either 
unable-, or unwilling to furnilli him with more, , 
Laudoner refolv'd to return alfo to France-^ and as . 
he was preparing to depart, Jean Rihaut arriv'd with 
3 Ships, which had fo good an Effe^fV on the Indians^ 
that they feem'd as welcome to them as to the 
Trench, The Kings of Homoloa^ Seravatri^ Alma- 
canij Malica^ and Cafl-ri^ waited upon Rlhautj to 
congratulate his Arrival,. and promised to conduft 
him to the Apalat^an Mountains, which part Caroli- 
na from V^irginia, 

The French conceived great Hopes of this Set- 
tlement, but all vanifh'd on the Arrival of the Spa- 
nlardsj who with a Squadron of Ships and Land For- 
ces, drove the French out of their Forts, kill'd Ri-- 
haut^ and d^oo Men, after having given them Condi- 
tions of Life, and oblig'd Laudoner^ with a few of 
his Countrymen who remained alive, to return to 

The French King took no notice of this A£l 
of Violence committed on his Subje£ls, becaufe 
they were Proteftants •, and indeed 'tis thought 
Coligny intended by this Settlement, to fecure a Re- 
treat for himfelf, and his Brethren of the Reform'd 
Religion, in cafe they were conquer'd in France. 
Feter Melanda commanded the Spaniards, who dif- 
iodg'd the French, and fo provok'd the Indians by 
his Cruelty and Injuftice, that they were very ready 
to revenge them felves when Opportunity offer 'd, as 
it did not long after ;, for Capt. De Corgues^ a French 
Gentleman, at his own coft, fitted out three flout 
Ships, and with 280 Men {v^' A to Carolina^ w^here 
he took the Fort, and put all the Spaniards within it 
to the Sword. They had built two other Forts, 
whicV he eafily redac'd, and fervid the Garrifons 
^s he did that of Fort Charles. He demolifh'd 
them; and was aiiifted by the Kings of Homoloa^ 
and Seravatri, 
The French travell'd into the Dominions of the 
Daw of ^J"^^^ ^^^'§> ^f Apalacha^ near the Mountains, where 
JQd] p. ^^^y converted many Indians to Chriftianity. Thefe 
247, * Indians w^ere mote civil than thofe to the North- 
ward, their Kings Dominion^ larger, and their 
Manners,' ia a great meafure, refem bled the ^^^^^ 

The Hiftory of Carolina. 329^ 

We do not finc^ that Monfieur de Gorgues made 
any Settlement here.-, or that the Spaniards attemp- 
ted to recover the Country *, which from the Year 
i5<?7. lay deferted by all European Nations, till the 
Reign of King Charles 11. of England. In the Year 
1522. feveral Englifh Families flying from the Maf- loid, 
facres of the Indians in Virginia and New-England^ 
were driven on thefe Coafts, and fettled in the Pro- 
vince of Mallicay near the Head of the River of May ^ 
where they afted the Part of MiiTionaries among the 
MalUcans and Jpalachites, The King of the Country 
is faid to have been baptized •, and in the Year i^ts- 
Mr. Brigfiocl^ an Englifhman, went to Apalacha^ 
where he was honourably entertained by his Coun- 
trymen, who were there before him •, and from his 
Relation of the Country our^is taken. 

It will not be unacceptable to the Curious, toADefcrip^ 
fee a Defcription of Carolina^ as it was before the En- ttonofOl^ 
glifh fettled there, which we find very diftinaiy re- Carolina, 
lated in a Difcourfe Printed A. D. 1 5-44. The near- 
eft River^ of any Note^ to Virginia, falling into the 
Sea^ is the Jordan, which lies in 32 Degrees '^ from 
whence J about 20 Leagues downwards to the Souths is 
the Promontory of St. Helen, ^-/^^r Port-Royal, which 
the French chofe for the heft andfureft Place to hegm ^aiteii. p, 
their Plantations. Between the River }ox^i^n and StJ'^' 
Helens, are Oriftanum, Oftanum, and Cayagna ^ 
Oriftanum lying 6 Leagues from St. Helens*, Oftanum 
4 Leagues from Oriftanum *, and Cayagna 8 Leagues 
from Oftanum. From St. Helens to Dos Baxos Haven 
is 5 Leagues. From thence to the Bay de Afapo, 3 
Leagues *, thence to Cafanufium 5, to Gapula 5, to 
Saron ^, to S. Alcany 14, and toS. Peter 20 Leagues.^ 
lying in 3 1 Degrees of Latitude. The next Place is 
San Matt8£0, '5 Leagues from St. Peter. 

Twill be difficult for an Inhabitant of the prefent 
Carolina J to reconcile all thefe Names to the ?\4odern, 
and the old Defcription to the New *, wherefore we 
fhallnot pretend to it, atleaft but occaiionally, and 
where we can be almoft fure that we are in the 

This Country having been abandon'd by all Euro- 
pean Nations for near too Years, itfeem'd reafonable 
ihenj that any cue who would beat the Expence of 


^jo The Hijlory of Carolina. 

fettling upon it, and cultivate it^ fhould pofTefs it -^ 
and the Pretence of Sehajiian Cahofs difcovei-ing it, 
gave the Crown oi England a Title to it, which King 
Charles II. aflerted : For (ome Noblemen and Gentle- 
men begging it of him, he made a Grant of it, by a 
Pattent, bearing date the 24th of March^ 1^5$, to 
Edward Earl of Clarendon^ then Lord High Chancel- 
lour of England^ George Duke oilAlbemarle^ William 
Lord Craven^ John Lord Berkley^ Anthony Lord AJh- 
ley^ Sir George Cartaret^ Sir William Berkley^ and Sir 
John Colliton : Who^ to ufe the Words of the Grand 
Charter, being excited with a lai-dahle and pious Zeal^ 
for the Propagation of the Gofpely heg'd a certain Country 
in the Farts of Americ?. not yet cultivated and planted^ 
and only inhabited by fome barbarous People^ who had 
no Knowledge of God^ dec, wherefore the King granted 
them all that ^Territory ih his Dominions in America, 
from the North End of the I/land called Lucke-Ifland, 
which lies in the Southern Virginian Sea^ and within 3 6 
Decrees of N.Latitude '^ d" to the Weft: as far oi the South 
Seas J andfo Southerly y as far 06 the River San Matt2:o, 
which borders on the Coaft of Florida, and is within 5 1 
Degrees of North Latitude^ and fo Wefiy in a dJreSi 
Line^ as far as the South Seas aforefaid : With all Roy- 
al Fifheries, Mines, Power of Life and Limb, and 
everything neceiTary in *an abfolute Propriety, pay- 
ing a Quit-sent of 20 Marks Yearly. 

We are not to enter into the Merits of the Caufe, 
nor inquire by what Right King Charles became pof- 
iefs'd of this Province, and Carolina to be a part of his 
Do7ninions in America *, 'tis enough for us, that he 
gave the Proprietaries fuch a Charter, and that they 
proceeded towards a Settlement by virtue of it : 
which w^as in a few Years efFe<^\ed. Whatever has 
been faid of the French and Spaniards, 'tis but juft, 
■ that if one Nation does not think a Country worth 
'i^ltivating, and deferts it, another, who has a better 
Opinion of it, may enter upon it, by the Law of 
Nature and Reafon. 

The Proprietaries, after they had got their Char- 
ter, gave due Encouragement for Perfons to fettle in 
this Province, and there being exprefs Provifion made 
in it for a Toleration, and Indulgence to all Chriili' 
ans in the free Exerciie of their Religion, great Num- 

■ ' bers 

The Hifiorj of C^Yolmz. 3?i 

bers of Proteftants, Diffenters from the Churcli of 
England^ retir'd thither. 

This Toleration appears fo firm by this Charter, 
that we wonder any Palatine could prefume to break 
in upon it. The King granted the Proprietaries full 
and free Licenfe, Liberty and Authority, by fuch 
legal Ways and Means, as they ihall think fir, to give 
unto fuch Perfon and Perfons, inhabiting, and being 
within the (aid Province, or any Part thereof, who 
really in their Judgments, and for Confcience fake, 
cannot, or fhall not conform to the Liturgy, Form, 
and Ceremonies of the Church oi England^ and take 
and fubfcribe the Oaths, and Articles, made and efta- 
blifh'din that behalf, or any of them, fuch Indulgen- 
ces and Difpenfations in that behalf, for, and during 
fuch Time and Times, and with fuch Limitations and 
Re{tri£lions, as they, &c, fhall think fit. 

Let us now fee what t\iQ Proprietaries did, purfu- 
I ant to the Power the King had inverted them with, 
I to grant Liberty of Confcience. We cannot have a 
better Authority than the Cafe of the Diffenters in Ca- . 
rolina, publilh'd lately by a Gentleman of this Pro- 

^he firfi: TropHetors werefofenfihle that nothing could p. 27, 
people that Frovince^ and enrich it^ hit an nnlverfai 
and ahfolute Toleration^ that they made the mofi exprefs 
and ample Pr&vifwn for fuch a Toleration that ever was 
jnade in any Conjiitution in the World ^ as may he feen in 
the 96^ loi, 102, 106" Articles of the Fundamental 
Conftitutions : Which provide^ as the Lords Proprie- p, 36. 
taries word it in thofe Conftitutions, Thatfince the 
Natives of that Place^ who will be concerned in our Plan- 
tations^ are utterly Strangers to Chrijiianityy whofe Ido- 
latry ^ Ignorance^ or Miftake^ give us no Right to expel 
or life them illy and that thofe who remove from other 
Tarts to plant there ^ will -unavoidably be of different O- 
pinions concerning Matters ofReligion^ the Liberty where- 
of they willexpeEh to have allowed them ', and that it will 
not be reafonahle for m^ on this account^ to keep them 
ouf^ therefore^ that fur e Peace may be maintain' d^ a- 
midfi the Diverpty of Opinions^ and our Agreement and 
Compacl with all Men may be duly and faithfully obferv'dy 
the f^iolation whereof upon what Pretence foever^ can- 
not be without great Offence to Almighty God^ and great 


^52 The Hijlory of Carolina J i 

Scandal to the trujs Religion^ which we profefs : And alfi 
that Jews^ Heathens^ and other Di[fenterSy from the 
Purity of the Chrifiian Religion^ may not he fcar^d^ and 
''kept at a Dijiancefrom it^ hut hy having an Opportunity , 
of acquainting t he mf elves with the 7 ruth and Reafona- 
hlenefs of its DoBrines^ and the Peaceahlenefs and Jnof- 
fenfivenefs of its ProfelJbrSy may hy good Vf age and Per- 
fwafion^ and all thofe convincing Methods of'Gentlenefs 
and Meeknefs^ fuitahle to the Rules and Defigns of the 
Gofpelj he won over to embrace^ and unfeignedly receive 
thy Truth. Therefore the faid Conftitations provi 
ded for their Liberty, but declared, 7I?^t no P erf on 
above f event em Tears of Age^ Jfjall have any Benefit or ^ 
ProteEhion of the Law^ which is not a Member of fimt^ 
Church or Profeffion^ having his Name recorded in fom\ > 
one religious Record. 

Thus did thefe Lords Proprietaries take care, tha 
Perfons of all ProfeiTions in Religion fliould be pro 
te£|:ed and fecur'd in the free Exercife of them ^ anc 
the Reader thus prepofTefs'd with the Laws of the 
Country^ on \.7hich the Government of the Colony 
is intirely founded, will be the better able to judge 
of the Principles of thofe Men, who in the Sequel c 
this Hiftory, we fhali find endeavouring to over-turr 
the moll confiderable Articles of thefe Fundamentals^ 
for great Numbers of Proteflant Di (Tenters from the 
Church Q^ England^ removing with their Families tc .. 
Carolina^ Vvhen there were fo many Inhabitants, that 
a Form of Government was neceffary, the Proprieta "' 
ries agreed on that abovemention'd, caird, the Fun ; 
damental. Conftitutions, confiding of 120 Articles, ; 
Georse fig^'<3 by the Duke o^ Albemarle^ then Palatine of the \ 
l?Kl:?cfAl-P5^ovince/, the Lord Craven^ the Lord Afhley^ Sir 
bemarle John Colliton^ the Lord Cornbury^ the Lord Berkley^ Sir 
\iUxm. George Cartaret^ the lik o{ March ^ i^Pp. Which 
' ^ !onil:itutions, as is exprefTed in thelafl: Article, fijall 

?, arid remain the facred and unalterable Form and 
Rule of Governm.cntin Carolina /^r ever. 

They were drawn up by that famous Politipian the 
Earl of Shaft shury^ one of the Proprietors, and the 
only one that could be fufpe^led of having the leafl 
Inclination to favour the Difi^enters. The firft Ar- 
ticle of theie Fundamentals, is, that a Palatine Jhall 
be chofen out of one of th§ Proprietaries^ who Jjall con-; 


^^^ Coi 


The Hiftory of CardliiiaJ ' j|^ 

time during Life ^ and be fucceeded by the eldeft of 
the other Proprietaries. The^Palatine has the execu- 
tive Power in moft Cafes, and the reft of the Pro- 
prietaries have their Places and Privileges. Mr. 
Archdale^ in the before-mention'd Treatife, fays. 
They €enter*d all their Tower in four of themy viz. in a 
Palatine of the fr own choojing^ and three more ^who wers 
authorized to execute the whole Powers of the Charter, 
This is caird the Palatine's Court *, and their Deputies 
in Carolina execute it as they are direBed by their 

By the Fundamental Conftitutions, there are to 
be three Hereditary Noblemen in every County^ 
one call'd a Landgrave, and 2 call'd Cafiiques. The 
Parliament confifts of the Proprietors, or their De° 
puties, the Governour and Commons ^ and by the 
Fundamentals fhould have 25 Landgraves, and 5© 
Caffiques to make a Nobility : But the Number of 
Landgraves and Caffiques is very fmall, and they are 
not fummon'd to make an Upper-Houfe, on that 
Account *, fo the Governour and the Proprietors 
Deputies arrogate that Title. The Commoners are , 
cholen by the Free-holders of every County, as the 
Commons in England \ and all were at firft' to fit in, 
one Houfe, and have equal Votes. This Parliament 
fhould meet once in every two Years, and oftner, if 
Occafion require. The Courts of Juflice are, befides 
thofe of the Palatine's Court, the Chief Juftice's 
Court, the High-Conftables Court, tki^ Chancellor's 
Court, the Treafurer's Court, the Chamberlain's 
Court, the High-Steward's Court : Befides which^ 
there are the Great Council and the Hundred Courts. 
Mr. Archdale^ on this Head, tells us, " The Char- 
" ter generally, as in other Charters, agrees on 
'^ Royal Privileges and Powers, but efpecially at that 
** Time it had an over-plus Power to grant Liberty 
" of Confcience, tho at home was a hot perfecuting 
" Time ^ as alfb a Power to create a Nobility^ yet 
" not to have the fame Titles as here in England % 
" And therefore they are there by Patient, under 
. " the Great-Seal of the Province, call'd Land* 
" graves and Caffiques, in lieu of Earls andTord^ 
" and are by their Titles to fit with the Lords Pro- 
" prietors Deputies, and together make the Upper 

^'* Hull 11% 

5 J 4 ^^^ Hijlory of Ca rolina.^ 

" Houfe, the Lower Houfe being ele£^ed by tKe 
*' People. Thefe Landgraves are to have four Ba- 
'^ ronies annex'd to their Dignities, of 6000 Acres 
*' each Barony ^ and the Caffiques two Baronies, of 
" 3000 each, and not to be divided by Sale of any 
9 *^ Part. Only they have Power to let out a third 

*' Part for three Lives, to raife Portions for younger 
" Children. Every County has a Sheriff and four 
' Juftices of the Peace. Every Planter pays i d. an 

Acre Quit-Rent to the Proprietaries, unlefs he buys 
it oil. All the Inhabitants and Free-men, from 1 6 
to 60 Years old, are bound to bear Arms, when com- 
manded by the Great CounciL 

The Proprietaries enter'd into a Joint-Stock, and 
fitted out Ships on their own proper Charges, 
to tranfport People and Cattle thither, which Ex 
pence amounted to 1 2000 /. befides as muck or more 
disburs'd by {ingle Proprietors to advance the Colo 
ny -, and all their Rents and Incomes have fince the 
Beginning been laid out in Publick Services. 

Many DiflTenters of good Eflates went over, and 
many other Perfons, in hopes to mend their For- 
tunes. And if they could tell how to improve the 
Opportunities that were put into their Hands there, 
they had feldom any Reafon to repent of going thi- 

Tho the Difficulties and Dangers they met with 
at firft were a little difeouraging, all free Perfons, 
who came over, were to have 50 Acres of Land for 
themfelves, 50 more for each Man-Servant, and 50 
more for each Woman-Servant Marriageable*, and not 
Marriageable, 40 Acres. Each Servant out of his 
or her Time was to have 50 Acres, paying the Quit- 
Rent of I d. an Acre. 

The Proportion of Land was much greater by the 
firft Inftruftions which the Proprietaries fent their 
Governours, but they afterwards thought fit to re- 
duce it to the prefent Allotment. Some Gentlemen 
who did not care to be liable to the yearly Qiit- 
Rent of I d. an Acre, bought their Lands out- 

The common Rate of purchafing now, is 20 /. for • 
a 100 Acr<;s, and 10 j. a Year Quit- Rent. The 
Proprietors, in all their LeafvS, never forget to ex- 

The Hiftory of Carolina J 555 

cept all Mines, Minerals, and j^^m<?jo/6'^;;;;;/i and " ^ 

precious Stones. 

Things being thus eftablifh'd, the Lords Proprie- 
taries appointed Col. William Sayle^ to be Governour col. Will 
of their Province, about the Year 16-70. The Firft SayieGo-' 
Plantations that came to any Perfection, were about vsmour^ 
Albemarle and Port-Royal Rivers. But AjJAey and 
Cooper Rivers drew People that way, for the 
Convenience of Pafture and Tillage, for which 
Realbn that Part of the Country became moll inha- 

In 1 6-7 1. The Proprietaries fent Cap. Halfted v^ilh. 
a Supply of Provifions and Stores for thQ Colony, 
and created James Cartaretj Sir John Teomans^ and 
JohnLockj Efq*, Landgraves. 

The Conftitutions having been found deficient in 
fome Cafes, Temporary Laws w^ere added, and th^ 
Form of Government fettled thus. 

A Governour nam'd by the Palatine. 

*y 7 Deputies of the Proprietors. 
A Council, f 7 Gentlemen, chofen by the Parll- 
confiding > anient. 

of \ ^ ^^ ^^^^ eldefl Landgraves and 

•J Caffiques. ^^ - 

An Admiral. High-Steward. 

A Chamberlain, High-Conftable. 

Chancellor. Regifter of Births, Buri- 

Chief- Juftice* als, and Marriages. 

Secretary, Regifter of Writings. 

Surveyor. Marfhal of the Admi- 

Treafurer. ralty. 

All which were nominated by the Proprietors 
refpe£lively^ The Quorum of the Council were to be 
the Governijur and 5 Councillors, of whom 3 at kail 
were to be Proprietors Deputies ■, and becaufe there 
were not Inhabitants to make a Parliament, accord- 
ing to the Fundamental Con^kiitions^ 'twas order 'd 
to confift of the Governour, the Deputies of Pro- 
prietors, and twenty Members cholen by the Free- 
holders j of whom ten were to be eleded hj Berk^ 


^i6 The Hifiory of Carolina.^ 

/fj;'s County, and ten by Colliton County •, Which 
number was encreasM, as more Counties were laid 
out, and more People came to fettle in the Pro- , 
Vince. \ 

The Temporary Laws were made in the Year 
William, T.67T.. At which time M&;;^, 'Eulo^ Craven^ was 
^^r/ Cra- Palatine. On which Office he enter'd, after the 
ven, P^- Death of the Duke o{ Albemarle ^ who, as has been 
atine. (-^j^^ ^^g Palatine, when the Fundamental Confimtions 
were (ign'd, but dy'd foon after. In the fame Year 
Cap- Halfted was order'd to make Difcoveries up 
jijhley River,and a Model of a Town was fent,which it 
will be we]l^ if the People of Carolina are able to build 
TOO Years hence '^ but the Proprietaries, as appears 
by their Conftitutions and Inilruftions to their Go- 
vernours^ thought 'twas almofl as eafy to build 
Towns, as to draw Schemes. 
sir John ^^^ "^^^ Governour to Col. Sayle was Sir John 
Yeomans Teomans^ Baronet *, in whofe lime many of the be- 
Go^erw^fyfore-mention'd Tranfa£lions happened, but we have 
not been able to diftinguifh the Events in his Go- 
vernment from thofe in Sayle's,' 

About the Year i^so. the Proprietaries made 
Jofeph Jofeph Weftj E(% one of the firft Planters, their 
Weft Go- Governour. He was a Man of Courage, Wifdom,, 
verrmr. Piety, and Moderation : And fuch an One was ne- 
celTary in his time *, for tho many DiiTenters had fled, 
from the Rage of their Enemies in England^ yet 
there were not wanting Men of other Principles, 
who by Faftions diilurb'd the Peace of the Infant- 
Colony. Mr. Archdale's Word will, in this Cafe, 
be more acceptable to the Reader : " The moit de- 
" fperate Fortunes fir ft ventur'd over to break the 
«' ice, v^/hich being generally the ill Liver? of the 
*' pretended Chiirchnen^ thb the Proprietors commif- 
^^ fionated one Col. Weji their Governour, a mode- 
" rate, juft, pious, and valiant Perfon *, yet having a 
" Council of theloofe piincipled Men, they grew 
'^ very unruly, and had like to have ruin'd the Colo- 
« ny, by abufingthe Indians^ whom in Prudence they/ 
" ought to have oblig'd in the higheft degree, and I 
" fo brought 'An Indian War on the Country, likei 
" that in the firft planting of Virginia^ in which i 
^^ feveral were c\ii ofFy but the Governour, by his: 

" manly, 

The Hijlory of Carolina. 557 

'■^ manly Prudence at leaft in a great meafure ex- 
f tinguifh'd the Flame, which had a long time 
•* threatned the DifTolution of the Colony. The 
|Wo Factions were that of the Proprietaries and that 
jf the Planters, like Court and Country Party in 
England, This Divifion got to fuch a Head, that 
me Mr. John Culpeper was fent Prifoner to En- 
land^ with a Charge of High-Treafon againft 
dm, for raifing a Rebellion in Carolina •, for 
vhich he was try'd at Weflminfl-er-Hallj and 
ipon hearing the Matter, it appeared only to 
)e a diforderly Qiiarrel among the Planters and 
hhabitants of the Province, fo he was acquit- 

! CohWeft: held a Parliament in Charles Town, 
'^. D. 1582. In which feveral Afts were pafs'd and 
atify'd by him, (^Andrew Percivall^ Efq^ William 
)m€n^ Efq*, and Maurice Matthews^ Efq:, Deputies 
;f the Proprietaries^ \ SiSjAn Ati for High-way Sj foi^ 
^ftpprefjing Drunkennefs andprophane Swearing^ for Ob- 
irvation of the Lord's Day^ and for fettling the Mi- 

'Twas in this Governour's Time, that the Wejioes^ 
Nation of the Indians^ were troublefome to the Co- 
Dny, and attempted the Suhverfwn of this hopeful Set- 
lementy as the Aft of Parliament to raife Money 
or repelling them words it. There was not much 
Hood ftied, or Money fpilt ^ for 4 or 500 /. paid 
le Charge of the War, and other publick Ex- 

The Lords Proprietaries erefted a CommifTion for 
^aurict MatthewSy Efq*, William Fuller^ Efq, Jona' 
oan Fit2ij E(% dind ffohn Boon^ Efq*, to decide all Cau- 
ls between the Englifl) and Indians. And^ Mr. Wcji 
i charg"d with dealing in Indians : For which, and 
ppofing the Proprietaries Party, he wasremov'd, in 
leYear 1583. ^^id J'ofeph Moreton^ Elq', appoint- Jofeph 
d Governour in his ftead. Moreton, 

'Twas about this time, that the Perfecution rais'd^y^; <^o-„ 
y the Popiih Faction, and their Adherents, in £/7^-'^"''^(?wr. 
md^ againfl: the Proteftant Difienters, was at ihQ 
eight •, and no Part of this Kingdom iuifer'd more 
y it than So?nerfet-//jire. The Author of this Hi- 
ory liv^d at that time with Mr. Blakc^ Brother to 

Z the 

5 3 8 The Hijiory of Carolina, 

the famous General of that Name, being educatec 
by his Son-in-law, who taught School in Bridgwater'. 
and remembers, tho then very young, the Reafon: 
old Mr. Blake us'd to give for leaving England 
One of which was, That the Miferies they endur'd 
meaning the Diflenters then, were nothing to wha 
he forefaw would attend the Reign of a Popifh Sue 
cefTor ^ wherefore he refolv'd to remove to Carolina 
And he, had fo great an Interefl: among Perfons c 
his Principles, I mean the DifTenters, that many ho 
neft fubftantial Perfons engag'd to go over wit] 

I muft prevent all Prejudice to what I have faid 
by declaring, that this Book is written by one wb 
is not himfelf a DifTenter, but verily believes, th 
true Church of England is the mod Orthodox ant 
the mofl Pure Church in the World. And by th 
true Church of Englandj he underftands all thol 
who live up to the Doftrine it profefles ^ who b 
their Piety, Charity, and Moderation, are Ornameni 
of our Holy Religion, and who do not blindly efpoui 
a Name out of Interefl, or from the Impreffior 
of Education ^ who pity, and not hate, fuch as di 
fent from them *, who are loyal to their Prince, ful 
niifiive to their Superiours, true to their Countr] 
and charitable to all : Of fuch a Temper is ever 
true Church-man *, and may their Number dail 
encreafe, till we are all of One Mind and On 
Religion, as we have but one God and One S< 

If the Reader will pardon this Digreflion, he fha 
have no more •, and (b much 'twas necefTary to fa3 
that he may not think, whatever is faid of Mr. Blah 
or his Brethren, is out of Refpe£l to his Profeffioi 
but as a Chriftian : For tho I doubt not there ma 
be many good Chrifiians of the fame Principles, 
fhould eileem them more, if they would be con vine' 
and conform '^ that the Union fo often recommende 
by our Gracious and Glorious Qaeen Anne^ may b 
univerial. t 

1 fay the more of Mr. Blake^ becaufe his Family 
one of the moft confiderable in this Province *, wher 
he arriv'd in the Year 1^83. with fevcral cthe 
Families, the Followers of his Fortune. What E 


The Hiftory of Carolina.'' 3 j 9 

ftate he had in England^ he fold, to carry the EfFe(^s 
along with him ^ and tho the Sum was not many 
Thoufands, if it did at all deferve the plural Number '^ 
yet 'twas all that his Great Brother left him, tho for 
ifeveral Years he commanded the Britifi Fleet *, and 
in a, time when our Naval Arms were viftorious^ 
and xhQ Treafures of New-Spain feldoni reached 

i By Mr. Blah's Prefence in Carolina^ the Sober 
Varty^ we call them fo in oppofition to Mr. Arch- 
dale's III Livers^ began to take Heart, and the other 
Ito be difcourag*d in their irregular Courles. The 
jGentleman I juft mention'd, in his Defcriptlon of 
Carolina^ writes thus : In Governour MoretotiV Time^ 
general Blake V Brother^ with many Dijfenters^ came to 
Carolina ^ which Blake being a wife and prudent Perfon, 
}if anheroick Temper of Spirit^ jirengthned the Hands of 
(pher inclined People^ and kept under the firji loofe and ex- 
travagant Spirit^ Sec, The Governour, as we are 
|:old, marry'd Mrs. Eliz^abeth Blake^ his Daughter , 
lind by this Alliance, the Strength of their Party 
|Vas fo encreas'd, that we hear little of the other 
lill Mr. G?///fo«'s Government. 
\ There being fome Complaints againft Mr. Mat- 
Shews^ and the other Commiilioners for deciding 
[;3aufes between the Engiifl) and the Indians^ they 
vere difcharg'd, and the Commiflion abrogated. 
|rhe Lords Proprietaries order'd the Indians 400 
^iles from Checks Town, to be taken into their 

The County of BerUey^ between Stono and Sewee^ 
vas now laid out *, and fbon after Craven County, 
)n the North of Berkley *, and Colliton County, on 
ihe South : All which Counties were divided into 
ilquares of 12000 Acres, for the feveral Shares of the 
Proprietaries, Landgraves, and Caffiques. 

Mr. Moreton^ at his entering up6n his Office, 
:aird a Parliament, which met in Form, and pafs'd 
several A£ls *, as, Eor raifing 500 1. for defraying the 
i^ublick Charge of the Province -, for regulating the Sur- 
veyor General's fees j for raifing the lvalue of Foreign 
^oin ^ for Trial of fmall and mean Caufes vnder 40 s. 
for Damage of protejied Bills of Exchange *, for afcer^ 
\aining Puhlici Officers Fees •, to fufprad Profecntiofi 
|V Z 2 for 

340 The Hijlory (?/ Carolina. 

for Foreign Debts *, to inhibit the trading with Servant 

or Slaves *, for laying out^ and making good High-Ways 

for preventing the taking away Boats and Canoos *, /<?; 

marking of all forts of Cattle ^ to prevent unlicem'c 

'Taverns and Vunch-Houfes^ and afcertaining the Rate. 

and Prices of Wine^ and other Liquors ^ to proven 

' Runar9{iys, All which A£ls were fign'd by Jofep\ 

Moreton^ Efq*, Governour, John Godfrey^ Elq^ jii$ 

Boon J Eiq*, James Moor^ Efq*, Maurice Matthews 

Efq^ Andrew Tercivall^ Efq^ Arthur Middleton^ Efq 

Counfellors and Deputies ^ and Mr. Jofeph Oldp. 

Clerk to the Parliament. At this time, Robert Gths 

Efq', was Treailirer of the Colony ^ John Moor^ Efq 

I Secretary ^ John Boon^ Efq, Robert Daniel^ Efq 

Mr. Bernard Schinkingh) Mr. Peter Hearn^ an( 

Cap. Florence O Stdhvan^ were appointed Commil 

fionersfor dating and palling the Publick Accounti 

Maurice Matthews^ E(q°, was alfo Surveyor-Gene 

ral. The Trade of dealing in Indians continu'd, am 

feveral of ^i\s. Proprietors Deputies were concern' 

in it : Whether the Governour, Mr. Moreton^ fa 

vour'd it or not, we cannot undertake to determint 

'Tis certain, he did not long enjoy his Office : Fori 

appears by the Copies of the Original Inftrudlions 

fent by the Proprietaries to his SuccefTor, that in th 

sir Rich, following Year the Pallatine made Sir Richard Kyrl 

Kyrle Go- Governour. He was a Gentleman of Ireland ^ aa 

vemour. dying within the Year, Jofeph IVefr^ Efq^ was agai 

IPj'^Ph ^ choien Governour by the Council j and being a Mai 

J5'„'',^{^' of great Interefl, the Proprietaries thought fit t 

■^Qvsrnour ^^p^j.^^^ j^^^^^ j^ i^^g Government : But they turn* 

out Maurice Matthews^ Efq, James Moor^ Efq, an. 
Arthur Middleton^ Efqj from being Deputies ant 
Councillors, for difobeying their Orders, and fenc 
ing away Indians. They alfo difplac'd their Secr€ 
tary John Moor^ Efq^ and put Rob, Quarry ^ Efq', i 
his Place. 

Thus we f?e the latter has enjoy'd honourabl 
Offices many Years in. the American Colonies ', wit 
the Inter.eil of which he mufl, by this means, be ver 
well acquainted. 

In Mr. V/eji's fecond Government, the Right He 
nourable the Lord Cardrojfe remov'd to Carolina. 
SLiidy with ten Scots Families, fettled at Port-Royai 


The Hijlory of Carolina. 541 

fefteem'd the moft convenient Place in this Vrovince 
jfor Commerce, as bein^thebeft ?ort. The Lord Car- 
\idrojfe having been dilgufted with the Government 
iof the Province, for fbme ill Ufage he met with, re- 
jiturn'd to Scotlandj and the Spaniards diflodg'd the 
jSc^fj", who had leated themlelves on that fine Riven 
This Lord was of the Houfe of Buchan^ and in King 
William's Reign enjoy'd the Title of Earl of Bu- 
ck an. 

DifTenters continuing to come hither from all 
(Parts of England^ the Colony thriv'd and encreas'd 
in Numbers and Riches. 

James Colliton^ Efq*, of Barhadoes^ Brother to Sir 
?eter Colliton^ Baronet, a Proprietary, being honour'd 
with the Title of Landgrave, left thg Ifland he liv'd 
tn, and tranfported himfeif and Family to Carolina^ 
ivhere he feated himfeif at old Charles Town, on 
Cooper-KiVQX^ built a handfome Houfe there 5 and 
being made Governour, his Seat is to this Day James 
:aird the Governour's Houfe. Had this Gentleman Colliton, 
lad as much Honour and Capacity as his Brother Sir Ejq-^ Go- 
Feterj we fhould have had no Occafion to excufe vcmour, 
mt felves for keeping to the Truth of Hiftory in 
lis Behalf, One of his SucceiTors writes in this 
Manner of his Government : ' The Party Governour Mr. Arch» 

• Moreton had gone a great v/ay in fuppreffing, grew dale'i De- 
•now fo ftrong among the Common People, thditfcription of 

• thqy chofe Members to oppofe whatfoever the Go-^arohna. 
' vernour requeued ;, infomuch that they would not 
'fettle the Militia A£l, tho their own Security de- 

■ pended on it, and that it would be Grounds of 

• their further Strength. The Reafon of the Dif- 
:ontent the People lay under, were Difputes about 
:he Tenure of their Lands, and Payment of their 
Qiiit- Rents, which were not fettled till Mr. Arch-- 
^dale's Government. 

Mr. ColUton call'd a Parliament, A, D. i^S/. 
Irhis AfTembly not liking t]i^ Proprietaries fun- 
Hamental Confiitmions ^ and thinking they could fup- . 
iply the Deficiencies in them, appointed a Committee 
jto examine them : And thefe Gentlemen drew up 
k new Form of Government, diifering in many 
^'Articles from the former *, to which they gave the 
Title pf Standing Laws^ ^nd Temporary Laws. This 


£fq^ Go- 


Col. Rob. 



O/. Philip 
Smith J 
Efq\ Go- 

The Hiflory of Carolina, 

Commirtee wQre James Colliton^ Efq*, Governouif, 
Taut GrlmhaU^ Efq*, and William Dmlop^ Efq^ De- 
puties *, Bernard Schinking^ Thomas Smithy John Farr^ 
and Jofeph Blake^ Efqs', Commoners. But neither: 
the Lords Proprietaries, nor the People of Carolina 
accepted of them •, and thus the Fundamental 
Confiitutions keep their Ground to this Day. 

Mr. Colliton gave fuch Difcontent in his Admini- 
frration, that he was banifti'd the Province ^ a Fate 
few Governours of Colonies were ever fo unhapp^f' 
as to meet with. 

Mr. Archdale tells us, Mr. Smith fucceeded 
Mr. Colliton^ and that he fucceeded Mr. Smith 
but then the latter mufl have been twice 
Governour : For we find feveral other Gentle* 
men, who had that Title and Office before 
the Year 16-^4. when Mr. Archdale fays, Governoui 
Smith wrote over to the Proprietaries, to advife 
them to fend one of their Number to Carolina, For 
Col. Robert Quarry was Governour about the Yeai 
1 690, After him, Mr. Southwell. And in the Year 
1 692. Col. Fhilip Ludwell held this Government. In 
which 'tis certain, he was fucceeded by the above- 
mention'd Thomas Smithy Efq*, Landgrave of this 

We are not doubtful of any Error in this Order 
of the Governours, except in Mr. Southwell's 
our Informations having been uncertain as to 

' Mr. Smith J fays Mr. Archdale^ was a wife, fo- 
*■ ber, well-living Man •, who grew fo uneafy in the 
* Government, by Reafon he could not fatisfy People 
^ in their Demands, that he wrote over. Anno 16 9\. 
^ It was impoffihle to fettle the Country^ except a PrO' 
' prietary himfelf was jent thither^ with full Power to 
^ hear their Grievances. The Proprietaries took 
Governour Smith's Letter intoConfideration, and ths 
Lord Afhley was pirch'd upon by all the Lords as a 
Perfon every way qualify'd for fo good a Work : 
but he defir'd to be excus'd, on Account of his par- 
ticular Affairs in England. Upon which Mr. Arch- 
dale was chofen by the Proprietaries, to be fent 
over with large and ample Powers. Which having 
r^ceiv'd, he embark'd and fail'd to Caralina. When 


The Hijiory of Carolina. 54 j 

he arriv'd, and enter'd upon the Government, in John 
Augufij 1695* he found all Matters in great Confu- -^rchdale 
■fior], and every Faction apply'd themfelves to him, ^/?j ^^" 
m. hopes of Relief. In order to which hefummon'd^^'^^^"''? 
m Afiembly, and made a kind Speech to them. The 
Parliament chofe Jonathan Amary Efq^ to be their 
speaker \ and having prefented a dutiful Addrefs to 
-m Qovernour, proceeded to do Bufincfs, But the 
Divifions among them were fo great, that had not 
"Mr. A^chdak exercis'd a great deal of Patience, nei- 
ther his Power as Governour, nor his higher Title 
3f Proprietary, could have brought that Airembly to 
my Temper , which he at laft efFe6led, and the 
Diforders of the Province were remedy'd. 

The Parliament prefented an Addrefs of Thanks to 
:he Governour,to be tranfmitted to the Proprietaries, 
md all things ended well. In his time t\iQTamma-> 
feesy an Indian Nation, who formerly liv'd under 
the Spanifh Government, and now under the Eng- 
ifh, made an Incurfion into the Territories of ano- 
ther Indian Nation, near SanEta Maria^ not far from 
St, Auguflino^ took feverai Prilbners., and intended 
jto fell them for Slaves at Barhadoes or Jamaica j as 
[had been ufuai among them. Mr. Archdale h^mng 
of it, fent for the Kingof cheT^;;z;;j^/^^j, and order 'a 
[him to bring thofe Indians to Charles Town, which 
[he did. They were Papiils °, and the Kings of Eng- 
ildnd and Spain being at that time Confederates, the 
iGovernour gave the King of the Tammafees Orders to 
Icarry them to St, Augufiino^ v^ith a Letter to the 
[Governourj which may ferve to give us an Idea of 
I the Power of an Indian King, who receives Orders 
[from a Governour of a {mall Province, as Carolina 
I was then at lead, whatever it is now. 

The Spaniard who commanded in St Augufiino^ re- 

rturn'd Mx.Archdale a Letter of Thanks ', and not long 

after another Indian King v^as fent by the Spanifl^ 

Governour, with a Letter of Complaint, of wrong 

done the Spaniih Indians by thofe ally'd to the Eng- 

, The Spanifh Indians were called Churchcates •, of 

■ whom th^ Apalachicoloesj Englifh Indians, hadkill'd 

three. The Governour commanded that Nation^ 

I and all others depending on the Engliftij to forbear 

344 The Hijiory of Carolina.^ 

molefting thofe within the Spanifh Jurirdi£^ioii ; 
which had fo good an EfFeft, that when Mr. Robert 
Barrow^ Mr. Edward Wardell^ and other Engliihmen, 
were afterward call away to the Southward oi Augu- 
fiinoy the barbarous Indians ofFer'd them no hurt ; 
and when they arriv'd at that Town, the Governour 
fupply'd them with all Neceffaries. 

Col. Bull^ one of the Council, and a greater Tra- 
der with the Indians, engag'd that Nation which 
dwelt about Cape Fear^ to fubmit to the Englifh, 
who however were afi aid to truft them \ for a VefTel 
coming from New-England being fhipwrack'd on that 
Coall, xxiQ Paflengers, to the Number of 5^, de- 
fpair'd of their Lives from thofe Barbarians, but re- 
folv'd to defend them fe Ives as well as "-they could-^ 
Accordingly they entrench'd in their little Camp. 
The Indians came down, and by Signs of Friendfhip 
invited them to come forth ^ which they were afraid 
to do. At lafl, when their Provifions were almofl 
all fpent, fomeofthem ventur'dout, were kindly re- 
ceiv'd, and furnifh'd by the Indians with NeceiTaries. 
The King invited them to his Town, treated them : 
and 4. or 5 of them travelling to Charles Town. 
gave the Governour notice of their Misfortunes* 
which hearing, he fent a Ship to fetch the reft *, and 
they arriv'd fafely at the Capital o^ Carolina. 

In Mr. Archdale's Time, two Indians quarrelling 
in their Drii^iking, one of them prefently kill'd the 
other "^ whofe Wife being by, immediately difmem- 
ber'd t\iQ Murderer, to revenge her Husband's* 
Death, cutting off his Privities with a Knife. The 
Governour happening to be near the Place where the 
Murder was committed, order'd the Criminal to be 
purfu'd. He was taken in a Swamp about 16- Miles 
from the Town ^ to which he was fent under a Guard. 
The Nation to whom the flain Indian belong'd, hear- 
ing Q^ his Death, their King came to Mr. Archdale^ 
and defir'd Juftice upon the Murderer. Some oi 
^ whofe Friends would have bought him off as ufual ; 
but nothing left, than his Death would fatisfy the 
in jur'd Nation ^ and, according to the Cuftom of his 
own Country, the Governour order'd him to be (hot 
by the Kinfman of the Deceas'd. Ashe was leading 
to Execution^ his King came to him, and bid him 

. • • dM 

The Hiftory of Carolina. 545 

die like d Man^ fince he myji die^ adding, he had often 
forewarned him ofRum^ the liquor which he was drank 
with when he kill'd the Man, and now he mufi loofi 
hlf Life for not taking his Council, 

When he came to the Tree, he defir'd not to ba 
ty'd to it, bat to ftand loofe, faying, Iwlll not Jiir when 
he J/joots me. So he was fhot in the Head, and fell 
down dead. 

This Piece of Juflice hindered a War between the 
Nations to which thefe two Indians belong'd. The 
Indians inhabiting the Country about the River Tern- 
licoy were almoft all confum'd by a Peftilential Dif- 
eafe, while this Governour was in Carolina *, and t\iQ 
Coranines^ a bloody and barbarous People^ were mofi of 
them cut off by a neighbouring Nation, 

In his Time feveral Families remov'd from New- 
England^ to fettle at Carolina^ and feated themfelves 
on the River Sewee^ in North Carolina, Thefe are all 
the Events which happen'd during Mt, Arch dale's Qo- 
vernment, atleaft he has thought fit to communicate 
no more to the Publick *, and as inconHderabie as they 
may appear to fome Perfons, who are us'd to turn o- 
ver the Graecian and Roman Hiftories, if they will 
give themfelves the Trouble to examine the Affairs 
of thefe two Empires, they will find them as trivial, 
in the beginning at leafl, if they can diflinguifii the ' 
Hiftory from the Fable, 

We cannot expeft much Bufinefs in the Infancy of 
a Colony *, and yet Carolina is not fo young, but 
Faftions have been as rampant there, as if the People 
had been made wanton by many Ages of Profpe- 

Mr. Archdale^ to ufe his own Phrafe, Returned for 
England, being not fent for home. And Jofeph Blake^JoCci^h 
Efq^ Son of the before-mention'd Mr. j5/^I^, being Blake 
become a Proprietary, was look'd upon as the fitteft ^A» ^^' 
Perfon to fucceed him in his Government^ in which ^'^^^^^^^^' 
Office he behav'd himfelf to the Satisfa6lion of the 
Country, whichhegovern'd with equal Prudence and 

In his time Major Daniel hi:oug}it from England 
new Conftitutions, confiding of 41 Articles, where- 
in as ample Provifion was made for Liberty of Con- 
fcience, a^ in th^ Fundamental Coiiditutions. Thefe 


54^ 3T&^ Hifiory of Carolina. 

John £^r/ new Laws were call'd, ihQ h9i Fvndamental Conjlim-^ 
of Bath tions^ and fign'd by Jf?/:;?Earlof ^4f/7y Palatine ;> An- 
FaJatine, tyny Lord Ajkley^ the Lord Craven^ the Lord C ana- 
ret^ the Earl or ^^f/?, S'vcjohn Collltonj William 
Tljornburgh Merchant, Thomas Amy^ and WiL Thorn- 
hurgh *, but they were never confirm'd in Parliament 
at Carolina. 

Mr, Blake^ tho he washimfelfa Diflenter, finding 
there was no fettled Maintenance for the Church of 
England Minifler, procur'd an kdc of AfTenibly (in 
which there were a great Number of DifTenters) tor 
the fettling a very convenient Houfe, with a Glehe^ 
two Servants, and i$o L per Annum upon the Mini- 
fter of Charles Town for ever. 'Twa? by his Influ- 
ence that A£l paft, and he gave his Aifent to it \ 
he, as Governour, having a negative Voice to all 
Bills. His Lady alfowas one ofthe greateft Benefa- 
£lors towards the Ornaments of the Church. And 
this Friendfbip deferv'd a more grateful Return than 
they met with from thofe who fucceeded in the Go- 

Mr. Blake dying about the Year 1 700. after he had 
been Governour 4 or 5 Years, the Proprietaries De- 
puties met, according to their Inftru^lions in fuch 
CafeSj and proceeded to the Eleif^ion of a new Gover- 
nour ^ which Poft is generally coaferr'd on the eldeft 
Landgrave, if there's no Objetbion to him, and no 
Perfon fent ixoxs\ England with that Chara£ler. 

Jofeph Moreton Efq*, being the elded Landgrave, 
was ele£led Governour by the Deputies : but Capt. 
^ames Moor^ one of thefe Deputies, knowing the 
Party he had among them, objefted againft Mr. More- 
ten^ as if he had made a Breach of the Truft repos'd 
in him by the true and abfolute Lords and Proprieta- 
ries, by accepting of a Commiflion from King Willi- 
am^ to be Judge of the Admiralty, when he had at 
the fame time a Commillion from the Lords. Proprie- 
taries for the fameOfHce. 

^ Tho this Objection was anfwer'd by Mr. Moreton'% 
Friends ', Tloat it did not appear by the Charter, the 
Proprietaries can impower any one to tryPerfonsfor FaBs 
committed out of their Dominions, which is neceffary for 
fuch a Judge *, and the Proprietaries could not grant 
%>} yet fuch wa^ Mr. Moof% Intereft, that on this 
^ ' ' his 

The Hi/lory of C2iVo\im. 547 

his Obje£^ion Mr. Moreton was fetafide, and hisOp-C'<7j. Jame* 
ponent Mr. Moor chofen Governour. Mr. Moreton ^^^"^ ^o- 
inform'd and complain'd to the Proprietaries, but ^^''"^'*^' 
I was never redreft. 

I From this Eleaion 1 date the Rife of all the Mif- 
fortunes that have fince befallen this Colony, and 
that have given the Government of England fo much 
, Trouble. 

I - The Earl of Bath was dead, and his Son John Lord Jphn toH 
Granville^ lately advanced to the Houfe of Peers, was ^^^^^7^;^® 
Palatine. All the World knew how zealous that ^ '^'^^'^^^• 
Gentleman had been for promoting a Bill againft Oc- 
cafional Conformifts in England^ and that he ihew*d 
his Averfion to DilTenters even in the Court of 5f^??- 
??mf J in the >F>^, while he was Warden. TheBit- 
ternefs of his Spirit appeared in the Speeches he made 
to the Reprefentatives of that Court *, and was fuch, 
that he was not long employ'd by a Government, 
which is founded on Principles of Juftice and 
Moderation •, which has in all things promoted 
Union, and wnich has united the Hearts of all the 
Subjefts of the Britifli Empire more than all ihQ 
Princes could do fince the Conquefl^ and many Ages 
before it. 

In an ill time therefore did this Palatine counte- 
nance the Divifions in Carolina^ by encouraging this 
and the fucceeding Governour in their vain Endea*» 
vours, to eflablifh that for a Law there, which had 
been reje£led with fuch Marks of Abhorrence in Eng" 
land by our Illuftrious Reprefentatives, 
f t Mr. Moor was eafily confirm'd in his new Dignity 
by the Palatine •, and as he is faid to have fought after 
it, to enrich himfelf, fo he madeufe of it to that end, 
he being in mean Circumftances, iftheReprefenta- 
tion of the principal Inhabitants of the Colony does 
not deceive us. 

Let us give the Reader the proper Words, that we 
' may not be accus'd of Partiality, which we deteft in 
all things that hurt the Truth, But we know very 
well, that Faftion will often accufe Faft of Partiali- 
ty *, and an Hiftorian may write Things true, and 
yet by writing the Truth only of one Side, and con- 
cealing what is to its Difadvantage, it may give a 
plaiifmle Appearance to a bad Caufe -^ wherefore 

54? The Hijlory of Carolina J 

< we foleuinly declare^ that after a full Enquiry we 

have not been able to learn any thing that could ex- 
cufe the Diforders we are about to relate, and vindi- 
cate the Adminiftration in Carolina^ while the Lord 
Granville was Palatine. Whether that Lord or his 
Governours ought to be blam'd moft, let the World 
Cafe of Mr. Moor^ fays the Author of the above-mention* d 
Dtjf' in Reprefentation, having thus boldly gotten the Go- 
Car.f.spi vernment, refolv'd to make the heft ufe of his Autho- 
30. fiiy^ and finding hinifelf too poor,, with the Counte- 

nance of his Office, tonii^ke any confiderable Profit 
of the Indian Trade^ he laid the Defign of getting it 
wholly into his Power. He to that end procured a Bill 
to be brought into the AiTembly, then fitting, for re- 
gulating the Indian Trade : Which Bill was fo drawn, 
that ha.d it pafl, he would have eagrofs'd all that be- 
neficial Commerce. Bat Mr. Robert Stephens^ and 
Mr. Nicholas Trott (who had not then forfaken the 
Country IntereftJ and fome other?, fo plainly lhew*d 
the ill Aim of that Acl, that 'twas thrown out of the 
AiTembly : Which Mr. Moor difiblv'd, perceiving 
they would not anfwer his Ends. 

We do not think our Selves obliged to keep to the 
Words of this Reprefentation, which are too rough 
in fome Places *, but we keep religioufly to the Senfey 
and having refer'd the Reader in the Margintto our; 
Authority, he cannot fuppofe we endeavour to im* 
pofeon him. 

The Governour call'd a new Afiembly about the 

latter end of the year 1 70 1 , At the choofing of which, 

tho the Right of Elefking be in the Freeholders only,' 

he fo it^fiuenc'd the Sherijf^ that Str anger s^, Servant s<, 

'jiliens J ??:'^j/,Malat6es and Negroes pere poH'dj and re* 

turn'd. ; 

Such as at the Place of Eledion oppos'd thefe Pra- 

fticesj were abus'd, .^nd fome afiaulted by Mr. Moo/s 

Favourites. By this means having got feveral into 

the AiTembly, iMeii of no Senfe and Credit, who, 

would vote as he woii'd have them v he there kept 

them f'om being thrown out, on the Petition of thofe 

who were unjuftly excluded. 

Colliton County fent a Reprefentation againfi: him to 
the Palatine, containing 'm Subfi:ance the f^me,,. as 
• ^ ' that 

The Hi/lory of Carolina: 3 49 

that we have fpoken of before •, therefore we cannot 
fufped the Truth of it. 

When the GoVernour was afraid any of the Mem- Ibid. p. 34.; 
bers he was fure was in his Intereft would be turn'd 
out, on Petitions, he prorogued the Aflembly : And 
when at laft they were fuffer'dto fit, the Inquiry into 
the Sheriff of Berkley County's Return was obftru- 
^ed, by fetting on foot an ill contriv'd Deiign of rai- 
fmg Forces to nuckSt, AugujHno^ a Fo/t belonging 
to the Spaniards, to the Southward of C^ro///2^. If 
' any Member oi the AiTembly undertook to Ipeak a- 
gainft it, and to Ihew how unable the Province was 
' at that time to undertake fuch an Expedition, he was 
■ prefently look'd upon by him, and his Adherents, as 
an Enemy and Traitor to his Country^ and accor-P. 35* 
dingly revil'd and affronted ', tho the true Deltgn of 
the Expedition, as the Reprefentation from Colliton 
County tells us, \n^% m other than catching and making 
[ Slaves of Indians^ for private Advantage, He would 
i have had this Military Enterprize been undertaken 
i before the War with Spain was proclaimed j but the 
Affembly carry'd that in the Negative. 

Before we treat of this Expedition, we mufi: ob- 
\ ferve what paft further in the AiTembly. Mr. John 
Affj-i one of the Members, proposed to have the lad 
Fundamental Conftitutions^ which Mr. Daniel brought 
over,'confirm'd •, but he was oppos'd by Mr. Tr(??r Ibid, 
and Mr. How^ the Governour's Creatures. 

This Mr. Trott had himfelf been Governour ofPr^- 
vidence^ and behav'd himfelf fo arbitrarily, that he 
• was complain'd of to King William fome Years before.. 
Trott and How expos'd the Conftitutions as ridicu- 
lous^ and the Country wasthus left in an unfettled 
Condition. / 

I There's one Article in this Reprefentation which 
is very extraordinary : That the faid late Governor 
Moor did grant Ommijjions to Anthony Dod^worthj 
Robert Mackoone, and others y to fet iipon^ affzult^CoU Coufi' 
killj dejiroy^ and take as many Indians as they poffihly tf Sjp\ 
could ^ the Profit and Produce of which Indian Slaves AnUk $. 
were tur/i'd to his private Z^fe. Whereas fuch Vnder- 
takings^ tinjyfi and barbarous in themfelveSy will in all 
Probability draw upon m an Indian War* 


5 $o The Hijiory of Carolina. 

We have faid enough to give an Idea of the Condi- 
tion t}ie People of Carolina were in under fuch a Go 
vernment, and have taken it all from Memorials pre- 
fented by their Agents to the Lords Proprietaries. 
The next thing that comes in our way is the War oi 

Two thoufand Pounds were rais'd by an A£l of the 
AlTembly, to defray the Charge of this Expedition. 
The Governour preft as many Merchant Ships as 
were necelTary to tranfport the Troops he intended 
to embark j who were ordered to rendezvous at Tort 

The Number of Men which were lifted for this 
Enterprize were 1200, ^oo Englifh, and 500 Indi- 
ans. Col. Moor took the Command on himfelf, as 
General of all the Forces that fhould be rais'd within 
the Limits of his Government. 

CoL Rob, Damelj 2l very brave Man, commanded 
a Party who were to go up the River in Periaga^s^ 
arid come upon AuguHim on the Land fide, while 
the Governour fail'd thither and attacked it by Sea. 
They both fet out in ^^/gw^, 1702. Clo\, Daniel in. 
his Way took St. John'Sj a fmall Spanifh Settlement ^ 
as alio St. Mary% another little Village, belonging 
to the Spaniards. After which he proceeded to Jlu- 
g^filno^ came before the Town, enter'd and took it ^ 
Col. Moor not being yet arriv'd witli-the Fleet. 

The Inhabitants having notice of the Approach of 
the Englifh had pack'd up their beft EfFedls, and re- 
tir'd with them into the Caftie, which was furroun- 
<3ed by a very deep and broad Moat. 

They had laid up Provifions there for 4 Months, 
and relolv'd to defend thenifelves to the laft Extremi- 
ty. However Col. Daniel found a confiderable Boo- 
ty in the Town. The next Day the Governour ar- 
riv'd, and a Council of War was immediately cali'd, 
in which 'twas refolv'd to land. 

Accordingly the Governour came alliore, and his 
Troops following him, they entrench'd, ported their 
Guards in the Church, and block'd up the Caftie. 
The Englifh held the PofTeffion of the Town a whole 
Month , but finding they could do nothing for want 
of Mortars and Bombs, they difpatch'd away a Sloop 
for Jamaica , but the Commander of the Sloop, in- 



f5« fftfto (e^^ -»^) ^^^-^^-^ r^^«^fM, r^rrx«i,Q«s ot-^ gfS 

>l^ (i^ ■tt^y.^ 'Mr.ftWtai^l. Tat P>«n . PjKni it Jar, .^. OZQ^^S^. 4^ c _ •?. ' 


.« tfUv'^- 

S CLrr\ rntce-t 

1^-f^.i::;^ ^-yfefrSr- J^,-^^ 

vcxrve^ ^fi^?!?!?^ <,-^e,corv^„u«V3 c*, (J^^e^ J^^^ ^'^'^J* 
«S^^ preezaMrre-o At^J-'iS ©ppft/titt *>«*«, ft txe-Uberv 

^V-^ ^^^^^td ^ of i^ - *^ .f'T ^ 

VJ 04 1 rv 

The Hijlory of Carolina^ 351 

ftead of going thither, came to Carolina^ out of Fear 
or Treachery. Finding others offered to go in his 
ftead, he proceeded in the Voyage himfelfj after he 
had lain (bme time at Charles-Town, 

The Governour all this while lay before the Caftle 
of Avguftinoj in Expe6lation of the Return of the 
Sloop : Which hearing nothing of, he fent CoU 
Danielj who was the Life of the Aftion, to Jamaica^ 
on the fame Errand. 

This Gentleman being hearty in the Defign, pro- 
cured a Supply of Bombs, and return'd towards -^«- 
gufllno. But in the mean time two Ships appear 'd in 
tht Offing^ which being taken to be very large Mea 
of War, the Governour thought fit to raife the Siege, 
and abandon his Ships, with a great Quantity ol 
Stores, Ammunition, and Provifion, to the Enemy. 
Upon which the two Men of War enter'd the Port 
of -^^g2<^/;?«?, and took the Governour's Ship?. Some 
fay he burnt them himfelf Certain it is, they were 
lofl to the Englilh, and that he return'd to C^<^/^J- 
Town over Land, 300 Miles from ^2/^zy^/;^<7. The 
two Men of War that were thought to be fo large, 
prov'd to be two fmall Frigats, one of 22, and the 
other of 1 6 Guns. 

When CoL Daniel came back to Aifgufiino^liQ 
was chas'd, but got away *, and Col. Mocr retreated 
with no great Honour homewards. The Feriagas 
lay at St yohn\ whether the Governour retir'd, 
and fo to Charles Town, having loft but two Men 
in the whole Expedition. Arratommakaw^ King of 
the TaniofeaveSy who commanded the Indians^ re- 
treated to the Periagas with the reft, and there llept 
upon his Oars, vnth a great deal of Bravery and 
Unconcern. The Governour's Soldiers taking $ falfe 
Alarm, and thinking the Spaniards were comings 
did not like this (low Pace of the Indian King in his 
Flight *, and to quicken him in it, bad him make 
more Hafte : But he reply'd. No *, tho your Go- 
vernour leaves you, 1 will not ftir till I have feen 
all my Men before me. 

TheFirft Reprefentation, cali'd alfo. The prefentlh.p, 30.' 
State of Affairs m Carolina, refie^ls a little too bit- 
terly on CoL i^(?or on this Head *, and one would 
(ufpedt the Truth of what it contains, if it was not 


5 $2 The Wfiory of Caroling. 

Confirm'd by the fecond. We are told there, The^ 
fent Flunder to Jamaica by their trufiy Officers^ vnder 
Colour of feekmg Supplies^ and fending for Bombs and 
Mortars, Which is a malicious Turn given by Col. 
Mocr's Enemies to Col. Daniel's going to Jamaica^ 
who by the Difpatch he made there fhew*d he went 
really for Mortars^ and had the Governourftaid till 
he had return'd, the Caftle of Auguftino had perhaps 
now been in EngUfh Hands *, for the Spaniards had 
not above 200 Men aboard the ttvo Figats. This 
Expedition, as unfortunate as it was in it felf, was 
much more fo in the Cpnfequence of it \ for it 
brought a Debt of ^000 /. on the Province. The 
AlTembly had been under a Prorogation during the 
Governour's Abfence, and when he return'd they 
niet. The firft thing they went upon, was to raife 
Money to pay off the Debt above-mention'd, and 
then they took into Confideration the Danger of 
the Country, as it lay expos'd to the Southward. 
Eut while thefe Bills" were paffing, another for the- 
better regulating Eleflions, pafs'd the Lower Houfe; 
twice, and was fent up to the Governour and Coun-'^ 
cil, by whom 'twas reje£led without fb much as a!^ 
See the po^ference., Upon which feveral of the Members, 
i^eprefen- j^^-^ous of their Privileges, and being fo ordered by 
tatioyi of thofe that fent them, enter'd their Proteflation, and 
the Mera- left the Houfe ^ but return'd the next Day, offering | 
bers of to fit longer if the refl of the AfTembly would join | 
Colliton with them, in alTerting their Right. The whole j 
toumy, AfTembly confifls of but 30 Members, and 15 of| 
them protefled againfl the irregular Proceedings of I 
the Governour. Inftead of tempering Matters, 
when they return'd to the Houfe, they were abus'd 
and treated with the moft fcandalous Reflection's, 
unbecoming an AfTembly that reprefented a whole 
Province. And as they were infulted within Doors, 
they were affaulted without *, for a Day or two af- 
ter Lieut. Col. George Dearsby drew his Sword upon 
Tloo'mas Smithy Efq', a Landgrave, and once Gover- 
nour of the Colony, threatning his Life. John jifl)^ 
Efq;, a Member of the Aflembly, was not only abus'd 
in the Srreets by a Company of Drunken Fellows, 
but forc'd aboard a Ship belonging to Cap. Rhett^ and 
threatned to be hang'd, or fent to Jamaica^ or lef 

The Hijlory of Carolina. 3 55 

on fome Defart-Ifland. This Mr. A/h is the Man 
who was em ploy 'd as Agent for the People of Ca- 
rolinaj to reprefent their Grievances in the firft Me- 
morial, caird, Theprefem State of Affairs z;^ Carolina^ 
and the Perfons who thus barbaroufly treated him, 
were George Dear shy ^ Nicholas Nary^ Thomas Dalton^ 
and others, whom, fays the Reprefentation of Colli- 
ton County, Article XL the Governour had treated 
immediately before the Riot began^ and us'd fuch Ex- 
preffwns to them^ as gave them^ next their Drinkj the 
greateji Encouragements for what they aBed ^ telling P. 3^. 
them, The protefiing Members would bring the People 
on their Heads for negleEilng to pay the Country s Debts, 
After the Riot began^ of Part of which he was an Eye- 
Witnefs^ having firfi drunk with Jome of them^ he 
withdrew himfelfout of the way. This Riot continu'd 
4 or 5 Days *, and Edmund Bellinger^ Efq*, a Land- 
grave, and Juftice of Peace, attempting to fupprefs 
it, was caird opprobrious Names by the Rioters, and 
Rhett can*d him for a confiderable time. The 
Rioters afTaulted Mr. Jofeph Boon^ a Merchant, 
deputed by Co///>(?;/ County, to prefent the above- 
mentioned Second Reprefentation to the Pala- 
tine and Lords Proprietaries, and put him in Dan- 
ger and Fear of his Life, without any Provocation. 
The fame they did by Mx, James Byres-j who with the 
reft complain'd to the Governour ^ and receiving no 
Satisfadion, they ask'd him, whether he did not look 
on himfelf, as Governour, oblig'd to keep the Peace 
of the Province :. The Governour reply'd, That's a 
Queflion I am not obligd to anjwer. He told them, 
'twas a Juftice of Peace's Bufinefs. 

The Rioters went one Night to the Houfe of one 
John Smithy di Butcher in Charles-Town^ and forcing 
open the Door, threw down a Woman big with 
Child, and otherwife mifufing her ^ fhe brought forth 
a dead Child, with tne Back and Skull broken. 
Thefe Inftances are enough to (hew any Man the 
Temper of this Governour and his Party •, who were 
the fame that ftickled fo much for t\vQ unhappy Bill 
we muft fpeak of in the Sequel of this Hillory. What 
followed upon this Riot, is told us in a late Tra<^, 
which I fhall make ule of in the Author's owa 
Words, ' As this Riot wasrais'd, encoiirag'd, and 

A a * coun- 


Cafe of 
X>tf, in 
Car. 15?. 

Sir Nath. 
John foil 

The Hifiory of Carolina, 

countenanc'd by the faid Governour and Council \ 
And as no Affiftance could be obtain'd to quell it, 
fo all Methods to enquire into, and punifh it, have 
beenrender'd inefFe£lual, and theCourfe of Juftice 
intirely flop'd. For Sir Nathaniel Johnfon was 
made Governour in the Room of the faid Moor, 
The faid Governor Moor was prefently made At- 
torney General*, and Mr. Trott^ another of the 
chief Abettors of the Riot, the Chief Juftice of the 
Common Pleas ^ v/ho in this Province is fole 
Judge. Sir Nathnniel Johnfon was General of 
the Leward I/lands^ in the Reign of the late Kingj 
James *, but he quitted his Government upon thel 
Revolution, and retir'd to Carolina^ where he; 
liv'd privately till the Death of the late King ^^ww. 
Upon which he firft took the Oaths to the Govern- 

* menf, and fome time after was made Governour r 

* of the Province. And he has fince his being Go- 
^ vernour appointed fuch Sheriffs, as prevent all 

* Profecutions of this Riot at their AiTizesor Quar- 

* ter Seflions (which are the only Courts of Juftice 

* in this Province) where Crimes of this Nature can. 

* be try'd '^ and where the faid Mr. Trott is fole 
' Judge, by returning fuch Jurors as were known 

* Abettors of the faid Riot : So that there is a total 

* Failure of Juftice, and nothing but Corruption in 

* i\ic whole Frame and Adminiftration of Govern- 

* nient. 

Colliton-Coimty Reprefentation tells us particu- 
larly, that Mr. Bvllinger did what in him lay to have 
the laid Riot inquir'd into. He gave in the Record of 
it to the Bench ^ and fome of the Grand Jury urg'd 1 
to have it prefented, but to no purpofe. The firft 
Reprefentation informs us, that the Grand Jury pre- 
fented it to the Court as a great Grievance, that the 
Kiot was not look'd into, and the Rioters profecu- 
ttd •, yet no Juftice againft- them could be obtain'd j 
the Judge giving for Anfwer, 'Twas before the Corn- 
ell^ his Stiperiors : The prefent Governour, Thati 
it was an AElion done before his coming to thef 
Government ^ that he thought the time of Profe- '" 
cmion lapsed J but would take care the like Jfjould be nA 
trior e, ' 


The Hifiory of Carolina. j S 5 

This Anfwer had in the laft part of it a Face of ' 
Moderation *, and fuch an Air was neceiTary, becaufe 
an AlTembly was about being eleared. The Confpira- ib. p. 20, 
tors^ as my Author terms them, faw that a new Tar- 
liament might fet all things to rights again^ and there-- -.. 
fore when the time of a new Election came^ which^ ac- 
cording to their Confittution^ is once in two Tears ^ * 
they refoWd to procure a Commons Hovfe of Ajfemhly 
of the fame Complexion with the former^ and by more 
illegal PraBices, If thofe they had usd in the former 
EleEhions would not do their Bufinefs^ their Defigns took 
EffeB •, and fuch a Commons Houfe of Ajfemhly was re- 
turn*dj as fully anfwer'd their ExpeEiations. 

The firft Reprefentation brought over by Mr. AJJ}^ 
informs us. That at the EleBlonfor Berkley and Cra-^ 
ven County^ the Violence in Mr, MoorV Time^ and all 
other illegal FraBices^ were with more Violence repeatedly 
and openly avow'd by the prefent Governour^ and his 

The fecond Reprefentation adds, Jews^ Strangers^ 
Sailors J Servants^ Negroes^ and almojl every Frenchman 
inCidiVQn and BQxklQy Counties^ came down to eleBj and 
their Votes were taken^ and the Ferfons by them voted 
for^ were returned by the Sheriffs. 

The AfTembly meeting, chofe Job How^ Efq^ to 
be their Speaker, and this was that Parliament, who, 
to opprefs the Proteftant DilTenters, brought in a 
Bill contrary to the firft and laft Fundamental Con- 
ftitutions to the true Intereft of the Colony, and the 
. Right of every Freeholder there. Twas entitl'd. 
An ABfor the more effeBual Frefervation of the Go- 
vernment^ by requiring all Ferfons that Jh all hereafter be 
chofen Members of the Commons Hoife of Ajjhnbly^ and 
fit in the fame^ to^ dec, and to conform to the religions 
Worjhip'in this Province^ according to the Church of 
England, and to receive the Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper according to the Rights and Vfage of the faid \ 

Church, \ 

Every Diffenter that was turn'd out of the Houfe, / 
by virtue of this A£l, made room for the moft bigot- ) 
ted of the Faction to get in ^ for it provided, that ih^ I 
Perfon who had thenioft Votes n^xt to fuch DiiTenter, 
Ihould be admitted in his Place •, and thole that op- 
posed the DiiTenters being generallyj according to the 

A a 2 bg- 

15^ The Hlfiory of Carolina. 

i before-niention'd Author, Men of violent and per Fe- 
cuting Principles, the Faaion fecur'd the Power in 
i their own Hands. 

I There were 12 Members for this Bill, and 1 1 a- 
1 gainit it, in the Lower Houfe ^ and in the Upper, 
\ Jofiph Moreton^ Efq-, a Landgrave, and one of the 
i Proprietary's Deputies, was deny'd the Liberty of 
I entering his Protell againft it. The Bill pafs'd the 6th. 
iotMay,^ A. D. i704.^nd was fign'd by Sir Nathani- 
el Johnjon^ Col. Thomas Broughton^ Col. James Moor^ 
Robert Gibbs.Ekr^ Henry Noble ^ Efqv Nicholas 7rott, 

The Governour and Proprietaries Deputies, upon 

pifling this Aa, allarm'd all the DilTenters, who ac- . 

cording to the Orthodox Minifter of CharlesTown^ 

L&fc of the Reverend Mr. MarJlon'sLttttr to the Reverend 

MiJJ, Part Dr. Stanhope^ are the foberefl^ mofi numerous^ and 

• P* 57- riched People of this Province ^ and this Afifembly was 

compos'd of many Men of very loofe and corrupt 


We have fhewn in t}\t Beginning of the Hiftory of 
CarrJlna^ that by the Fundamentals of the Province, 
the DiiTenters -could not be juftly excluded from any 
Rights of the Members of it ^ we have Ihewn here 
what a fort of Convention, and by what Government 
countenanc'd, this AlTembly was ^ and there's no 
need of exaggerating Matters, to make the thing , 
look black ^ wherefore we ihall proceed in our * 

It cannot be imagin'd, that a People who had been 
us'd fo ill, wou'd ^it ftill, and tamely bear fuch bar- 
barous Ufage •, efpecially confidering thofethat were , 
concern'd in the Riot were fome of the worft, and \ 
thofe that fufrer'd by it, fome of th.Q beft Men in the '■ 

Col. Jcfcph Moreton^ and Edmund Bellinger, Efq^ 
Landgraves, and Deputies of the Lords Proprietaries, i 
all the other Members of O'/Z/ft?;? County, andfeveral 
of the greateft Worth and Reputation in Berkley 
County, prevaiPd with Mr. Jofeph Afi) to come for ■ 
England^ to reprefent the miferable State of the Pro- 
vince to the Proprietaries. 

^ The Faftion being apprehen five of their Danger 
in flich a Proceeding, did their utmoit to prevent 


The Hiftory of Carolina/ j 57 

Mr Aflh Vopge ^ and *twas not without the grea- 
teft Difficulty that he got away from Carolina to Fir- 
gmlay where his Powers and In ft ruflions were con- 
veyed to him, as Agent for the Gentlemen and Inha- 
bitants above-nam'd. 

Coming to England, he apply'd himlelf to the 
Lord Granville^ then Proprietary of the Province : 
But finding he was entirely in the Interefts of the 
prevailing Party in Carolina^ he defpair'd of feeing 
the Grievances he came to complain of, redrefs'd ; 
He therefore drew up the firft Reprefentation, often 
cited in this Treatife, printed a Sheet of it, and in- 
tended to go through with it *, but dy'd before he 
could finifh it *, and his Papers, after his Death, were 
betray'd into his Enemies Hands. 

How this Agency was lik'd in Carolina, we may 
fuppofe ^ and that the Author of. The Cafe of the 
Dlffenters in Carolina, does not impofe upon us, ia 
telling us, The Governour and his Agents profecuted 
and infulted fever al of the Inhabitants, and partictdarly 
Landgrave Smith, on the accoimt of fome private Let- 
ters which they fetit to the f aid Afh, while he was in 
Virginia and England, and which were found among 
the Papers betray' d to the Governour*!' Agents, 

Mr. AJh may probably reprefent Things with too j^ r e 
much Partiality, efpecially if what Mr. Archdale ^^'''' "J 
fays of him be true ^ Their firft Agent feem'd not a ^^•^•^^" 
Perfon fuitably qualify'' d to reprefent their State here, 
not that he wanted Wit, but Temper. 

What Share the Governour had in this Bufinefs, 
appears alfo in the fame Tra£l. Sir Nathaniel John- -^^ 23. 
fon, by a Chymical Wit, Zeal, and Art, tranfmuted 
or turned this Civil Difference into a religious Con* 
troverfy^ and fo fetting up a Standard for thofe cal- 
led High Church, ventur'd at all to exclude all the 
Diffenters out of the Affembly, as being thofe prin- 
cipally that were for a ftriifl Examination into the 
Grounds and Caufesof the Mifcarriage of the^z^^w- 
^/;/(7 Expedition. 

The Party did not flop here ^ for on the ^th of No- 
vember an A£l paft, and was fign'd by ths Gover-= 
nour, and the Deputies above-nam'd *, entitl'd. 
An AEb for efiablijhing Religious WorJJnp in this Pro* 
vlnce^ according to the Church of England \ and for | 

J5S TheHiJlorj (j/* Carolina. 

?. 24. S the ereEling of Chtirches for the Tuhlick Worjhip ofGod^\ 
and alfo for the Maintenance of Minifiers^ and the 
building convenient Houfes for them. 

Which hdi Mr. Archdale acquaints us, notwith- 
ftanding its fplendid Glofs, favoured of a perfecu- 
\ ting Spirit, and of a haughty Dominion over the 
j Clergy it felf v for they fetup a High Commifllon 
\ Court, giving them Power to place and difplace Mi- 
( nifters, and aft much in the Nature of the High 
( Commifiion Court erefted by King James II. in 
I England. Thefe Commiffioners were Sir Nathaniel 
Johnfony Thomas Broughton^ Efq*, Col. James Moory 
Nicholas Jrotty Efq:, Col. Robert Gibbes, Job HoWy 
Efq-, Ralph Iz.ard^ Elq*, Col. James Risbee^ Col. George 
Lcganj Lieut. Colonel William Rhetty William Smithy 
Efq*, Mr. John Stroude^ Mr. Thomas Hubbardy Rich- 
ard Beresfordj Efq*, Mr. Robert Seabrooky Mr. Hugh 
HickSy John AJJjhyj Efq*, Capt* John Godfrey ^ James 
Seruriery alias Smithy Efqv and Mr. Tho7nas 

It will not be improper to give a Character of this 
James Seruriery who has been mightily employ 'd by 
the prefent Government in Carolina y and we cannot 
do it better, than in ufing the fame Words Mrs. 
Blahy Mother of the Proprietary Jofeph Blake^ Efq*, 
writes to the Lords Proprietaries. Towards the Sa- 
tisfaEhion of the Auguftino Debty anAB was contriv*dy 
for forcing the Currency of Bills of Credit to the Value of 
60C0 L Thefe Bills were declard current in all Pay-' 
7nentSy and the Refufer of them fueable in double the 
yaiue of the Sum refus d y whereby the boldeft Stroke 
has been give-a to. the Property of the Settlers in this Pro- 
vince^ that ever was known in any Country not governed 
by Arbitrary Power. And the bad Confequences of this 
forced Currency y in relation to Trade with StrangerSy are 
fh greaty that they can fcdrcely be exprefi. But there 
has nothi?ig of this been weighed by your Lordfhip's Depu- 
ties herey or by the pack'd Members of our Commons 
Hovfe of AJjembly. Befdes all thisy the People are not 
fatisfyd how many Bills are truly fent abroad y and the 
great Cofjeern Mr, James Smith, alias Serurier (ypho 
cheated the Scots Company of a confderable Sum of Mo-* 
ney^ and with his Keeper 772ade his Efcape from London. 
hither)- had in this Qvtrivance^ giva a Jealoufy of 


The Hifiory of Carolina. 359 

indlreB Fra^iices. By this the Reader unJerHands 
what Inconveniences the Augvjilm Expedition 
brought upon the Colony, and what fort of Perfons 
were Promoters of this Occafional Bi^ in America, 
But to {hew that this Fa£lionin the AlTembly had 
nothing lefs in their View, than the real Advance- ^^^^ £, 
nient of Religion, and the Church of England *, the At %^^ 
Reverend Mr. Edward Marfton^ Minifter of tliatp J;^ 
Church in Charles Town ^ was cenfur'd by them, for 
three PalTages of a Sermon preached there by him \ 
two of which Parages were not in the faid Sermon *^ 
and that whicii was^amouinted to no more, than that 
the Clergy had a Divine Right to a Maintenance. 
Theydepnv'd him of his Salary fettFd on him by A£t 
of Parliament, and of yo /. befides due to him by an 
Aft^of AiTembly; Tho the chiefReafon was his having 
vifited Mr. Landgrave Smithy when he was in Cuftody 
of a MeiTenger, being committed by the Commons 
Houfe,and living Friendly with the DifTenterS' 

Of this AlTembly the fame Reverend Divine fays, ^ 
They made fome very odd and nnjuftijiahle Laws^ which j^^ ^^^ 
have occafiorid great Feuds and Animofities here, Aiid J^%^^^^^ 
in his Reprefentation to the Lords Proprietaries '>)^' p^^^ 
Mofl: of the late Members of Affembly have been con- ^^ plj, 
fiant Abfenters from the Holy Sacrament : So 'tis no 
Wonder they have inferted an abfurd Oath in a late 
A£t^ dec. I cannot think it will be much for the Credit p, 62. 
and Service of the Church of England here^ thatfuch 
Provifions Jhould be made^ for admitting the mofl loofe 
and profligate Perfons toft and vote in the making of our 
IjawSy who will but take the Oath appointed by the late 
A^, And of the High Commiffioners 'tis faid, Ele-P- ^h 
ven of the Twenty were never known to receive the Sa- 
crament of the Lord's Supper. 

And that this furious Faftion were no Friends to 
the Church of England is plain, by their Deiign to 
wreft theEcclefiaitical Jurifdidion out of the Hands 
of the Right Reverend Father in God, Henry Lord 
Bifhop of London, Mr. Marflon being threaten'd in 
Col. Risbee's Houfe, That at the next Sejjions ofAjfem- 
hly he fljould fee the Bifljop of London'j JurifdiBion a- 
bolififd there. And of this Carolina Parliament he 
adds further, Qur Lower Houfe of Affembly imprifon ^» ^'P 
h a Fote of the Houfe^ fine die^ and bid Defiance to 

A a ^ th? 

S^o The Htjiory of Carolina. 

the Habeas Corpus AEt^ tho made in Force there by an 
P. 60. jiB of Affemhly. The Governour was very cholerkk 

with the Minijier^ becaufe he had made Landgrave 

P. 58. Smithn* Vijit^ at the Houfe of the Mejfenger \ and a 

Bully laflfd him caufele/Iy with his Whip^ and tore his 

Gown from his Bach His Creatures alfo in the Af 

femhly were the occajion of his Sufferings. 

If I am accus'd of being partial in reprefenting this • 
Matter, ! anlwer, that befides the Memorials pub- 
lifh'd by the Agent of Carolina^ Mr. Archdale*s 
Traft and others, I have diligently inquired into 
the Truth of the Faft, and have not been able to 
learn the leaft hint that makes againft it, or vindi- 
cates the Party that is complain*d of, and were pow- 
erfully prote^ed by the Lord Granville *, notwith- 
flandin git was made out to him, that the AfTembly 
Pm l,p, in palling the Occafional Bill in Carolina^ 5were guilty 
3^» of the moft notorious ill Praftices, and were Men of 

' corrupt Principles and Manners. That Bill was 
brought into the Houfe the 4th of Mayy and carry*d 
(b precipitately, that it paft the 5th, four Days be- 
fore the time to which they were prorogu'd. There 
never were above 23 Members prefent, from the 
2 6Xh of April to the 5th of Mo^k There was but one 
more for it than againft it *, and of the latter many 
were Members of the Church o^ England, 

There's one thing very remarkable in the Aft, 
which is the Stile : Be it enaEied^ by his Excellency 
John Lord Granville, and the reft of the true and abfo- 
lute Lords and Proprietors of Carolina, &c, A Stile 
never alTum'd by them till very lately. From whence 
we may obferve how pleas'd that Faftion is every 
where with the Defootick and Abfolute Power, info- 
much as to ufurp the Name, when they cannot ob- 
tain any thing more. The Cafe of the Diffemers in 
Carolina, is fo full of Irregularities in the Courfe of 

, this Affair, that we muft refer the Reader to it. 
Vv e have taken the moft material, and now are to 
fee what was done in England relating to this 

< The principal Merchants in London trading to 

\Carolina^ drew up a Petition to the Lord Granvil/e 

j againft palling this Aft, or to order its Repeal. 

IWhich Petition they lodg'd with Mr. Booffc^ the A- 


The Hifiory of Carolina. 361 

gent of Carolina^ who rdlicited the Palatine feven ) 
Weeks before he eould prevail to have a Board of ^ 
Proprietaries caird. 

Mr. Archdale^ one of the Proprietaries, oppos'd 
the ratifying the Bill againft the DifTenters at the 
Board, and with fuch folid Reafbns, that 'tis ama- 
zing to find the Palatine make this ftiort Anfwer to 
all of 'em : 5/V, you are of one Opinion^ and. 1 am of a- 
nother \ and our Lives may not he long enough to end the 
Controverfy : I am for this Bill^ and this is the Forty 
that I will head and countenance. 

What other Tone could he have talk'd in had he ) 
been Sultan di Carolina? Mr. 5^f?«pray'd he might 
be heard by Council. The Palatine reply'd^ What 
Bufmefs has Council here f It is a prudential j4B in me ^ 
and I will do as I fee fit. IJee no harm at all in this 
Bill, and am refolv'd to pafsit. He Ihould have ad- 
ded, Car tel eft notre Plaifir, 

As all Methods to procure Juftice from this Board 
were inefFeaual, in the Cafe of the DilTenters, the 
fame were they in Mr. Marfton\ Cafe, and the A- 
bufes he met with from the Party, the Lord Gran- 
ville was refolv'd to head and countenance. And 
what that Party was in England^^ and how they have 
feen their unreafonable Attempts baiR'd and explo- 
ded, is too well known, to need any Remembrance 

The Bill "which occafion'd all the Complaints in 
Carolina^ having paft thus illegally and arbitrarily^ "' 
the DifTenters in this ?tQvmcQ being notorioujly known?. 12. 
to be above two thirds of the People^md the richefl: and 
fobereft among them, according to Mr. Marfton's 
Evidence, 'twas not likely that they would 
fufFer themfelves to be infulted and perfecuted with- 
out feeking Redrefs- The very Affembly who paft 
the Bill, about half a Year afterwards paft another to 
repeal it, when the Houfe was full •, but it was loft 
in the Upper Houfe ^ and the Covernour^ in great In- P. 4x0 
dignation^ dijfolv'd the Commons Houfe^ by the Name 
of the Vnfteady Affembly* The Society for pro- 
pagating the Gofpel in America and elfewhere, 
meeting in St. Tauh Church, taking the Aft for the 
Eftablifhing of Religious Worlhip, &c, intoConfi- 
deration, refolv'd not to fend or fupportany Miifio- 


562 The Hijlory of Carolina. 

naries in that Province, till the faid A£V, or the 
Claufe relating to the Lay Commiliioners^ was an- 

j There being no Hopes of any Redrefs of the Grie- 
' vances the Inhabitants of this Colony fufFer'd in 
Carolina^ nor from th.^ Lords Proprietaries in Eng- 
land^ they refblv'd to bring the Matter before the 
I Houfe of Lords in England^ not doubting but to 
J have entire Juftice done them by that auguft AfTeni' 
; bly ^ where the Language of their Palatine wasne- 
^1 ver heard from the Throne, at leaft in this Reign, 
i or the laft ^ both which are the Glory of the Britijh 
I Annals. 

Mr. Boon was not only impower'd by the principal 
Inhabitants of Carolina to aft as their Agent, but he 
was affifted in his Agency by feveral eminent Mer- 
chants of London^ who fign'd the Petition to the 
Houfe of Lords *, as Mr. Mkaiah Perry^ Mr. Jofeph 
Pake J Mr, Peter ReneWy Mr. Chriflopher Fowler ^ and 
( The EfFeft of which was, after a full hearing of the 
f Caufe at the Lord's Bar, that moft Honourable 
I Houfe, who have done fuch great Things for the Li- 
} berties of England^ voted an Addrefs to the Qaeen, 
i in behalf of the Province of Cdrolina : But the Rea- 
( der cannot be better fatisfy'd, than to have it in their 
1 own Words 5 by which the State of the. Cafe will be 
li)eft feen. 


'The Hum- 
hie Ai- 
(irgfs of the 

[^ight Ho- 

' iwurable 
the Lords 
rd in Par- 

( Jiamem af- 


( Die Mar- 

Uii 12, 


' The Houfe having fully and maturely weigh'd 
the Nature of thefe two A£ls, found themfelves 
oblig'd in Duty to Your Majefty, and in Juftice to 
your Subje£ls in Carolina (who by the Exprefs 
Words of the Charter of Your Royal Uncle King 
Charles 11. granted to the Proprietors, are declared 
to be the Liege People of the Crown of £;?g/^;/^, 
and to have Right to all the Liberties, Franchifes, 
and Privileges of EngliJJmen^ as if they were born 
within this Kingdom-: And v,?ho by the Words of 
the fame Charter, are to be fubjeft to no Laws, 
but fuch as are confonant to Reafon, and as near as 
may be to the Laws and Cuftoms of England^ to 
come to the following Refolutions» 

i Fii'h 

The Hifiory of Carolina. 

* F/>^,That it is the Opinion of this Houfe, that the 
' A6t of the Aflembly o{ Carolina^ lately pafs'd there, 
' and fince fign'd and feal'd by John Lord Granville^ 

* Palatine, for himfelf, and for the Lord Cartaretty 

* and the Lord Craven^ and Sir John ColUton^ four of 

* the Proprietors of that Province, in order to the 

* ratifying it, entitled, An AB for the ejUhliJhing Re- 
' * ligious Worjhip in this Province^ according to the 

* Church of England, and for the ereBing of Churches 
^for the publick Worflnp of Gody and alfofor the Main- 

* tenance of Mi7iifiersy and building convenient Houfes 
\ ^for them. So far forth as the iame relates to the 

* eilablifhing a Gommiliiori for the difplacing the 

* Re£lors or Minifters of the Churches there, is not 
' warranted by the Charter granted to the Proprie- , 

* tors of that Colony, as being not confonant to Rea- 
'fon, repugnant to the Laws of this Realm, andde- 
' ftrudlivc to the Conftitution of the Church of £ng* 
f land, 

^ Secondly y That it is the Opinion of this Houfe, 

* That the Aft of the Aflembly of CaroUnUy entitled, 

* An AB for the more effectual Prefervation of the Go- 
^■nj£rnment of this Province y by requiring all Perjons 

* thatfijall hereafter be chofen Members of the Commons 
^ Houfe of Ajfemblyy and fit in the famey to take the 

* OathSy and Jubfcribe the Declaration appointed by this 
' Ad^y and to conform to the Religious Worjhip in this 
< Province y according to the Rites and. Vf age. of the f aid 

* Churchy lately pafs'd there, and fign'd and feal'd by 
' John Lord Glanvillcy Palatine, for himfelf, and the 
' Lord Craveny and alfo for the Lord Cartaretty and 

* by Sir John Collitony four of the Proprietors of that 
'Province, in order to the ratifying of it, is found- 

* ed upon Falfity in Matter of Faft, is repugnant to 

* the Laws of Englandy contrary to the Charter 

* granted to the Proprietors of that Colony, is an 

* Encouragement to Atheifm and Irreligion, deftru- 
' 6live to Trade, and tends to the depopulating and 
f ruining the faid Provincee 

5^4 The Hijlory of Carolina. 

Me^f itpleafe your Majefiy ^ 

We your Majefiy's mojl dutiful SubjeBs^ having thus 
I humbly prefented ourOpmlon of thefe Afis^ we hefeech 
\ your Majefiy to vfe the mojt effeElual Methods to deliver 
^ the [aid Province from the arbitrary Oppreffwns^ under 

which it now lies'^ and to order the Authors thereof to 

he py^feeuted according to LaWc 

To which Her Majefty was gracioufly pleas'd to 
anfwer : 

I thank the Houfe^ for laying thefe Matters fo plainly y 
\ before mc^ I am very fenfwle of what great Confequence*. 
j the Plantations are to England, and will do all that is^ 
I in my Power to relieve my Subjeds. 

It appeared to the Houfej that fome of the Pro- 
prietors abfolutely refus'd to join in thefe A£ts. This - 
j Matter being referred to the Lords of the Committee 
I qf Trade, they examin'd into it ^ and finding all the 
\ Fadlcharg'd upon the Promoters of thefe Bills, true, 
1 jreprefented to Her Majefty, the 24th of May, 1706-, 
Thatjhgjjia king fuch Laws is an Ab ufe o f the Ppw_er 
gra.nted to thejPmpnetorsjiY'theirC and wlfl 

peTFor^itu^^^^h Pow^^ They'fijrther hum- 
bly ofFer'd to her Majefty, That ihe would be pleased 
to give Diye^ions^rre-ainimii^^ into hec 

Majefty's Ha n3i^"" "5arFl-'^cg^, i n Adajefty 's 

Cgurt^ Queen' S'Bench. Which Reprefentation was 
fign*d by the Right Honourable the Lord Dartmouth^ 
the Honourable Robert Cecily Eiq*, Sir Philip Meadows^ 
William Blathwayte^ Elq-, Matthew Prior^ Efqj and 
John Poilexfeny Efq; 
On the I oth of June^ her Majefty was pleas'd to 
) approve of the faid Reprefentation -^ and accordingly 
( having deelar'd the Laws mentioned therein to be 
/ NULL and \' OID, did Order, That for the more 
\ effeclual Proceeding againft the faid Charter, by way 
of Quo Warranto^ Mr. Attorney, and Mr. Sollicitor 
7 General do inform themfelves fully concerning what 
^ may be moft neceflary for effecting the fame. 

s Thus 

The^Hifiory of Carolina.^ J^^ 

Thus did our moft Gracious Sovereign hear the ) ^ 
Cry of the Opprefs'd, right the Innocent, and do \ 
Juftice on the Oppreflor. For no Diftance of Coun- ( 
try can put any of her Subje£^s out of her Proteftion ^ 
nor. no Difference of Opinion ( provided they are 
kept within the Bounds or Duty and ReiigionJ pre- 
vent her favouring alike all her People, and doing 
her utmoft to make them all happy, as the infinite 
God has made her Reign to her felf, and her Em- 
pire, in a diftinguilh'd manner. 

The Afifembly which pafs'd thefe two memo- 
rable k(k% were diffolv'd in the following Year, and 
a new one fummon'd to meet at Charles Town. At 
the Ele£lion, Craven and Berkley Counties were fo 
ftreightned by the Qualifying A£V, that they had not 
20 Men tQ reprefent them, unlefs they would choofe 
a Dififenter, or a Man not fit to fit in the AlTembly. 
Nineteen of the Party againft ihtOccafionalBill were 
chofcn, and one Mr. Job How was ele£led by the In- 
ter^ft of the Goefecreek Fa£lion, a Branch of the for- 
mer. The French^ who were Free-holders, voted 
for them, being induc'd to it, by a Frenchman's 
being fet up for a Candidate. They alfo procured 
Mailers of Ships, particularly Cap. Cole^ who lay in 
the Harbour, to vote on their Side. This Eledion 
was made in the Town, and the Faftion gave out. 
An AlTembly was chofen, who would repeal the 
Church-Aft, and not pay the Augufiino Debt, threat- 
ning if they did, the Houfe and Town fhould quick- 
ly be too hot to hold them. 

In Colliton County, there were but 1 4 Men would 
qualify themfelves : Therefore none of the Diflenters 
appeared, and there were but 10 Votes out of 200 
that appear 'd at the Ele£lion. The i o Eleftors voted 
for 14 Candidates, and the Sheriff returned 10 that 
had the Majority of Votes. 

Oajan, 2. 1705. the Members met, but not e- 

nough to make a Houfe, and choofe a Speaker. Mr. 

Stephens^ one of the Members, ask'd Mr. /ifen?, in the 

Governour's Prefence, to attend ^ but he refus'd. 

I Before Night the Houfe was corr^pleat, and waited 

I ©n the Governour, and ask'd if he would direft them 

I to choofe a Speaker ? He anfwer'd, he thought 'twas 

too late, but if they would venture they mail do it 

^56 Ihe HiJlcYj of Carolina. I 

with fpeedj for he was not well, and 'twould endan- 
ger his Health to fit up. So they prefently chofe Mr, 
Seabrooky and prefcnted him to the Governour ^ who . 
approved of the Choice. 

The next Day the Houfe met, the Speaker in the ( 
Chair, and the Members were call'd upon to qualify 
themfelves : Six did, and three more were ready toi 
do it, and Debates arifing about Qualifying, thei 
Houfe adjourn 'd. 

The Houfe meeting again, a Report was, as 'tis 
faid, indufirioufly fpread, that the Members had for-r 
feited 50 /, a Man for adjourning before they weret 
qualify 'd. Mr. How and Mr. Wiggington attended 1 
in their Places, and ofFer'd to qualify themfelves^ 
but Mr. Bornwell coming with a McfTage, the Houfeii 
waited on the Governour *, who fpoke to this Pur* 
pofe : 



Ton are building on a wrong Eonndation^ and then 
the SuperfirnEiure will never ftand-^ fdr you have difi 
folv'dyour felves by adjourning-^' before there was a com' 
petent Number of Members to adjourn^ and I cannot 
diffolveyou if I would ^ you not being a Houfe, jill this I 
Mow very we 11^ as being my fe If many Tears a Member of 
the Houfe of Commons in England *, and therefore at 
I am Heady J would advife you to go back no more t§ 
the Houfe y but go every Man about' his own Bufinefs i 
For if you Jhould perfji in fettling and making LawSy 
hefides the incurring the Penalties of the j4^y the Lawi 
would be of no Forccy 6cx. 

The Speaker refused to return to the Chair, andi 
the Members difpers'd. The Governour and Coun^ 
cil difowning the AfTembly, Mr. Wigginton declared,! 
'Twas his Opinion the Houfe was difTolv'd. But their. 
DiiTolution was aggravated, by the Pleafure the Go- 
vernment took in making them Felo defe, their own 

, ^henjinother AiTembly was call'd, the Choice db 
which was carry'd on with greater Violence thaai 
the former. Job HoWy Efq^ was cnofen Speaker,r 
and the Members for the moft Part qualify'd them-i 

^ felves"! 

The Hijlory of Carolina. 367 

f^lves according to the Qualifying A£l. The Faction ) 
; had not then heard of the Proceedings againfl: them j 
1 in England^ which indeed were not come to a Con- ! 

clufion. They continu'd their Irregularities as if\ 
! they were the moft innocent Men in the Province, / 
i and the only true Patriots. They pafs'd an Aft for ( 

their Continuance two Years after the Death of the 1 
i prefent Govern our, or the Succeflion of a new one : ! 

The Reafon is told us in the Preamble, Whereas the i 
. Church of England has of late been fo happily efiabli/Fd 
i among them^ fearing by the Succeffion of a new Cover A 
j now J the Church may be either undermir^d^ or wholly\ 
\fub'9erted^ to prevent that Calamity befalling them^] 
i be it enaUed^ &c. Mr, Job Howy Speaker of the 
I AiTembly, dying fome time after, Col. William Rhett 
! was chofen in his Place. But what has been fince) 

done in thefe Affairs, we know not more than ia ge-( 
; neral, that th^ two A£ls have been repeal'd, and/ 
I the Party who drove things on with fuch Fury, | 
j have entirely loft their Credit, and that the Propri- i 
\ etaries are oblig'd to them for the Caule now depen- / 

ding *, wherein if they are caft, the Government of ^^ 
! the Province will be forfeited to the Crown, They / 
i may thank themfelves for it, or at leaft their 
I late Palatine the Lord Granville j for iince thei 
i foregoing Pages were written, that Lord dy'd. ( 

I How things may be managed now, is not difficult ) 
I to be forefeen, from the good Intelligence between the ( 

Perfons we have juft mention'd •, and the Fall of this? 
, Faction is a terrible Example to all Colonies, not^ 
i to let any Prejudice or Paffion hurry them on to^ 
I do things which they cannot anfwer to their Superi- 
! ours in England, 

I Tis not yet known who will be Palatine of this 
I Province, there being fome Difputes in the Succeffion. 
j ^Tis fuppos'd the Lord Craven will fucceed the late 
I Lord Granville^ who allign'd his Propriety to the 
I Duke of Beaufort, 

C«f xl A i « 

The Hijlorj of Carolina. 

CHAP. 11. 

CojftAining a, Geographical Defcriftion of Ca- 
- rolina ; as alfo an Account of the Climate ^ 

Soilj Produ^y Trade^ Fir ft InhabitmtSy 

' . 5^IS very well known, that the Province of Caro" 
•*• Una has been a long time divided into two fepa- 
rate Governments, the one call'd North Carolina j ^d 
the other South Carolina •, but the latter being the 
more populous, goes generally under the Denomina- 
tion or Carolina^ and as fuch we have treated of it 
in the foregoing Pages. The Proprietaries of North 
Carolina are the Proprietaries of South Carolina *, tho 
the Governours are different, in other things they 
are exa£lly the fame And we fhall put them 
together in the Geographical Defcription •, as alfo in 
our Account of the Climate, Soil, Produft, Trade, 
firfl Inhabitants, &c. 

Carolina^ as has been faid, contains all the Coaft 
of North America^ between 3 1 and 3 6 Degrees of 
Northern Latitude. Its Breadth is not to be compu- 
ted, King Charles IL having granted the Proprietors 
all the Land Weflward in a direft Line from the a- 
bovemention'd Degrees to the South Seas. 'Tis in 
Length three hundred Miles. Its Situation is mofl 
convenient for Trade, the Coafl pleafant and fafe, 
not flormy, or frozen in the Winter. 

As to the Climate, Mr. Archdak fays of it, Caro- 
lina is the Northern Part of Florida, 'viz. front 2p 
jy^P r Degrees to ^6 \^ and is indeed the very Center of the 
Car t " habitable Tart of the Northern He mifphere *, for taking 
' ^' ^' it to be habitable from the Equino^;al to ^4. JDegreeSythc 
C^wf^r-^/ Carolina lies in about 3 2,which is about the mid- 
dle of6\^ lying Parallel with the Land of^and may 
be called the temperate Zone comparativdy-, ^ not being \ 
pefter d with the violent Heats of the more Southern * 
Colonies^ or the Extremes and violent Colds of the more 
Northern Settlements. Its ProduBionanfwers the Title 
of Florida, quia Regio eft Florida. Carolina North 


The Hiftory of Ca rolina. ' j 69 

md South is divided into 6 Cpunties', of which two 
are in North Carolina^ AlhemaHe and Clarendon \ and 
four in South^ Craven^ Berkley^ Colliton^ and Cartarett 

The iirft is Alhemarle County, to the North, bor- 
dering on /^/r^/w^;. Tis water'd hjAlbemarle Ki- 
ver ^ and in this Part of the Country lies the Ifland 
Roanoke^ where Philip Amidol and Arthur Barlow^ 
whom Sir Walter Rawleigh fent to Virginia^ landed. 
This County may be faid to belong to Virginia^ as 
New England^ &c. did, v;hich juftifies King Charles % 
.. Grant. When Carolina was firfl: fettled, Albemarle 
was more planted than any of xk^ other Counties, 
and confifted of near 500 Families. But the Plan- 
tations upon AJhley River in time grew upon it fb 
much, th-at moft of the Planters here remov'd thi- 
ther. This River is full of Creeks on both Sides of 
it, which for Breadth defer ve the Name of Rivers, 
but they do not run far into the Country. At Sandy 
Point, it divides it felf into two Branches, Noratoke 
2Lnd JSfotaway '^ and in the North Point lives an In- 
dian Nation, calFd the Mataromogs* Next to Al- 
bemarle is Fantegoe River ^ between them is Cape 
Hattoroij mention'd in t\id Hiflory of Virginia, 
Next to it is Neufe River. The Coranines^ an Indian 
Nation, inhabit the Country about Cape Look- 

\ Next to Albemarle is Clarendon County *, in which 
is the famous Promontary, call'd Cape Fear^ at the 
Mouth of Clarendon River, call'd aifo Cape Fear 
River. Hereabouts a Colony fromBarbadoes formerly 
fettled. The Indians in this Neighbourhood are rec- 
fkon'd the moil barbarous of any in the Province. 
|The next River is nam'd Waterey River, or Winyann^ 
Jabout 25 Leagues diftant from AjloUy River : 'Tis ca- 
ipable of receiving large Ships, but inferior to Fort 
■ Royals nor is yet inhabited; There's another fma II 
I River between this and Clarendon River call'd Wingon 
River," and a little Settlement honour'd with the 
Name o^ Charles Town, bat fo thinly inhabited, that 
I'tis not worth taking Notice of. We come now to 
'South Carolina^ which is parked from North by Zantet 
iRiver. TKe adjacent Country is call'd^ 

B b Craveit 

170 The Hijlori/ of Carolina, 

Craven County *, it is pretty well inhabited by Eng 
lijh and French \ of the latter there's a Settlement on \ 
Zcmtee River, and they were very inftrumental in i 
t\iQ irregular Ele£lion of the Vnfieady jiffembly.\ 
The next River to Zantee is Sewee River ^ where « 
fome Families from New England fettled : And in 
the Year 1706". the French landing there, they were 
vigoroufly oppos'd by this little Colony *, who beat 
off the Invaders, having forc*d them to leave 
many of their Companions dead behind them. This 
County {ends i o Members to the AlTembly. We now 

, Berkley County, pafiing ftill from North to South. , 
-The Northern Parts of this Shire are not planted,j 
but the Southern are thick of Plantations, on Account 
of the two great Rivers, Cooper and J.Jhley, On the) 
North Coaft, there's a little River call'd Bowal) 
River •, which, with a Creek, forms an Iflands, andi 
off of the Coafls are feveral Ifles, nam'd the Hunt- 
ing-J/lands^ and Sillivants Ifle. Between tht latter 
and Bowal River, is a Ridge of Hills ^ which, from 
the Nature of the Soil, is call'd the Sand-Hills, The 
River Wanda waters the North- Weft Parts of this 
County, and has feveral good Plantations upon it, 
as Col. Daniel's on the South Side, and Col. Dearshfs 
lower down on the North. It runs into Cooper River 
neat the latter, and they both unite their Streams 
with ^J/;ley River at Charles Town. The late Af- 
fembly enafted, That a Church fhould bs built on 
the South-Eaft of Wando River, and another upom 
the Neck of Land, lying on the North- Weft off 
Wando^ but we do not fee that this Ad was o- 

Charles Town, the Capital of this Province, is built 
on a Neck of Land between j4fldeyz.ndi Cooper Ri- 
vers, but lying moft on G?<?p^r River, having a Creek 
on the North Side, and another on the South. Itlissin 
32 Deg. 40 Min. N. Lat. 2 Leagues from the Sea.This 
the only free Port in the Province, wr'ch is a great 
I>ircouragement to it, and a vaft Injury to Trade; 
'Tis for tiff d more for Beatuy than Strength, It has 6 
Baftions, and a Line all round it. Towards Cooper 1 
River are Blah's Baftion, Granville Baftion, a Half 
Moon, and Craven Baftion. On rhe South Creek' 


The Hiflory of Carolina. 571 

are the Pallifades, and u40ey Baftion^ on the North 
a ^ Line *, and facing jiffAey River are Colliton Ba- 
ftion, Johnfon's Cover'd Half-Moon, with a Draw- 
bridge in the Line, and another in the Half-Moon. 
Cartarett Baftion is next to it. If all thefe Works 
are well made, and can be well mann'd, we fee no 
Reafon why they (hould not defend as well as beauti- 
fy the Town ^ which is a Market Town, and thither 
the whole Produft of the Province is brought for 
Sale. Neither is its Trade inconfiderable *, for it deals 
near 1000 Miles into the Continent : However, 'tis 
unhappy in a Bar, that admits no Ships above 200 
Tuns. Its Situation is very inviting, and the Coun- 
try about it agreeable and fruitful : The High-ways 
extremely delightful, efpecially that call'd Broad-way j 
which for three or four Miles make a Road and 
Walk, fo pleafantly greerij that, fays my Author, /Archd. 
believe no Prince in Europe, by all his Art, can make P* 9» 
fo pleafant a Sight for the whole Tear, There are fe- 
veral fair Streets in the Town, and fome very hand- 
fome Buildings *, as Mr. Landgrave Smith's Houfe on 
the Key, with a Draw-bridge and Wharf before it ^ 
Col. Rhett's on the Key *, alfo Mr. Boon\ Mr. 
Loggan\ Mr. Schinking^ and i o or 1 2 more, which 
deferve to be taken Notice of. As for publick Edifi- 
ces, the Church is moft remarkable : 'Tis large and 
ftately enough *, but the Number of the Profeflbrs of 
ths Anglicane Worfhip encreafing daily, the Auditory 
begin to want Room, and another Church. This 
is dedicated to St. Philip ^ and by the Ad, which ap- 
pointed the High Commiffion Court, 'twas enabled, 
That Charles Town, and the Neck between Cooper and 
Afhley River, as far np as the Plantation c/ John Bird, 
Gent, on Cooper River, inchfive, is, and from hence- 
forth Jhalljor ever be a diflin^ Parijh, by the Name of 
St, Philips in Charles Town ', and the Church and 
Caemetry then in this Town were ena£led to be the 
Parifh Church and Church- Yard of St. Philip's in 
Charles Town. Mr. Williams was the firft Church of 
England Minifter in Carolina : A Perfbn, of whom 
fince Mr. Marfion has faid fo much, we Ihall 
fay no more. One Mr. VVarmel was fent over after 
him. The Reverend Mr. Samuel MarJJial was the 
Erft eftabliOi'd Minifter at Charles Town ', and his 

Bb 3 SuccelTor 

172 The Hiflory of CavoYms., 

SuccefTor was Mr. Edward Marftcn^ the prefent Re- 
ctor of St. Philip-^ he 'came over leven Years ago.' 
Mr. Kendal^ Minifter of Bermudas^ was invited to- 
this Colony ; and Mr. Corbln^ an Acquaintance of 
Mr. Afarflo}2% coming by chance, he got him fettl'd^ 
in this Province. 
See Mr, ^ The Society for propagating the Gofpelfent over 
Marftop/i one Mr. Tlooma^-^^ to convert the Roman Catholick 
T^l%ll Indians -^ hut he did not ohiy his MijJlGn. On the con- '- 
1^ Q* ^^P^'J.. trary, 'twas by his Influence on fbme Menof Inte-- 

2. cfc^'i ^^^' ^^^^^ ^^^^ -^^^ Kendal v/as difplac'd : Upon; \ 
of £>ijTem, which he went diftrafled. .' ' 

p. 58. * ^^^' ^Vannell was alfo us'd fo ill by him, that he^ 
alfo dy'd diitrafted \ and Mr. Corhin was forc'd t4 
leave the Colony, by the caufeiefs Quarrels of the! 
Inhabitants-, in w^hich the DifTenters had theleaft. • 
Hand. Twas by their Procurement that the 150/,- 
aYear, &c. was fettled on the Orthodox Minifter^ j 
of this Church. The Church ftands near the cover'd' ^ 
Half Moon. 

There's aPublick Library in this Town, and a, J 
Free-School has been long talk'd of: Whether foun-^ ^ 
ded or not, we have not learn'd. The Library is) 
kept by the Minilier for the time being. It owes ^ 
its Rife to Dr, Thofmts Bray •, as do mofi: of the Ame- 
rican Libraries, for which he zealoufly follicited 
Contributions in England. 

Not "far off, by Cartarett Bajllon^ is the Presbyteri-, 
an Meeting-houfe •, of which Mr, Archibald Stohe 
is Minifler. Between Cblliton and Afiley Baftion is 
the Anabaptift Meeting-houfe, Mr. William Screven 
Minifter. The French Church is in the Chief Street : 
Eefides which there is a Quakers Meeting-lioufe, in 
the Suburbs of it, properly fo call'd, on the other 
Side of the Draw-bridge, in the Half Moon, toward 
' AffAey River. 

To the Southward is the Watch-houfe ^ and the 
moft noted Plantations; in the Neighbourhood of; 
Charles Town, are FergujWs^ V'adcrxvood% Gilbert^ 
fen and Garnett's, 

We may fee by this Defcription that the Town is 
full of DifTenters,^ and would flourilh more, were 
not the Inhabitants uneafy under the'Government 
there. For one may imagine they who fied from 


The Hijiary of Carolina. 37 

Englandj to avoid Per fecution, cannot be well pleas'd 
to meet with it in America \ nor to crofs the Adan- 
tick^ to live under Oppreflion abroad, while their 
Relations and Friends at home enjoy all the BleP 
fings of a peaceful and gentle Adminiftration. 
i There are at leafl 250 Families in this Town, moll 
of which are numerous, and many of them have 
10 or 12 Children in each ^ in the whole amoun- 
ting to about 5000 Souls. 

Ixi Charles To\^n the Governour generally refides, 
-the AfTembly fit, the Courts of Judicature are held, 
.the Publick Offices kept, and the Baiinefs of the 
Province is tranfa died. 

T\iQ Neck of Land between Cooper and AflAey Ri- 
vers is about 4. Miles over \ and the Banks of both of 
thefe are well planted. The chief Settlements oi 
Cooper River are Matbew\ Green %^ Gray's^ Star- 
key's, GrimholPs^ Dickefo?fs^ and Izard's '-j the latter 
on Twr/^j/ Creek. About a Mile from thence is "the 
Mouth of Goofe-Creekj whicli is alfo very well plan- 
ted. Here Mr. J'F^///^«^G?rfe above-men tion'd liv'd, 
and had a Congregation of Church o^ England Men -, 
and one of t\iQ Churches proposed to be built by the 
AfTembly which pafs'd the two fatal Awls we have 
fpoken of, was to be ere£led. 

Mr. Thomas^ a Miffionary fent by the Society be- 
fore- mentioned, fettled here, by Capt. How\ and 
Col. //fflcr's Sollicitations", as did Mr, Stackhoi{l"e^ 
and the Reverend Dr. Lejau. 

Mr, Marflon in his Letter to the Reverend Dr. 
Stanhope J accufes Mr. Thomas of being the Occaiioii 
of the ill Ufage that made Mr. Kendal run dillra- 
^ed. He complains he never had Univerfity Edu- 
cation, laying, That the bed Service your Society can do 
this young Maii\Mr, Thomas, is^ to maintain him a few 
Tears at one of our Vnlverfitles^ where he may better 
learn the Principles and Government' of the Church of 
England, &c. andfome other ufeful Learning^ which I 
am afraid he wants, 

I Sir John Teaman' Sy and Mr. Landgrave Belicn- 
eer's Plantcitions are here ^ as alio Col. Gibbs\, Mr, 
Schinking% and Colllton's Company. Between this 
and Back River are Col. Aloors and Coh Quarry s 
Plantations, • , 

B b 3 Bacl 

J 74 ^^^ Hi(iory ^f Carolina. 

Back River falls into Cooper River, about 2 Miles^ 
above Goofecreel^ and its Weftern Branch a little 
higher. Here another Church was propos'd to h^A 
built. The moft noted Plantations are Capt. Com-i 
min^s^ and Sir Nathaniel Johnfon\ bordering on the 
Barony of Mr. Thomas ColUton, 

We muft now take a View of jijhley River, where^ 
we firft meet with Mr. Landgrave M^^^'s Plantation' 
on one fide, and Col. Gibhs's on the other. Mr. Ba- 
den s over againft Col. 6*^<^/r^ys 5 Mr, Smond^s op- 
pofite to Dr. Trevillian's *, and Mr, Pendarvis's to Mr. 
Wefl\ Mr. Collitorfs to Mr, MarJ})al\ and others, 
almoft contiguous. 

This Part of the Country belongs to the Lord 

- Shaft sbury. On the South -Weft of j4Jbley River is 

the great Savana, One of the Churches intended to 

be ere£led in this County, was to have been built on 

■Vifiley River. 

Dorchefler is in this Shire, bordering on ColUton 
County. Tis a fmajl Town, containing about 350 
Souls. There's a Meeting- Houfe belonging to the 
\c{^vhA£sl' I^^^psndants, the Paftor of which is Mr. JohtL 
Lord. Next to it is Stono River, which divides 
Berkley from ColUton County. To which we muft 
Slow proceed, obferving only that Berkley County 
fends ten Members to the AfTembly. The fame 

ColUton County *, which Stono River waters, and is 
joined by a Cut, near Mr. Blake's Plantation, to 
Wadmoolaw River. The North-Eaft Parts of this 
Divifion of the Province is full of Indian Settlements ^ 
and the Stono^ and other Rivers, form an LOand, 
caird Boones Ifiand, a litth below Charles Town, 
which is well planted and inhabited. The two chief 
Rivers in this County are North Ediftow^ and South 
Edijlow. At the Mouth of the latter is Col. Taut 
Grimboll's Plantation •, and for two or three Miles up 
the River, the Plantations are thick on both fides, as 
they continue for three or four Miles higher on the 
Korth-fide, and branching there, the River meets 
v^'ixh x\it North Ediflow, 

Two Miles higher is Wilton^ by fbme call'd 

Nko London^ a little Town, confifting of about 

So Yfc^fes, Landgrave J^iormn^ Mr. Blake^ Mr. 

; -■ . Boon-i 

^«U.^i*3#S« •;"■«> 3 ^(/'^Pr'tf^ f?e.'m«^o.^ ^o.-rrKfaio^r> . 
T^SSc. p«LO-t«-(;^<*«TnouiiTd * erf 3^ Ko-v-a. 6'« v«^ ^i!tK.^c^A^r^p^ . 

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»Tf\j«a<n. J^^^i^fifi-SA c-rojiJ^ ^vvy^ "^ 

The Htftory of Carolina. ?7! 

Boon, Landgrave v^.vr^/, and other con fiderable PI aiv 
ters, have Settlements in this Neighbourhood, whiph 
is Sit John ColUton'^VicQCindi. , 

A Church V7as to have been built on the South-lide 
of the Stom, had that Projea gone on, and the A^t 
taken effed. This County has 200 Freeholders, thaj 
vote in Eleaion for Parliament Men There sail 
lOrthodox Church in this Precinft, of which Mr. 

Williams is Minifter. , -l u- j u ^ -c ,,. 

Cartarett Comty is not yet inhabited, but is ge- 
nerally efleem'd to be the moft fruitful and plea- 
fant Part of the Province *, this and Colhton County 
are diftinguiih'd from the other by the Name ot the 
Southward. In it is the great River Cambage.vfhich 
joining with the River May, forms withj the bea 

l^mdi Edelano, • u kv^;i 

The Country upon the River /!% was inhabited 
by the Wejioe-s^ an Indian Nation already mention d. 
There's a pleafant Lake and Valley in it 'o and the 
firft EnRlifh that came to Carolina, thought ot ettling 
hereabouts ; but the Indians advis'd them to the con- 
trary, becaufe the Harbour of Tort Royal was the 
fineft in Florida, and would have tempted the Spani« 

ard<^ to difturb them. ^ ^ -x r^ j r 

The Scots fettled here, under the Lord Cardro}s^ 
but were ioon forc'd to abandon their Settlements^ 
as has been elfewhere hinted. Tort Roy alKiVQX \iQS 
20 Leagues from Jfldey Kiv^r, to the South, 11131 
Decrees, 45 Minutes, North Latitude It has a bold 
Entrance, 17 Foot low Water on the Bar. The 
Harbour is large, commodious, and iate tor snip- 
ping, and runs into a fine fruitful Country, prefera» 
tie to the other Parts of Carolina. It fpends its feit, 
bv various Branches, into other large Rivers. Ihis 
Port is not 200 Miles from Augujh'mo, and v^ould be 
a great Curbto the Spaniards there, where their Set- 
tlement is not very confiderable. 

Next to it is the River of ^^y, and then 5^^ ^^^ 
tA which is the laft of any Note m theEngUOi 
F/(^nW^, aNamethisProvincehighlydeferves. 

The Air of this Country is healthy, and Soil fruit- Arch, ft. 
ful, of a landy Mould, which near ^He Sea appears 
ten times more barren than it proves to be. There s 
a vaft Quantity ofVinesin many Parts on the goajts. 

3 7^ The Hijlory of Carolina. 

bearing abundance of Grapes, where one would 
wonder they fhould get Nourifhment. Vv^ithin 
Land the Soil is more mix'd with a blackifh Mould, 
and its Foundation generally Clay, good for 

Its Produifts are the chief Trade of the Inhabitants, 
who (end it abroad, according as the Market offers ^ 
and 'tis in demand in America or Europe. But the i 
chief Commerce from hence is to Jamaica^ Barha-' 
does^ and the Leward Ifiands. Yet their Trade to 
England is very much encreas'd •, for notwithilanding 
all xht Difcouragements the People lie under, feven- 
teen Ships came lafl Year, laden from Carolina^ 
with Rice,^ Skins, Pitch, and Tar, in the Virginia , 
Fleet, befides ilragling Ships, 

Its principal Commodities are Provifjons, as Beef, 
Pork, Corn, Peafe, Butter, Tallow, Hides, Tann'd 
Leather, Koglhead and Barrel Staves, Hoops, Cot- 
ton, Silk *, befides what they fend for England. 
Their Timber Trees, Fruit Trees, Plants, and Ani- 
mals, are much the Tame with thofe in Virginia \ in 
which Hidory may be {ttx\ a large Account of them : 
But fince Mr. Archdale has been a little parti- 
cular in his, and has added a fhort Defcriptioa 
of the Natives, &c. we will communicate what he_ 
fays to the Reader. 
P' 9' ^ Tis beautify'd with odoriferous Woods, green all 

^ the Year *, as Pine, Cedar, and Cyprefs. Tis natu- 
^ rally fertile, and eafy to manure. Were the Inha- 

* bitants^ indufrrious. Riches would flow in upon 

* them-, for lam fatisfy'd, a Perfon with 500/. dif- 

* creetly laid out in England^ and again prudently 
*- manag'd in Carolina^ fhall in a few Years live in as 

* much Plenty, as a Man of 3 00 /. a Year in England j 
' and if he continues careful, not covetous, fhall in- 

* creafe to great Riches, as many there are already 
' WitnefTes, and many more might have been, if 

* Luxury and Intemperance had not ended their 

* Days. 

^ As to the Air, 'tis always ferene, and agreeable to 
' any Conftitutions, as the firfr Planters experienc'dc 

* There's feldom any raging Sicknefs, but what is 

* brought from the Southern Colonies ^ as the late 

* Sicknefs wasj which rag'd, A.D, 1-705. and carry'd 
^. -•' , ■ ■ ^ off 

The Hiftory of Carolina* 577 

*oflF abundance of People in Charles Town, and other 

* Places. 

' Intemperance alfohas occaiion'd fome Diftempers. 

* What may properly be faid to belong to the Country 

* is, to have forae gentle Touches of Agues and Fe- 

* vers in July and Augnji^ efpecially to new Comers. Ibid. 
' It has a Winter-Seafon, to beget a new Spring. 
Jwasthere^ adds my'y\uthor, at twice^ five Tears j and F, 7, 
had no Sicknefs^ hut what 1 got by a carelefs violent 
Cold '^ and indeed I perceived that the Fevers and Agues 
were generally gotten by Carelefnefs in Cloathingj or In- 

' Every thing generally grows there that will grow 

* in any part of Europe^ there being already many 

* forts of Fruits, as Apples, Pears, Apricocks, Nefta- 

* rines, &c. They that once taft of them, will defpife 

* th^ watry wafhy Taft of thofe in England. There's 
' fuch Plenty of them, that they are given to the 

* Hogs. In 4 or 5 Years they come from a Stone to 
' be bearing Trees. 

' All forts of Grain thrive in Carolinay as Wheat, 

* Barley, Peas, &c. And I have meafur'd fome 

* Wheat-Ears 7 or 8 of our Inches long. It produces 

* the bed Rice in the known World, which is a good 

* Commodity for Returns home *, as is alfo Pitch, Tar, 

* Back, Doe, Bear Skins, and Furs, tho the lad not 

* ^o good as the Northern Colonies. 

* It has already fuch Plenty of Provifions, that it in 
^ a great meafure furnifhes Barhadoes^ Jamaica^ 8cc. 
' There are vaft Numbers of wild Ducks, Geefe, Teal ^ 

* and the Sea and Rivers abound in Fifh. That which 
' makes Provifions fo cheap, is the Shortnefs of the 
' Winter : For having no need to mow for Winter 
' Fodder, they can apply their Hands in raifing other 

* Commodities. 

' The Rivers are found to be more navigable than 

* was at firft believ'd ^ and 'twas then prudently con- 
' triv'd, not to fettle on the moft navigable , but on 

* AJIdey and Cooper River, thofe Entrances are not fo 
' bold as the others •, fo that Enemies and Pirates have 
' been difhearten'd in their De/igns to difturb that 
' Settlement. 

*- The new Settlers have now great Advantages 
^ over t^he firft Planters^ fines they can be fup- 

" > ply'd 

578 The Hijlory of CzvoXmd,. 

* ply'd with Stocks of Cattle and Corn at reafonabh 
^ Rates. 

I (hall conclude this Account of C^ro//;?^, with an, 
Extra£l of a Letter from thence, from a Perfon of 1 
Credit *, in whofe Words I communicate it to the 
Publick : He fpeaks of tlfiQ Southward, 

* The many Lakes we have up and down breed a 

* Multitude of Geefe, and other Water-Fowl. All 

* along Port Royal River, and in all this part of Ca- 
^ rolifjaj the Air is fo temperate, and the Seafons of 

* the Year fo regular, that there's no Excefs (pf Heat 

* or Cold, nor any troublefome Variety of Wea- ; 

* ther : For tho there is every Year a kind ofWin- 
' ter, yet it is both fhorter and milder than at Jlfif- 

* ley or Cooper River*, and pafles over infenfibly, aj 
' if there was no Winter at all. This fweet Tem- 
^ perature of Air, caufes the Banks of this River to 
' be cover'd with various Kinds of lovely Trees ; 

* which being perpetually green, prefent a thoufand 

* Landskips to the Eye, fo fine, and fo diver fify'd, 
f that the Sight is entirely charm'd with them. The 
' Ground is very low in moft Places near the River ^ 

* but rifes gradually, at a diftance, with little Hills, 
' adjoining to fruitful Plains, all cover 'd with 

* Flowers, without fo much as a Tree to interrupt 
' the Profpe£l. Beyond thefe are beautiful Vales, 
^ cloath'd with green Herbs, and a continual Ver- 

* dure, caus'd by the refrefhing Rivulets that run 

* through them. There are a great many Thickets, 

* which produce abundance of Simples. The Indi- 

* ans make ufe of them for the Cure of their Dif- 
^ eafes. There are alfo Sarfaparilla, CafBa Trees, 
^ Gumms, and Rofin, very good for Wounds and 

* Bruiles ^ and fuch a prodigious Quantity of Ho- 
' ney, which the Bees make every where, that the 

* Store of it is not to be exhaufted. Of this they 

* make excellent Spirits, and Mead as good as ^^ 
^ Uga Sack. The Bees fwarm five or fix times. 

* There's a kind of Tree, from which there runs 
*• an Oil of extraordinary Virtue, for Curing 

* Wounds. And another Tree, which yields a 

* Bairn, thought to be fcarce inferiour to that of 
' Mecca, 

Silk is come to a great Improvement here^ fome 


The Hifiory of Carolina. 579 

Families making 40 or 50 Pound a Year, and their 
Plantation Work not neglefted, their little Negro 
Children being ferviceable in feeding the Silk- Worms. 
And we muft do Sir Nathaniel Jobifon the Juftice, 
to own he has been the principal Promoter of this 
Improvemeat, as alfo ot Vineyards. He makes 
yearly 3 or 400 /. in Silk only. 

But *tis obje^ed. Since the Climate is fo proper, 
fince Grapes are (o plentiful, and the Wine they 
make fo good, why is there not more of it ? Why do 
we not fet fome of it ? 

To which I anfwer. That the Inhabitants either 
think they can turn their Hands to a more profitable 
Culture, or impofe upon us in their Reports *, for I 
would not think them fo weak, as to negleft ma- 
king good Wine, and enough of it, if they could, 
and thought it worth their while. 

They manufadlure their Silk with Wool, and 
make Druggets. The French Proteftants have fet 
up a Linnea Manufa^ure *, and good Romalls are 
made here. 

A French Dancing-Mafter fettling in Craven Coun- 
ty, taught the Indians Country-Dances, to play oa 
the Flute and Hautboit, and got a good Eftate •, for 
it feems the Barbarians encouraged him with the 
fame Extravagance, as vve do the Dancers, Singers, 
and Fidlers, his Countrymen. 

Tho we have faid enough of the Firginian Indians, 
who are much the fame with the Carolinian-^ yet 
fince we find Mr. Archdale fpeaks of them in parti- 
cular, let the Reader fee what he has (aid of 'em. 

' Providence was vifible in thinning the Indiansj 
' to make Room for the Englifh. There were two 
'potent Nations, the Weftoes and Sarannas^ who 
' broke out into an ufual Civil War before the Eng- 
' lifh arriv'd *, and from many Thoufands reduced 

* themfelves to a fmall Number. The moft cruel 

* of them, the Wefioes^ were driven out of the Pro- 

* vince; and thQ Sar annas, continu'd good Friends, 
f and ufeful Neighbours to the Englifh. It pleas'd 
*^ God alfo to fend unufual Sickneffes among them '^ 

* as the Srnall-Pox, &c. The Pemlico Indians in P. 2, %l 

* North Cahlmay were lately fwept away by a Pefti- 

* lence , and the Caranine^ by Wan The Natives 

^ - ' ^ are 

580 The Hifidrj of Carolina, 

7. ^are fomewhat tawny, occafion'd chiefiyby oilins 
' their Skins, and by the naked Rays of the Sun. The^ 
are generally ftreight body*d, comely in Perlbn, 
quick of Apprehenfion, and great Hunters •, by which 
they are not only very ferviceable, by killing De 
to procure Skins for Trade with us ^ but thofe thac 
live in Country-Plantations procure of them the 
whole Deer's'Fleih,and they will bring it manyMiles 
for the Value of about 6 d. and a wild Turkey of 
40 Pound, for the Value of 2 i. 
They have learn'd one of their worft Vices of the 
Englifh, which is, Drinking ^ and that occafions 
Quarrels among them, one of which we have menti- 
oa'd in the time of Mr. Archdale's Government. As 
to what he would excite us, to their Converfion to 
Chriftianity, 'tis a Projeft which, like a great many 
other ^ry good ones, we rather wifh than hope to 
l^e effe^led. 

-Mr. Thomas was fen t to inftru£l the T ammo fees in 
the Chriftian Religion, and had an Allowance of 50 /. 
a Year from the before-mention'd Society,befides other 
Allowances : But finding it an improper Seafon, his 
Miflion is refpited *, the Reafon is, thofe Indians re- 
volted to the Englifh from the Spaniards ^ and not be- 
ing willing to embrace Chriilianity, 'tis fear'd they 
would return to their old Confederates, if any means 
were made ufe of to that purpofe. 

This Country is in a very flourifhing Condition^ 
the Families are very large, in fome are i o or 1 2 Chil- 
dren *, and the Number of Souls in all is computed to 
be 1 2 000. The Children are fet to Work at 8 Years old. 
The ordinary Women take care of Cows, Hogs, and 
other fmall Cattle, make Butter and Cheefe, fpin 
Cotton and Flax, help to ibw and reap Corn, wind 
Silk from the W^orms', gather Fruit, and look after 
t\iQ Hoofe. Tis pity this People fhould notbeeafy 
in th;:rir Government *, for all their Induftry, all 
the Advantages of the Climate, Soil, and Situation 
/or Trade, will be ufelefs to them, if they live under 
'Gppreffion ^ and Penfylvanla will have no occafion 
.to complain, that fhe tempts away her Inhabitants ^ 
being a new Beauty, a fairer, and confequently a 
powerful Rival 



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H?ttA M <xJ^©t^Pr«i% e«mm«n,iOft6^ *o«J»i^m«ai |5<UT^ 

^t~ dRdLa M^s ^ • V •x^^yr/jT ^<yt vj etc Triers ^«.ru^t,nML fettrf 

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Sell.. C JR^<L eT>fTt>.Y ^<^ °g^:Jng±^ft-f^ «^ rti ef^l ^ 

The Hifiory of Carolina. 3 Si 

! We fliall conclude this Hiftory and Account of 
farolim, with a Lift of the prefent Proprietaries^ 
'id chief Officers of this Colony. 

j William Lord Craven^ 
I Henry Duke of Beaufort^ 
\ The Honourable Maurice 
AjhUy-) Efqv Brother to 
, the Yj^x\o{Shaftshury^ V Proprietaries. 
IJohnhordCarm^etfj ^ 

I Sir John Coiliton^ Baronet, 

Jofeph Blakej Eiq''y 

John Archdale^ Efqj 

Nicholas Trott^ Efq ^ 

Sk Natk Johnfon^ Governour, Sallary 200 /.aYear. 

Col. James Moor^ 1[ 

Col. Thomas Br ought on ^ I 

^?^'^rf^^'' Icounfeliors. 

^ Mr. Nich. Trotty f 

Mr. -"-'.Ward J \ 

Mr. Hen. Noble^ , j 

Speaker of the Aflembly, William Rhett , E(q*, 

The Secretary, — Ward^ Efq*, His Salary <f 0/0 

a Year. 
The Chief Juftice, Mr. Trott^ 60 L 
The Judge of the Admiralty-Court, Col. James 

Moor^ 40 /. 

Surveyor General, ~ How^ Efq*, 40 /. 

Attorney General, Col. James Moor^ do /, 

Receiver General, the fame, 60 L 1 

Kaval Officer, Mr. Trott^ 40 /. 

CoUedlor of the Cuftoms, Col. Thomas Brougkon. 

Agent for the Colony in England:^ Mr. Jofeph Boone, 





O F 



An Account of its Difcovery and Settle* 
ment, the Progrefs of it, and the pre- 
fent State ; of the Indians^ Trade, and 
every thing elfe relating to it. 

I WAS in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth^ 
that. all the -E;?^/?/; Dominions on the 
Continent of America were difcover'd, 
except Hudfiris Streights -, which being 
the moft Northerly, ihould have been treated of 
firft, and put at the Head of the other Settlements v 
h\xtth.Q French }iZ\Q a large Dominion between the 
EngliJ}} at Hudforis Bay^ and thofe at New England l 
And befides there being no Towns nor Plantations 
in this Country, but two or three poor Forts to de- 
fend the Faftories, we thought we were at Liberty 
to place it where we pleased, and were loath to let 
cur Hiftory open with the Defcription offo miferable 
a Wildernels, and lb wretched a Colony. For as 
rich as the Trade to thefe Parts have been or may 
be, the way of Living is fuch, that we cannot reckon 
any Man happy, whole Lot is caft upon this Bay. 


The Hifiory of Hudfo^VBay. 38 j 

In the Year 1^76, Cap. Martin Frobijher made his 
firft Voyage for the Difcovery of a Paflage to China 
and Cathay by the North- Weft \ and on the 1 2th of 
June he difcover'd Tierra de Labrador^ in 53 Degrees 
8 Minutes, and entered a Streight, which is caird 
by his Name. On the ift of oAoher he returned to 
England, In the following Year, he went a fecond 
time on the fame Difcovery, came to the fame 
Streight, and us'd all poffible Means to bring the 
Natives to Trade, or give him fome Account of 
themfelves ^ but they were fo wild, that they only 
ftudy'd to deftroy the £;7^///;. Cap. Frofc//^f r ftay'd 
here till Winter drew on, and then he returned to 
England, He made the fame Voyage the following 
Year, and with the like Succefs. 

Six Years afterwards. A, J>. 1585. John David 
faird from Dartmouth on the fame Adventure, came 
into the Latitude of 6\ Degrees 1 5 Minutes, and pro- 
ceeded to 66 Degrees 40 Minutes. In the Year enfu- 
ing, he ran to 66 Degrees 20 Minutes, and coafted 
Southward again to 55 Degrees. Sailing thence in 54 
Degrees, he found an open Sea tending Weftward, 
which he hop*d might be the PafTage fo long fought 
for •, but the Weather proving tempeftuous, he re- 
turn'd to England, In Otioher^ the next Year, he did 
the fame. 

After which there were no more Adventures this 
way, till the Year 1607, when Cv^, Henry Hudfon 
difcover'd as far as 80 Degrees 23 Minutes : At the 
Mention of which, the Reader will almoft freeze 
as the Writer does *, for that Country is fo pro- 
digioufly cold, that Nature is never impregnated 
by the Sun ^ or rather, her barren Womb produces 
nothing for the Subfiftance of Man. In 1^08. he 
fet out again •, and, having added little to his for- 
mer Difcoveries, returned. Two Years after which, 
A,D, 1610. he again undertook a Voyage to find 
oat the North- Weft Pa ffage, proceeded 100 Leagues 
farther than any Man had done before him, till he 
Could not go forward for Ice and Shoal Water*, and 
finding himfelf imbay'd, he refolv'd to winter there. 
In the Spring, A.D, 1611, purfuing a further Difco- 
very, he and leven more of his Company were feiz'd, 
^he reft of his Men put into an open Boatj^ and com- 

3 84 The Hiftory of Hud fon'j Bay. 

mitted to the xMercy of the Wavef and Savages. By 
one or the other of which he periHi'd, dearly purcha- 
fing the Honour of having this large Streight and Bay 
caird after his Name. 

We know 'tis pretended, that a Dane made the 
Difcovery of this Streight, and that he call'd itChri- 
ftiana^ from the King of Denmark^ Chriftlern the 
-IVth. then reigning. But Cap. Hudfon was the Man 
who difcover'd it to the Englifh^ and who indeed firft 
fail'd fo near the Bottom of the Bay, as he did with- 
in a Degree or two. 

The fame Year that he dy'd. Sir Thomas Button, 
at the Instigation of Prince Henry^ purfu'd the fame 
Difcovery. He pafs'd Hud[on\ Streights, and leaving 
Hudfon' s- Bay to t\iQ South, fettled above 200 Leagues 
to the South- Weft, and difcover'd a great Continent, 
by him call'd New-Wales, He wintered at the Place 
afterwards call'd Port Nelfon^ carefully fearch'd all 
the Bay, from him call'd Buttons Bay, and return'd 
to Digg's Ifland. 

In i5i<5*. Mr. Bajjin enter'd Sir Thomas Smith's 
Bay, in 78 Degrees, and return'd defpairing to find 
any PafTage that way. 

Thus we fee all the Adventures made to the North 
Weft, were in Hopes oi pailiag to China ^ but that 
is a Difcovery as latent as the Philofophers Stone, the 
■ petual Motion, or xht Longitude. 

in \6^i. Cap. James fail'd to the North- Weft, 
and roving up and down in thofe Seas, arriv'd at 
Charlton Ifland, where he winter'd in 52 Degrees, 
much beyond Hudfon, Button, and Ba^n, Cap. Fox 
went but this. Year on the fame Account, but pro- 
ceeded no further than Port Nelfon, 

The Civil Wars in England put Difcoveries out of 
Mens Heads *, th^ Bold had other Work cut out 
for them *, and we hear of no more fuch Adventures 
till the Year 1.5^7. when Zachariah Gillam, in the 
Nonfuch Ketch, pafs'd thro Hudfon's Streights, ^nd 
then inco Baffa^sEay to 75 Degrees*, and thence 
Southward into 51 Degrees', where in a River, after- 
wards caird Prince Rupert's River, he had a friendly 
Correfpondence with the Natives, built a Fort, nam'd 
it Charles Fort, and return'd with Succefs. 


The Hiftory of HudfonV jSay. 

The Occafion of GHlam's going was this : Monfieur 
Radifon and Monfieur Goojelier^ two French-men^ 
meeting with romeSavagesintheLakeof^//z;;7;?(?;?^ij, 
in Canada^ they learnt of them that they might go 
by Land to the Bottom of the Bay, where the Englijh 
had not yet been. Upon which they defir'd them to 
conduft rhem thither,and the Savages accordingly did 
it. The two French-men returned to the upper Lake 
the fame way they came, and thence to Quebec^ the 
Capital of Canada *, where they offer 'd the principal 
Merchants to carry Ships to Hudfon's-Bay^ but their 
Projedl was rejefted. Thence they went to France^ 
in hopes of a more favourable Hearing at Court *, but 
after prefenting feveral Memorials, and fpending a 
great deal of Time and Money, they were anfwer'd 
as they had been at Quebec , and their Project look'd 
upon as Chimerical. The King of England's AmbaP 
fador at Faris^ hearing what Propofals they had 
made, imagin'd he Ihould do his Couutry good Ser- 
vice, in engaging them to ferve the Englijh^ who had 
already Pretences to the Bay : So he perfwaded them 
to go for London *, where they met with a favourable 
Reception from lome Men of Quality, Merchants, 
and others, who employ'd Gillam before-mention*d, 
a New England Captain, ia the Voyage •, and Radifon 
and Goofelier accompanying, they arriv'd at the Bot- 
tom of the Bay, and facceeded as we have hinted al- 
ready, , 

When Gtllam return'd, the Adventurers concern'd 
in fitting him out, apply*d themielves to King Charles 
the lid. for a Pattent ^ who granted one to them and 
their Succeflbrs, for the Bay call'd Hudfon's-Bay^ and 
the Streights call'd Hudfon's-Streights. The PattenC 
bears Date the 2d. of May^ m the 22d. Year of that 
King's Reign, A- D, 1670. 

The firll Proprietors or Company, caird the Hifd- 
frn's-Bay Company, were. 

Prince Rupert, Mr, Richard Cradock, 

^vcjames Hayes, Mi: John Lenon, 

Mr. William Toung, Chriftophsr Wrenn^ Efq*, 

Mr. Gerard Weymans, Mr. Nicholas Ha^ward, 

Cc Ths 

5 S6 The Hiftorj of Hudfon'^ Bay. 

The Bay lies from 54 Degrees North Latitude to 
51 Degrees, and is 10 Degrees, or 600 Miles in 

Before we proceed any further in the Hiftory, 
it will not be improper to give an Account of the 
Country, Climate, Produ£^, Trade, and Inhabi- 

The Mouth of the Streights, which is in about €i 
Degrees North Latitude, is 6 Leagues over. At the 
Mouth is an Ifland, call'd RefQlution. Charles 
Ifland, Salisbury Illand, and Notmgham^ are in the 
Streights, and Mansfield Ifland in the Mouth of the 

Hudfons Streights, which lead to the Bay, are a- 
boat 120 Leagues in Length *, the Land on both Sides 
inhabited by Savages, of whom we have little or no 
Knowledge. The South Coafl is known by the Name 
of the Tierra Labarador^ the Nurth by as many 
Names as Men of feveral Nations have been there^ 
and pretended to the Difcovery of it. On the Weft 
Side of the Bay, the EngUfl) made a Settlement, 
built a Fort at VortNelforiy and all that Country goes 
by the Name of New South Wales. The Bay here is 
caird Button's *, and Hydjon\-Bay^ which is broad- 
eft in this Place, may be near 130 Leagues 

On the other Shoar, or the Coafl of Labarador 
lie feveral Iflands, call'd the Sleepers Ifles, and the 
Baker's Doz^en, The Bottom of the Bay, by which 
we underfland all that Part of it from Cape Hen- 
rietta Maria^ in New South Wales^ to Redonda^ below 
Prince ^wpen's River, is about 80 Leagues long, and 
much of one Breadth all the way, being between 
40 and 50 Leagues over. 

Here are feveral Iflands, to which the firft Ad- 
venturers gave the Names of fome Great Men in 
England^ or fome that employ 'd them *, as Lord 
Weficn's Ifland, Sir Thomas Roe's Ifland, Charlton 
Ifland, and others. The two oppofite Shores are 
call'd the Eaft Main and Weft Main. The former 
is Labarador^ and the latter New South Wales. The 
Continent at the Bottom of the Bay is by th^ French 
pretended to be Part of Ncw-Erance •, and indeed to 
crois the Country from St. Margaret^ River, which 


The Hifiorj of Hudfon'j Bay. 3 87 

runs into the River of Canada^ to Rupert's River, at 
the Bottom of Hudfon\-Bay^ is not above 150 

At Etiperf% River, the EngUJJ) built their firft 
Fort, which they call Charles Fort, They never had 
any Towns or Plantations here, and probably never 
will. They live within their Forts in little Houfes, 
or Hutts, wherein the Builders confider nothing 
but to defend them from the Cold and Rains, tho 
they are not fo much difturb'd by the latter as by 
the former. 

There's an Ifland about 5 or <5" Leagues from the 
Weji Malriy call'd the Little Rocky I/le^ it being a 
meer Heap of Rocks and Stones, with (bme fmall 
Brufh-Wood growing upon it. 'Tis fuppos'd 
to overflow with great North- Weft Winds, 
which make a High-Tide all over the Bay. In this 
Ifle is plenty of Gulls and Sea Swallows. About 
3 Miles from the South South-Eaft Part of the liland, 
lies a dangerous Reaf of Sand, which is dry at Low- 

Charlton Ifland is a light white Sand, covered over 
with a white Mofs, full of Trees, Juniper and Spruce, 
tho not very large. This Ille affords a beautiful Pro- 
{pe6l to fuch as make it in the Spring, after a long 
Voyage of 3 or 4 Months, in the moft dangerous Seas 
in the World, occalion'd by the vaft Mountains of 
Ice, which drive in the Bay and Streights *, againft 
which, if Ships happen to ftrike, they are dalh'd in 
Pieces as certainly as if they ran againll Rocks : For 
indeed they are Rocks congeal'd, or rather petrify'd 
by the Violence of the continual Frofts. 

To fee one Day the Shoar on the Weji Main bare, 
the Mountains cover'd with Snow, and Nature look- 
ing like a Carcafs frozen to Death ^ and ta^ next to 
behold Charlton Ifland fpread with Trees, and the 
Branches making as it were a green Tuft of the whole, 
is a Surprise, that muft give the greateft Plea- 
fore after the Fatigues of an intollerable Winter 

The Air even at the Bottom of the Bay, tho by 
the Latitude 'tis nearer the Sun than London^ being 
but in 51 Degrees, is exceffive cold for 9 Months, the 
other three Months very hot, but on a North- Weft 
Wind. C c 2 Th(j 

3 S 8 The Hifiory of HudfonV Bay. 

The Soil on the Eajl Maln^ as well as the Weft, 
bears no manner of Grain. Some Fruits, Goofe- 
berries, Strawberries, and Dew Otter-berries, grow 
about Prince Ruperfs River. 

The Commodities for Trade here, are Guns, 
Powder, Shot, Qoth, Hatchets, Kettles, Tobacco, 
&€. which the Engllfl) exchange with the Indians 
for Farrs, Beavers, Martin, Fox, Moofe, and other 
Peltry *, and the Curious, who have any Tafte of 
Commerce, will not think^it a Digreflion to infert 
a Standard of Trade, which the Hudfon's-Bay Com- 
pany fix'd about 25 Years ago ^ andby which may 
be feen what Advantage they made of this Traffick. 
This Paper being put into my Hands, among o- 
thers relating to the Affairs of the Company^ is as 

The STANDARD how the Company s Goods 
mufi: be barter'd in the Southern Part of the Bay, 

Guns. One with the other i o good Skins *, that ^, 

Winter Be aver ^ l2 Skins for the higgeji 
forty I o for the rnean^ and 8 for the 

Powder. ^ Beaver for half a Pound. 

Shot. A Beaver for four Founds. 

Hatchets. A Beaver for a great and little Hatchet. 

ICnives. A Beaver for 6 great Knives^ or 8 Jack 


Beads. A Beaver for halj a Pound of Beads. 

Lac'd Coats. Six Beavers for one good Laed Coat. 

Plain CoatsX Pi've Beaver Skim for one Red Plain Coat. 

Coats. For VVomen^ Lac'd^ 2 Tardsy 6 Beavers. 

Goats. For Women^ Plain^ 5 Beavers. 

Tobacco. A Beaver for one Pound. 

Powder- ? A Beaver for a large Powder-Horn and 

Horns. 3 two fmall ones. 

Kettles. A Beaver for one Pound of Kettle. 

Looklna-GlafTes and Combs. Two Skins. 

Tis plain by this Standard the Company got pro- 
digiouily, and had they traded much, their Auftions 
might have been now 3 00 per Cent, as they were once ^ 
but their Returns were fmalJ, and their Charges 


The Hifiory of Hudfoii'^ Bay. $89 

great : Ten thoufand Beavers in all their Faftories was 
one of the beft Years of Trade they ev^r had, befides 
other Peltry. 

As to the Indians^ their Manners, Guftoms, Laii- 
guage. Government, and Religion, they are the fame 
with th.Q Canadans ^ and La Hontan has defcrib'd them 
very naturally, excepting that he has rais'd Nature, 
and made her too polite in this barbarous Clime, 
where Barbarity her felf is in the Height of her Em-t 

The Indians about Rupert's River, and other Places 
in the Bay, are more fimple than the Canadans^ who 
have had longer Commerce with the Europeans- 
They are generally peaceable, and not given to 
quarrel either with themfelves -or others, except the 
Nodways^ a wild barbarous People on the Borders 
of Hudfons Streights *, who fometimes in (light Par- 
ties make Incurfions on the other Indians^ and, ha- 
ving knock'd 8 or i o on the Head, return in 1 ri- 

The Indians of certain Diftrichs, which are 
bounded .by foch and fuch ESvers, have each an 
Okimah^ as they call him,^ or Captain over them, who 
is an Old Man, confider'd only for his Prudence and 
Experience, He has no Authority but what they 
think fit to give him upon certain Occafions. He is 
^heir Speech-maker to the Engllfl}^ as alfo in 
their own grave Debates, when they meet every 
Spring and Fall, to fettle the Difpofition of their 
Quarters for Hunting, Fowling, and Fifliing. Eve- 
ry Family have their Boundaries adjufted, which 
they feldom quit, unlefs they have not Succefs there 
in their Hunting, and then they join in with fome 
Family who have fucceeded. 

Their Notions of Religion are but very fiendero 
They fay, there are two Manetoes, or Spirits, the one 
fends all the Good things they have, and ih^ other 
all the bad. Their Wor(hip confiilis in Songs -.nd 
Dances at their Feafts, in Honour of the Manet oes 
that have favour'd them : But if they are fick 
or famifli'd, they hang iome little Bawble, which 
they fet a Value upon, "on the Top of a Pole, 
near their Tent, to pacify the Spirit oitended, as 
they conceive, 

G c 3 Let 

390 The Hijhry (?f HudfonV Bay. 

Let the Learned fay all the fine Things that Wit, 
Eloquence, and Art, can infpire them with, of the ; 
Simplicity of pure Nature, the Beauty and Inno- ' 
tence ^ thefe Wretches are an Inftance, that this In- 
nocence is downright Stupidity, and this pretended 
Beauty a Deformity, which pufs Man, the Lord of 
the Creation, on an equal Foot \vith the Beafts of the j 

The Hiftory of Hudfon's Bay will not afford us 
much Matter. The Settlements are too inconfide- \ 
rable, to deferve much Pains to be taken about 
them. What we know of them is as follows. 
Charles In the Year 1670, the Company fent ovtt Charles 
Baily,E/f, Baily^ Efq*, Governour : With whom went Mr. 
Covsrmur RadtjGf7y the Frenchman before-mention'd, and 10 
or 20 Men, w^ho were to (lay on the Place *, his Re- 
fidence being at Rupert River, where a mean Fort has 
been built. 

MicBaily appointed Mv.Thomas Gorfi to be his Secre- 
tary, and order'd him to keep a Journal of their Pro- 
ceedings there, which is now in my Cullody, but the 
Events it contains are too trivial to be remember'd : 
what arc moft. curious I ihall report ', and the Rea- 
der muft excufe me, if they are of no more Imjpor- 
tance : They ferve to give him an Idea of an 
Infant Colony, in one of the rudefk Parts of the 

The chief Indian near the Fort had the Name of 
Prince given him. Two other Indians were call'd 
Feter and the Chancellour •, who with their Wives 
and Families came to the Governour, to beg Subii-, 
fiance, declaring they could kill nothing, and were^ 
almofl Ibrv'd. For if thefe Barbarians could meet' 
with no Game, they had no Meat. 

Thus we fee in what a miferable Condition thefe 
Englifh there were like to be, if Supplies did not 
come regularly from Efjgla?2d. Mr. Bady having fed 
the Prince, the Chancellour, \visCocamifI}^ or Wife, 
and the reit of them, fent them up the Falls a fifning, 
and follow'd them in his Canoo^ to hunt up in the 
Country •, but could meet \Nita no Game, ex- 
cept 2 Moofe, and no People to trade with* 
Thefe Moofe are but indifferent Meat *, howe^ 
ver the Air is. fnarp^ to make . it relifh : as well 

The Hijiory ^/Hudfon'i'Bay, 

As Venifon, and 'twas accordingly very well- 

Some Days afterwards the Indians returned. The 
Prince brought a young Deer : The Chancellour 
and his Wife fome Fifh and Moofe. The greateit 
Part of the Autumn Fowl here, are Geefe, of which 
there's then Plenty, and they begin to come about 
the Beginning of September^ a fure fign that the Peo- 
j pie mufl take their Leave of Summer, and prepare 
for a long Winter of near forty Weeks. 

The EngliHi had now worfe Hutts than afterwards, 
and no Covering for them but Moofe Skins. There 
was at this time a Factory at Port Nelfon^ where 
Captain Goofelier arrived in Augnfi^ 1^75. He 
fearch'd the River for Indians, but met with none,, 
He law feveral Wigwams^ where they had lately been, 
and fuppos'd them to be gone up the Country, He 
faw alfo the Reli£ls of Sir Thomas Bvttons Ship ', and 
one of his Company, Mr. Cole^ brought home a 
piece of Shot, a piece of her Bulk-head, andafmalj 
piece of Cable, which had Iain there about 60 

This Captain was order 'd to fearch for Severn 
River, but could not find it, tho 'twas in the old 
Draughts of this Bay. 

About the Beginning of OEtoher the Geefe fly a- 
way to the Southward j a terrible Sight to the poor 
Europeans m the Bay *, for by that they know the 
hard Weather is approaching, and begin to provide 
Wood for Winter before the Snow falls. 

Now Mr. Baily and his little Colony fell to patch- 
ing up their Cabbins, and prepare for the Enemy *, 
and they had nothing to fear but the Seafon, He 
fent a Sloop to J'oint Comfort^ between Rupert River 
and Charlton Ifland, to kill Seals, to make Oil for 
their Lamps, they having no Candles, and the 
Nights being long. 

About the loth of OBoher the Ice begins to con- 
geal on the Shores *, but often warm Weather comes 
after that, and thaws it. The 23d of Ofif^kr feve- 
ral Indians came to the Fort to trade •, and among 
ethers, one from Quebec, In one Night the Snow 
was a Foot deep, and by the 6ih> o^ November thQ Ri- 
ver was frozen over, 

C c^ Ab.0^1 

392 The Hijlory of HudfonV Bay. j 

About the middle of the Month Partridges come,i 
of which they kill'd 5, as white as Snow. The Eng- ' 
iifhthat were there, diverted themfelves, while the ' 
Weather permitted, with killing Partridges*, but 
truly there feems not to have been much Plenty of * 
them, for four Men, in a Weeks time, kill'd but \ 
3 6, They Fowi'd for them about Tete/s River, and 
Frenchmans River ; the one above, and th^ other ^ 
below Rvpens, Bat in December and January the 
Freds were fo fevere, they could not (lay out. The 
Governour's Boys Feet and Face were fpoiFd by the 
FrofI:, in catching of Partridges. 

The Snows in the Woods, when at tjie deepeft, 
are 7 or 8 Foot^ fometimes they do not exceed 4 
Foot, as in the Year 1^73. and then leaft Moofe is 
to be had. The 25th o^ January^ 3 Indians brought 
Beaver to the Fort, and a little frcfh Meat. They 
reported, that as they paft Moofe River^ about 10 
Days Journey from Rupert\ thQ^^ faw fome dead 
Bodies of Indians, which they fuppos'd to be Onacha- 
fioes^ moft of that Nation being deftroy'd by the 
Nodwayes^ who were thQr\ 2iho\il Mocfe River '^ and, 
is they threatened, intended to vifit the Englifh in the 
Spring '^ they were accordingly as good as their 
Words. The i fl: oi February there was fuch a Change of 
Weather, that it rather thaw'd than froze. The En- 
glifh with living on Salt-Meats, were all down with 
the Scurvy in this Month : For tho they continu'd to 
catch Partridges, there were fo few caught j they 
went but a very little way among them. 

Several Indians came in March^ and built their Wig- . 
warns at the Eaii End of xht Fort, intending to flay 
there all Winter, that they might be ready for Trade 
in the Spring. The Nation that took up their Quar- 
ters near the Fort were the Ctifcididahs •,'and the King 
lent Mr. Baily\^oicdj he would corae to him fpeedily. 
The Gcvernoar on the 23d OiMarch^ accompany 'd 
f>y John Abraham, and other?, travell'd on the Ice to' 
Toint Comfcrtj w^here were feme Indian Tents, to 
boy what frefh dry'd Meat he could 5 XhQ Store at-the 
fort being almoft fpent, ' ' ' 

About xhQ- -ioth of Ma-y-ch it began to thaw *, and 
t]iQ Nodv^ayes fiill threatning the Englifh svith War, 
the Governour prepared every thing necefTary in the 

The I^flory of HudfonV Bay. 

Fort for his Defence. On the 25th of March^ '^ 
Men, as AmbafTadors, came from King Cvpjudldah^ 
to notify his Approach, and that he would be at the 
Fort next Day ^ which he made good, and was trou- 
bled that the Governour was abiCx^i; He brought a 
Retinue with him, but little «Beaver, the Indians 
having fent their beft to Canada, 

The Englifh at the ?Fort flood on their Guard, and 
Mx.Cole commanded them in the Governour's Ab- 
fence \ for whom the King fent 2 Indians. And tht 
31ft of Marchj the Governour returned, with a 
fmall Supply oi Moofe Fleft, On the iftof4?r/7, 
t}iQ Geefe, the Promife of the Spring, Begin to 
return again, and prodigious Qiantiries were 

All this while the Indian King ft ay 'd at the Wig- 
vsrams, near the Fort*, and the reafon of it was, 
They were apprehenfive of being attacked by fome 
Indians, whom the French Jefuits had animated a- 
gainft the Englifh, and all that deal- with them. 
The French us'd many Artifices to hinder the Na- 
tives trading with the Englifh ; they gave them 
great Rates for their Goods, and oblig'd Mr. Bally 
to lower the Prices of his, to oblige the Indians, w^ho 
dwelt about Moofe River, with whom they drove 
the greateft Trade. 

The French, to ruin their Commerce with the 
Natives, came and made a Settlement, not above 8 
Days Journey up that River, from the Place where 
the Englifh traded. Twas therefore debated, whe- 
ther the Company's Agents fhould not remove from 
Rtfpsrfs to Moofe River., to prevent their Traffick 
being intercepted by the French. 

On the ^d o^ Aprils 1 <^74» a Council of the princi- 
pal Perfons in the Fort was held, where Mr. Baily^ 
the Governour, Capt. Goofelierj and Capt Coky 
were prefent, and gave their i'everal Opinions. The 
Governour inciin'd to remove. Capt. Cole wasa- 
gainftit, as dangerous *, and Capt. Goofelier for going 
thither in their Bark to trade, when the Indians be- 
longing to King Cvfcvdidah were gone a huntings 
and there was no fear of the Fort's being iur- 


5 94 T^^ Hijiory of HudfonV Bay. 

Tlie Indians went to building their Wigwams near 
^he Fort, and rais'd their Waufcohelgein^ or Fort, fo 
iiear the Englifti, thut the Palifadoes join'd. One 
6^ thofe Barbarians being jealous of his Wife, and 
finding her in the Fort, pull'd out a Hatchet, which 
he had hidden under his Coat, and gave her a defpe- 
rate Wound in the Head:, but fhe did not die of it. 
The Indian fearing the Governour wou'd punifh 
him for ftriking in the Fort, fled to the Woods. 
Upon which Mr. Baily order'd that no Indian, but 
King Cvfcttdidah^ and his chief Courtiers, fhould be 
admitted into the Fort, and a Watch was fet upon 
the Gate. 

As the Ice grew rotten and melted, the Indians 
who ventured on the Rivers fell frequently in *, but 
they all fwam like Ducks, and feldom or never were 
any of them drown'd- The great Thaw began a- 
bout the 2oth of jipril^ and then all the Englifh ha- 
ving {pent their Beer, and Winter-Liquor, return'd 
to drinking of Water. 

Geefe and Swans were now to be had, and that 
fupply'd in fome meafure their Want of Provifion. 
The Governour having been cheated by the Indians 
at To'mt Comfort J in his Moofe Flejh^ went thither, 
apd oblig'd them to make Satisfaction. 

On the 2oth o^ May^ 12 Indians, Subje£ls to King 
Cufcudidah^ came in feven Canoos, and the King 
meeting them, conduded them to the Fort, where 
they told him, there would be few or no Vpland In- 
dians come to trade that Seafon, the French having 
iperfwaded them to come to Canada : However Mr. 
B^lly order'd the Sloop to be got ready, and refolv*d 
to go up the River. 

Upon the Arrival of this new Company, among 
whom was the King s Brother, a Feaft was made \ 
the Manner of which was this *, They all fat down to- 
gether, and one Man, a Kinfman of the King's, 
broke the Meat and Fat in fmall Pieces, according to 
the Number of Men there. After a fhort Speech 
made by the King, the Subflance of which was, for 
them to take Courage againft their Enemies, and o^. 
ther Stories. The Company ihouted, and then the 
Man who broke, diftributed the Meat about to 
then^ they crying, Oh i Ho' as much as to fay, / 
'. . ,;■■■= -r • > ^ ^ ■ ■ :.^-- •- ' ^ thiir^ 

TheHifloryofnad{oa's^2iY. 395 

$har?k you, Tis incredible, to tell the Abundance^ 
of fat Beaver, Moofe Flefb, and Fat, they eat to- 
gether with the Broath, and Fat as black as Ink, 
which they drink. Then every Man had a fmall 
Piece of Tobacco diftributed to him, and they all 
fell to Smoaking. Some afterv\rards danc*d, fom« 
fung, and a Man beat a Drum, which was a Skill 
put over a Kettle, and lac'd a-thwart They conti- 
nue this commonly all Night, and when they go 
home, carry what Meat is left to their Sqwaws, it 
being very rare for them to admit the Women to 
their Feafts. 

On the 2 2d of May, the Indians at their Wig- 
wams, near the Fort, had a PowwoWj or fort of Con- 
juring •, which is thus. There's a fmall Tower built, 
with Wyth Sticks, about 8 Foot high, the Top being 
open ^ but the reft cover'd very clofe with Skins, 
that none may fee into it. In the Night, the Man 
that Powwows goes into the Tower •, the reft fit nigh 
it, and in their Places ask him feveral Queftions, 
which in a manner they know already *, as, When 
any Strangers will be here ? The Powwower guefTes 
at the time, and anfwers accordingly. The Maneto^ 
or their God, told them, the Nodways would come 
down upon them e're long, and advis'd them to be 
upon their Guard, asalfoagainft xhQ Mifiigoofes^ or 

They Powwow often, and upon feveral Occafions. 
If it happens not as they expefted it would, then the 
Jlfamto is Muchocatmanj or very bad -^ and if it falls 
©ut to their Defires, then M^neto is Moruchfice^ or 
good. When they kill a Moofe, their Maneto is 
White and Good, When they kill none, then he is 
Black and Naught, They Powwow very much when 
they celebrate any Marriages. Every Man has com- 
monly two Wives, whom they keep in great Subje- 
ftion, and make *emdo all Slavery *, as draw Sledds, 
cut Wood, make Fires, and drefs Moofe Hides. The 
Men only hunt, and kill the Game : The Women 
fetch the Beaft that is kill'd, and take Care to pre- 
serve the Flefh. 

The next Day the Governour, and fome EngUdi 
and Indians arm'd, went down to the Bottom of the 
Bay, to Frenchme-as River, to feek for the Nodways^ 
but could meet VTith noneo r ;7r-^ > At 

J g6 The Hijiory of HudfonV Bay. 

At the latter end of May the Geefe go to the North- 
ward, to breed. On the 27th, about 50 Men, Wo- 
men and Children, came in 22 Canoos, to trade, 
but brought little or no Beaver with them. They 
were of the Nation call'd Pijhhapocanoesy near a-kin 
to the Eskelmoesj and both alike a poor beggarly 
People : By which we may perceive the French ran 
away with the beft of the Trade. 

The Governour having got every thing ready for 
a Voyage to Moofe River j fent Capt. Goofellerj Capt. 
Cole<t Mr. Gorfi^ my Author, and other Englifh In- 
dians, to trade there. They got about 250 Skins ^ 
and the Captain of the Tahittee Indians informed 
them, the French Jefuits had not brib'd the Indians, 
not to deal with the Englilh, but to live in Friendfhip 
with the Indian Nations in League with the French. 
He blam'd the Englifh for trading with fuch pitiful 
Nations, as the Cufcudidahs and Fijibhapocames^ advifing 
them to fettle at Moofe Sehee^ and the Vpland Indians 
would come down and trade with them. The Rea- 
fon they got no more Peltry now, was, becaufe the 
Indians thought 6*66/^//^?^ was too hard for them, and 
few would come down to deal with him . 

My Author, in this Voyage, paft by Rohlnfon 
Ifland, Willow Ifland, and ;aw feveral White Whales. 
The Musketoes are extreamly troublefome in May 
and June^ efpecially after Rains. The Nodways 
coming down within a Quarter of a Mile of the Fort, 
the Alarm was given the Englifh and Indians ", but the 
Enemy v^ere afraid to come farther -, and Mr. Bdly 
with a Party of both, purfu'd them in their Retreat, 
but could not come near enough to do any Execution. 

This Fright being over, Mr. Baity fail*d himfelf 
for Moofe Seheej and brought home 1500 Skins; 
thQ Shechittawams^ 50 Leagues from that River, 
having come to trade with him. By the of 
June^2A\ the Indians had left their Wigwams near 
the Fort, and were gone abroad to hunt and trade, 
fome with the Englifh, and fome by themfelves. 

The Governour undertook a Voyage to difcovcr 
Shechittawam River ', and thence intended to coaft a- 
long to ?on jSfelfori^ where as yet was no Fort. In 
ihQ mean time Mr. Gorfi, who was left Deputy at 
the Fort, fent a Yaulj and four Men well arni'd, 
• - -' --^ ■■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ^' ■ ', ' m 

The Hifiory of Hudfon'i" Bay. 397 

up the Nodways River, which, as high as they could 
go for the Falls^ was 5 Miles broad, full of fmall 
Illands and Rocks •, in which Geefc breed. 

By the Beginning of Augufl^ the Englifh that re- 
mained at the Fort had almoft fpent all their Provifi- 
ons, their Powder and Shot, and began to be in 
mortal dread of ftarving. They kill'd Ducks, Teal, 
and Plover, and fome of them were always out, for 
their Lives depended upon it. 

After about 2 Months Voyage, Mr. Baily return'dj 
and gave this Account of his Voyage in the Sloop. 
Qn the i^th of July he fail'd from Moofe River ^ 
and arriv'd at Schettawam River on theistb, where 
no Englifhman had been before. He ftay'd there 
till the 2 1 ft, but could meet with little or no 

'Tis a fine River, and a good Channel, to the 
N. W. in 52 Deg. N. L. He treated with the King, 
and his Son made them a Promile to come with a 
Ship and trade with them the next Year. In return, 
they afTur'd him, they would provide Store of Bea- 
ver, and bring the Vpland Indians down. 

The 21 ft he fet fail towards Cape Henrietta Maria^ 
and faw a great Ifland, ftretching N. N. V/. and S. S. 
E. diftant about 14 Leagues from the Mouth of 
Shechittawam River. The Ifland being two Days Jour- 
ney in Circumference, Indian Padiing, which they 
account to be 30 Leagues ^ 'twas nam'd Viner'% 

The 23d, upon a Point, as he and his Crew were 
failing along Shore, they fpy'd a great Smoak *, they 
ftood in for it, and found 7 diilrefs'd Indians there. 
This Point lay in 52 Degi 40 Min. The Governour 
took them in, and gave them PalTage to a fmall Ri- 
ver, caird Equon^ loo Leagues to the Southward of 
if, where they law the Bodies of fome Indians dead 
on the Ground. There had been a great Mortality 
among them, and feveral were ftarv'd to Death for 
want of Food *, this Country being fuch a mifcrable 
Wildernefs, that it affords not fuiftcieiit Suftenance 
for the wretched Inhabitants. 

On the 27th ot July^ the Sloop ran upon Ice, and 
had like to have founder 'd. Their Pilot was a Wa- 
jhahoe^ or New . Severn Indian, and 'twas reported, 


J 98 The Hiftory of HudfonV Bay. 

that he had two Rows of Teeth ^ but he hated fo 
much to fee the Compafs, that he was very trouble- 
fome to the Crew \ fo the Governour order'd him to 
be put afhore. 

The Indians on New Severn ^iv^r txQ as poor as 
the Eiskemoes ^ and indeed all the Northward Indians 
are more beggarly and brutal than the Southward. 
The Governour underftanding by fome Wa/hahoe 
Indians, there was no Beaver to be had, and that 
the Sea beyond the Cape was full of Ice, refolv'd to 
return, neither he nor his Company having eaten any 
thing in two Days, but a few fodden Peaie and Oat- 

In their Return they were forc'd a-fhore upoa 
Charlton Ifland, where they lay 2 or 3 Days in Di- 
flrefs, and at laft got off, with the lofs of feveral 
Neceffaries. After he had return'd to the Fort, on 
the 30th of Augnfi^ a Canoo'arriv'd at ^^/^^rf's Ri- 
ver, with a Miflionary Jefuit, a Frenchman, born 
of Englifh Parents, attended by one of Cufcvdidalos 
Family, a young Indian. The Frier brought a Let- 
ter to Mr. Baity from the Governour of Q^ehec^ 
dated the sth of OBober, i ^73- For the Prieftftiould 
have been at Rupert's River feveral Months before, 
but that he was ftop'd by the Indians. The Gover- 
nour of Quebec defir'd Mr. Baily to treat the Jefuit 
civilly, on account of the great Amity between the 
two Crowns ^ and Mr. Baily refolv'd to keep the Je- 
fuit till Ships came from England* 

He brought a Letter alfo for Capt. Goofeller^ which 
gave Jealoufy to the Englifh of his correfponding 
with the French^ his Son-in-law liv'd at Quebec^ 
and had accompany 'd the Prieft part of his Way, 
with 3 other Frenchmen, who being afraid to ven- 
ture far among ftrange Indians, return'd. 

The Tahittee Indians being within the Hudfor^s Bay 
Company's Pattent, 'twas an Encroachment for the 
French to trade with them •, the Jefuit confefs'd they 
did it. Mr. Baily cloath'd him, the Indians having 
rob'd him *, and entertained him with great Kind- 
nefs. The Prieft refolving to return to Europe in an 
Englifh Ship, did not like another Journey of 400 
Miles Length, thro' many barbarous Nations, over 
Land, and a Country almoft impaflable. 


TheHipry of Hudfoa^S'BdLy. 399 

The Englifh were frequently allarm'd with Reports 
©f Incur fions from the i\rWxi7^j/j and Moofe Kiver Iri" 
dians, whofe Quarrel with him, was their felling 
too dear. The Governour, to prevent being fur- 
priz'd, order'd all their Merchandize to be put a- 
board a Bark that was left with them, and went to 
fifli and fowl at Peter's River •, but got little Fowl, 
and their Fifhing-Tackle began to want Supplies. 
'Twas now the 1 1 th of September^ and fb long had 
thefe poor Men liv'd in this Defart, holding a preca- 
rious Being by their Guns and Fifhing Tackle. 
Their Patience was at laft fpent, and the Governour 
declared, if he did not hear from England in 5 Days 
time, he would return home aboard the before- 
mentioned Bark. 

On the 1 7th they were all to depart for Toint 
Comfort^ to ftay there till the 2 2d, and then make 
the; beft of their Way for England. For later 
than the 2 2d o^ September ^ no Ships had ever arriv'd t 
All the Flower and Bread they had left, did not 
make above 300 Pound. They had but 2 Barrels of 
good Pea fe, and 30 Geefe in Pickle, to victual their 
Bark with for their Voyage *, and having but a very 
little Powder in the Store-houfe^ they defpair'd of 
killing much more Game. 

In this deplorable Condition were they, when the 
Jefuit, Capt. Coofeliery and another Pa pift, walking 
downwards to the Sea-fide, at their Devotion, heard 
7 great Guns fire diftin£lly. They came home in a 
Tranfport of Joy, told their Companions the News, 
and aflur'd them 'twas true. Upon which they fir'd 
3 great Guns from the Fort, to return the Salute, 
tho they could ill fpare the Powder upon fuch an 

Next Day an Indian came, and gave them notice, 
that he had heard great Guns laft Night OitAttifaw' 
yem^ or Point Coinfort. Their Sloop was then at the 
Point, and they expe£led every Minute to have 
the News confirm'd. 

One may imagine with what Impatience they 
waited. The Day was well nigh fpent, and no Sloop 
come, which threw them all into Defpair. In 
the Evening the Sloop appear'd in the River, but 
having no Enfign out, they concluded they were all 


400 The Hijlory of Hudfon'i Bay. 

loft Men ^ and in this Extremity of Sorrow, they 

were foon reviv'd by, the Sight of 5 Englifhmen, 

whom they had not ^Q^n before, and from whom 

they underftood, the Vrlnce Ruperty Capt. Gillam 

Commander, was arrived, with the new Gover- 

nour, William Lyddal^ Efq*, 

Wil. Lyd- The next Day the old Governour, and Mr. Gorfiy 

dal £fq; faiPd for Point: Comfort j where the Shaftshury^ Capt. 

Governour Shepherd Commander, arriv'd alfo from England* 

And the new Governour's Commiflion and Inftru- 

aions being read, all Hands fet to work, to refit and 

load the Ships home as foon as poffible. 

On the 1 8 th o{ September Mr. Lyddal landed, and 
" took Pofleffion of the Fort^ the Colours flying, and 
Guns firing, to falute him. Mr. Baily delivered him 
. the Pattent, and after that he was no more caird Go- 
vernour. Mr. Lyddal finding the Seafon would be fo 
far fpent, before the Ships could be unloaden and loa- 
den again, that it would be imprafticable to return ^ 
after feveral Councils, 'twas refolv'd, they Ihould 
Winter at Rupert's River*, and Capt. Gillam^ and^ 
Capt. Shepherd's Ships Crews were employed to cut 
- Timber, to build Houfes for them, as alfo a Brew- 
houie and Bake-houfe in the Fort. 

The Provifions they brought, fell very fhort of 
the Complement of Men that were to be fed by them. 
They had 30 Men to feed in the Fort, and in the 
Houfes-, and but 10 Months Bread for them, at 
5 Pound of Flower a Head weekly, which was not e- 
nough to lail: them all the Wmter at Land, and 
viaual their Ships too. Mr. Gorfi^ who was their 
Store-keeper, foon brought them to fhort Allowance, 
to husband their Store , but the Men murmur'cj^ 
and Mr. Lyddal order'd they fhould have full Al- 
lowance, laying, If we ftarve^ we'll flarve altoge- 

By this means they were reduc'd to great 
Streights, and forc'd to pinch harder than they 
needed have done, had they been good Husbands of 
their Bread at firfl. 

Such was the State of this Infant Settlement, and 
it has not mended much fince^ for Want and Cold 
have every Year endanger'd the Lives of all that have 

hQ^n there, „ 


The Hifiorj ofVLviAiovCsB^Y^ 401 

Before we proceed iii^ur Hiftory, we fhall com- 
municate to the Reader a fmall Diaionary of the 
Language of the Indians at the Bottom of thQ Bay, 
which is like the reft diftinguifh'd by feveral Dialers, 
but this is the Cufcudldah*s, 

Jrakam, Bread. ' Vijhjhlfl)^ a little thing. 

Aftam^ Come hither. Pafiofigon^ a Gun. 

AJfmne, Shot. Fiflofigon a hijh, a PiftoL 

Apttj a Fire-Steel. Fihickeman , a Jack- 

Arremitogify^ to fpeak. Knife. 

A Notch J prefently. Pma a jhum. 0, give me 

Chkkahlgonj a Hatchet a Piece. 

'Eskon^ aChifleL Ps qulfiaconGauMowon^ 

Manitowghigin^ a Red- I eat fome Padding, 

Coat. Spog, ntj a Pipe. 

Metm^ Stockings. Stenna^ *, Tobacco. 

Mokeman^ Knives, Both, im, m. Red-Lead 

Mtchdy^ or X p_,^ i^^ Shekahoon, 2l Comb. 

F^c^ow, S v^^^^^' Taney, Where. 

Mektj% Beads« 77^^/^^^r.?/^,whatdoYOM 
Mouftodawbifl}, a Flint. call this ? 

No mm-nifs e to ta, I do lequan. What do you 

not underftand you. fay? 

Owma^ this. T^j/, that true. 

ThojWith thiSjl muft leave my Journal ^ from other 
good Memoirs, I fhall continue the Hiftory to the 
prefent time. 

Mr. Bally, who had very well difcharg'd his Truft, 

returning to England, informed the Company fullj 

of their Affairs ', and now as they advanc'd in Repu- 

I tation, fo they were induftrious to encreafe their 

Trade and Settlements. They appointed a Trader 

! to aft under the Governour and Chiefs of the Fa- 

Tories, at other Rivers, according as they were fet- 


Port Nelfon was the next Settlement which they 

\ made, and thither tliey lent John Brldger, Efq^ with 

the Charafter of Governour for the Hudfon's-Bay 

I Company of the Wefi Main^ from Cape Henrietta 

i| Maria, which was included in the Governour of the 

\ Eaji Maiti% Pattent. 

Dd Mr. 

402 Tk Hi/iorj ofHvidfon^sBsiY. 

John Mr. Lyddal was (bcceeded by John Nixon^ Efq^ 

Nixon, in whole time the Company thought of removing 
^hh G^ their chief Factory from Rnperfs River to Chickewan 
vernour, j^iver, as the Place mod reforted to by the In- 

Charlton liland was now frequented by the Ships 
bound to Hiidfon's'Bay^ and made the Place of Ren- 
dezvous for all the Fa£lors to 'bring their Mer- ' 
chandife to^ and load it there aboard the Compa- 
ny's Ship. 
IqIjj^ In the Year KfSa. Mr. Bridger embark'd for Port 

Bridger Nelfon^ where a Fa£lory was to be eftablilh'd, and 
Zfaj, Go- a Fort built *, but before he arriv'd, Cap. Benjamin 
vernour ofGillam-, Mafter of a New-England Ship, and Son of 
^on '^Ql'C^iTp. Gillamj Commander of the Prince j^wp^rr, then 
^t>n. in the Company's Service, fettled at that Fa^ry ^ 

but had not beea there above 14 Days, before Mr. 
Radijfon and Cap. Goofelkr^ who had deferted the 
Englifij arriv'd from Canada, 

The Company having difmifs'd them their Ser- 
vice, thefe two French-men in Revenge procur'd fome 
Merchants of Canada to undertake a Settlement there. 
Gtlla?n was not frrong enough to repel them, but 
he remained at Port Ndfon ^ where i o Days after 
Radlffhn and Goofilier's Arrival, came Mr. Bridgen 
The French no fooner psrceiv'd he was come, but 
they {ent aboard his Ship immediately, and com- 
manded him to be gone, for that Mr. ^^^^//o?^ and 
Cap. Goo feller had taken PolTeffion of the Place for 
the Fr^??f^ King their Mafter, ■ 

M^. Bridger^ being warranted fo to do by the 
Company's Commiflion, unloaded fdme of his Goods, 
and with all Hands went to Work, in order to make 
a Settlement. 

Raddifon continu'd at Port Nelfon *, and Mt. Bridger 
and he became very intimate : Which Intimacy lafted 
from OEhher^ 1582. to /the F^/?r2/^r)/ following, when 
Raddifon feiz'd Bridger and Gillam^ with ail their 
People and EfFed'S. 

Having kept them fome Months in a fort of 
Imprifonment, about ^ugu/i the French put feveral 
of the Company's and Gillam's People aboard a rotten 
Bark, and they were taken up by an EngUJh Ship near 
C^p^HmriettaMaria, Bridger and Giilatn they carry 'd 


The Hiftory of HudfonV'Bay. 405 

with them to Canada^ where Raddijon and Goofelier 
ran fome of their Cargo afhoar, intending to defraud 
their Employers. 

After which they made their Efcape, and got into 
France » The Company having Notice of it, writ to 
him, and he to the Company, promifing, if they 
would forgive the Injury he had done them, and 
employ him again, at fuch a Sallary, he would un- 
dertake to deliver the French j whom he had left there 
till he came again, to them, and feize all the Furrs 
they had traded for, which would make them Satis- 
fa<n:ion for the Wrongs he had done them. Accord- 
ingly they forgave him, em ploy 'd him again, and 
he took Port Nelfon from his Country-men. But 
before his Arrival Cap. John Abraham had been there j^i^^ ^, 
with Supplies of Stores *, and finding Mr. Bridger braham, 
was gone, he ftay'd himfelf, and was continued Go- Efq;^ Go- 
vernour by the Company, in 1584. vsmour of 

In the preceding Year, Mr. Nixon^ Go vernour of P*?^* Nel- 
Rupert's River, was recali'd, and Henry Sergeant^^^- 
Efq", made Governour. By wliore Inflru6lions we ^^^^^^^ 
find the chief Faaory was remov'd from Ruperf?, to ^r^^gfj 
Moofe-Sebeej or Chichwan River, which has ever fmce J^ylj^^y Qf 
been call'd Albany River ^ where a Fort was'built, a Albany 
Fa£lory fettled, and the Governour made it the Place ^jsr^ 
of his Refidence. Tis at the Bottom of the Bay, below 
Rifperfs River. He was ordered to come every Springy 
as foon as the Trade was over, to Charlton Ifland, 
and bring what Goods he had with him, to wait 
for the Arrival of the Company's Ships : From 
thence he was to vifit the other Fa£lories, and fee 
that their Merchandise was (ent in due time to Charl- 
ton Ifland, to attend t\iQ Ships Arrival. 

The Governour of Canada having given thQ Hud- 
fon's'Bay Company to underftand, the French were 
very much offended at their Difcoveries in thefe 
Parts, Mr. Sergeant was order'd to be careful that he 
was not furpriz'd by them. 

There is an Ifland in the Bottom of the Bay, call'd 
Ha/s Ifland, where a Fadory had been fettled„ 
This Ifle and ^«j5^r^'s River were near the FrenchjAl-^ 
ha?jy being more to the Southward ^ and of tht^Q 
Fadlories the Company were moll apprehenfive that 
their Euf mies would endeavour to difpoireis them^. 
' ■ ■ ' ^ " - ' D d 2 

404 Th^ Hifiory of Hudfon^ Bay. 

We perceive by thefe Inftru£lions, that their Ser- 
vants in the Bay had been very unfaithful to them, 
and Interlopers invaded their Privileges. They ap- 
pointed Mr. Hugh Vermr to be chief at ^wpfrf's River, 
and Mr. George Geyer and Mr. ThoMos Savage to be 
chief Managers at the Jfinglafs River, which had been 
lately difcover'd '^ and there were great Expe£lations 
of a mighty Advantage to the Company by that 
Difcovery, but it came to nothing, tho there was 
a Fa^lory fettled there, in order to promote 

The Company intended to plant a Colony at 
Charlton Ifland, and order 'd Mr. Sergeant to build a 
Fort there, and always keep fome Men upon it. 
Warehoufes were alfo built to receive the Furs that 
were brought thither from the Fa£lories, and Con- 
veniences were made for the Reception of fuch as 
w^ere obliged to winter there. The Company' al- 
ways enjoyn'd their Governours to endeavour to 
fave the great Charge they were at in fending con- 
flant Supplies of Provifions, by planting Corn and 
other Grain there. But alas! Tho the Climate by 
its Diftance from the Sun, ihould be as warm as ours ^ 
yet for Reafons, which the Naturalifts will eafily ^ive 
us, 'tis fo cold and frofty, that it kills almoft all (orts 
of Roots in the Ground which are fown there ^ and 
thofe Plantations, fo often recommended by the Com- 
pany, were chimerical and impra£licable. 

Orders were alfb given to diimifs Cap. Gillam their 
Service, for his Sons Offences*, and Cap. 5^;?^/or^ 
had the fame Ufage, on Account of his Relation to 
the Gillam s J for there's nothing fo terrible to a Mo- 
nopolizer, as an Interloper. Cap. William Bond^ who 
had been under Mr. Baily^ was fent for home •, and 
other Regulations made in the Management of Af- 
fairs : Bat all could not hinder the Ruin of them all 
by the Enemy. 

The Company, by their Governours and Agents, 
made fuch Compa£^s with the Captains or Kings of 
the Rivers and Territories where they had Stttle- 
m.ents, for the Freedom of Trade there, 1 3 ciufive of 
all others, that the Indians could not pretend the^^ 
had encroach'd upon them. Thele Conipa^Vs were 
ren^vr'd as firm as the Indians could make them, by 


TheHifioryofUnd{oa^sB2iY, 405 

fuch Ceremonies as were mofl facred and obligatory 
among them. 

Now were the Company in Poffeffion of five Set- 
tlements, viz,, j4lhany River, Hayes IHand, Rupert 
River, Port Nelfon^ and New Severn, Their Trade 
at each of them was confiderable. From Albany Ri- 
ver they had generally 3500 Beavers a Year *, and by 
Mr. Sergeant's great's Care and Fidelity^ their Com- 
merce encreas'd fo much, that the French began to 
be afraid all the Vpland Indians might be drawn 
down to the Bay. They knew they could do any 
thing with King James II. who then reign'd in 
England^ and that no Affront would make that Prince 
break y^\t\\Lewis the XlVth. Wherefore they refolv'd 
to drive the EngliJJ} out of all their Places in the Bot- 
tom of the Bay. Firft, they took Hayes Ifland, and then 
the Fort on Rupert's River. The French Company at 
Canada procur'd a Detatchment of Soldiers to be fent 
under the Chevalier de Troyes *, who came over Land 
from Quebec^ and in a time of profound Peace com- 
mitted thefe Afts of Hoftility. 

'Tis worth obferving that theFrench have fo good an 
Opinion of their-^/;2mr^2/f Colon ies,as to take not only 
all lawful, but even unlawful Means to preferve and 
enlarge them, as contemptible as they are in them- 
felves *, whereas the £??g/fy5^, who, next thQ Spaniards^ 
have the richeft Plantations in that Part of the World, 
have been as negligent of them as if they were not 
worth keeping. 

The 8 th of July^ i(^ss. the Chevalier de Troyes 
came before the Fort at Albany Rfver *, where the 
Governour, Mr. Sergeant^ then refided. Two In- 
dians had informed him of their having furpri2*d the 
Forts at Hayes Ifland, and Rupert River, and had 
brought with them the great Guns from thofe 

Two Hours after, the Englijh heard them difcharge 
their Guns, and faw fome of them at a Diftance. 
Upon which part of the Company's Servants de- 
clared, they would not venture their Lives unlefs they 
might be aflur'd of Pay, and fent John Parfons and 
John Garret^ two of tkeir Number, in all their 
Namesj to xU^ Governour, to tell him their Eg- 

4o6 The Hifiory of Hudfon'^ Bay. 

fblutions. Mr. Sergeant^ by Promifes, and giving 
them Cloaths, and other NecelTaries, prevailed with 
them to return to their Charge. But in a Day 
or two they mutiny'd again , and Elitu Turner the 
Gunner, poflefs'd t^m People with an Apprehenfion, 
that it was impoffible to hold out the Place *, de- 
claring, that for his Part he would throw himfelf on 
the French, Accordingly he went to the Governour, 
and defir'd Leave To to, do ^ but being threatned to 
be fhot to Death, in cafe hs attempted it, he was 
at laft perfwaded to return to his Poll. 

The EngliJI) fhot at the French as long as they 
appear'd in the Brujhes^ and forc'd them to 
retire under the Banks, where the Guns from the 
Fort could not hit them. The French fhot only at 
the Englijh with fmall Shot, as any of them ap- 
peared upon the Flankers. When they had retir'd 
under the Banks, they fet to work to entrench them- 
felves, and call up a great Bank of Earth, which 
cover'd them fo, that the Englijh could do no Execu- 
tion upon them. 

The Governour all this while imagin'd, tlic Ene- 
my was only raifmg a Bank to fecure themfelves 
from the Shot of the Fort: But afterv^rrds he per- 
ceived they were preparing a Battery *, and then he 
commanded the Guns of the Fort to fire upon 
them incelTantly, which however did them no 

Frederic Johnfon^ who officiated as Gunner, on 
T^urner^s refufing to a£^, advis'd Mr. 5^rgf^K^ not to , 
ihoot away the Remainder of the great Shot in the 
Fort, there being not above a Round more •, and he 
fappos'd the Fre?7ch muft have brought their Guns 
by Water •, if fo, he hop'd to fink their Boats ^ 
which would have done more Service, than firing 
upon their Entrenchments. But the French h^id found 
a Way to bring their great Guns thro' the Woods, 
and had planted them on their Battery before the 
EngliJ/j faw them. 

The Governour fent out Francis Cave and John . 
Michem-i to fee if they could obferve the Pollure of 
their Enemies ^ and the Spies brought Word, 
that they had finiili'd their Battery^ and mounted 
their Gunsj which they faw them load This 

The Hifiory of Hudfon'^-Bay- 407 

This fo dilheartned the People, that aflembling 
themfelves together, they agreed to depute the moil 
confiderable among them to go to the Governour, 
and in all their Names prefs him to make the beft 
Te-rms he could, and furrender the Fort. Accord- 
ingly Edv^ard Coksy Philip Scovelly Hugh Mitchell 
William A^rington^ William Holder ^ John Stephens^ 
and others, came to Mr. Sergeantj and declared, they 
would ftand by him no longer v ailed ging, 'twas ir* 
vain to thmk they fhould be able to hold out. They 
added. If any of them fhould loofe a Leg or an 
Arm, or be kill'd, they had Reafon to doubt, whe- 
ther the Company ^oold take Care of them, their 
Wives, or Children, inftancing the Cafe of oneG>/f- 
burn ^ wherefore they demanded of him to capitu- 

In the mean time the French fir'd upo|i the Flan- 
kers'j md thQ Englifij whatever the Governour com- 
manded them to the contrary, abandoned their Pofts* 
He refus'd to beat a Parley, and threatned thofe that 
would not do their Duty. 

The Enemy's Shot had made a Breach in the 
Flankers *, and damag'd the Houfes in the Fort. Up- 
on which, and the repeated Deiires of the Men, who 
faid, The Tear would be fo far fpent^ that they could 
not hope to get home^ hut muji he jiarv^d if the FaEiory 
fiould he taken^ faQ Governour confented to a Parley ^ 
Mr. Bridger affuring him the Enemy were Mining 
them, and they fhould certainly be blown up : Cap. 
Outlaw alfo agreed to capitulate, and the white Flag 
was hung out After which a Treaty was concluded, 
and is as folio ws«, 


A R T I" 

4o8 The Hijlory ^/Hiidfon'^ Bay. 

ARTICLES agreed upon be- 
tween the Chevalier de TroyeSj 
Commander in Chief of the De- 
tatchment of the North-Wefiy for the 
French Company at Canada ; and 
Henry Sergeant^ Efq; Governour 
for the Englijh Company of Hud^ 
fons-Bajj July id. 1686. 

Imprimis. TT is agreed upon to deliver up the Fortj 
-^ together with all the Goods belongitig to 
the [aid Company, which are to he fchedul'd for the 
mutual clearing of us the fore-nam^d^ and Satisfa^ion 
of all Parties, 

IL That all the Company V Servants at Albany River 
Jhall enjoy all Wearing Apparel belonging to them-^ 

III. That the aforejaid Henry Sergeant, Eff^ Go- 
vernour ^ Jhall enjoy and pojfefs all that belongs to him- 
felf'j and that his A^inifier, his three Men Servants 

and Maid Servant^ fl}cdl conjiamly be permitted to rr- 
mainwith him^ and attend him. 

IV. That the Chevalier de Troyes Jhall con'wey aX 
the CompanyV Servants to Charlton J/land^ there to 
expeB Er)g\i{h Ships for their Tranfportation^ and if 
Engliih Shipi ftjould not arrive^ then the afore/aid 
Chevalier de Troyes is to ajjljl them with what Fef-^ 
J'els the Country affords^ for their Conveyance into Eng- 

V. That the faid Chevalier de Troyes Jhall d§^ 
liver to the faid Henry Sergeant, Efq'j Governour^ 
er to his Store- houfe-Keepery fuch Frovijms as Jhall 

The Hijlory of HudfonV Bay. 409 

he thought fitting and necefary to carry them for Eng- 
land, if no Ships come from thence^ and in the mean 
time give them fuch Sujlenance as ft^all be fujjicient for 

VI. That all the Store-hopfes fhall he locked up, and th$ 
Keys deliver d to the faid Chevalier de Troyes'j Lieu- 
tenant \ that nothing may be in the faid Storehoufes em* 
hezz^ledj tiU the Account be taken, according to the Firjt 

Laftly, 77?^/^ the Governmr and all the Company* i 
Servants at Albany River, Jhall come out of the Fort, and 
deliver it up to tyjefaid Chevalier de Troyes *, all Men j 
the Governour and his Son excepted, being without 
Arms, which is to be' forthwith. 

Accordingly the Fort was furrender'd, but xh^French 
made no Scruple to break fo much of the Articles as 
they could getany thing by ^ for they plunder'd Mr. 
Sergeant of all his Goods, and fent him and his Fa- 
mily away in a Very ordinary Bark, ill fupply*d 
with Provifions : Such is the Honour of that Na- 

The Company, notwithftanding it appears very 
plain by the above-mention'd Account, which was 
fworn to hofovQ Samuel Keck, Efq^ a Mailer in Chan- 
€ery, that the Governour did all he could to defend 
the Fort, us*d him at his Return to England as 
barbaroufly almoft as the French had done ', but 
his Majefty was pleas'd to take him into his Ser- 
vice, which was the beft Juftiftcation of his Con- 

At this time, Thomas' Phps, Efq-, was Gover- 
nour of Port Nelfon, which was not then taken ^^^P^^^ 
by the French', and the Company expeaed Fort^^'p^^ 
Albany would have been reftor'd to them in King^^;^;^^^ . 
James's tim^i but all their Sollicitations were in vain, p^^, ^^(^ 
and all the Settlements they had, Port Neljon ex-fon. 
cepted, were abandoned to the French. King 
William, in his Declaration of War againil the French 
King, takes this particular Notice ofde Troyes's inva- 
ding Hudfon's-Bay, and deftroying th^Englifi Fafto- 
tm there, as the Frmh had done in other Places. 

Ee ^«f 

410 The Hiftory of Hudfon'j Bay. 

But that the French King fljould invade our Cha- 
ribbee-Iflands, and poffefs himfelf of our Territories 
of the Province of New- York, and HudfonVBay, 
in a hoflile manner^ our FortSy burning our 
SuhjeEis Ships^ and enriching his People with the Spoil 
of their Goods and MerchandizLes^ detaining fome of 
eur SuhjeBs under the Hardjhip of Imprifonment^ cau-^ 
fing others to he inhumanly kiWd^ and driving the refi , 
to Sea in a fmall f^effelj are ABions not becoming even 
an Enemy ^ and yet he was fo far from declaring himjelf 
foy that at that very time he was negotiating here in 
England by his Minijiers a Treaty of Neutrality and 
good Correfpondence in America. Such was King 
William's Judgment of his Fraud and Violence, 
which his Predeceffor, with an unparalkrd Compla- 
cency, excus'd. 

The War breaking out, as has been faid, between 

the two Nations, the Hukfonb-Biy Company foliici- 

ted for Soldiers to be fent thither to rvxover iheir 

Settlements j and in the Year k^ps- the / retook all 

the Forts and Faftories, which the French had 

taken from them in time of Peace. 

folio ^^ which 'Expedition they met with no -^^ : 

k-i^'^ht, Difficulties than the Chevalier de T'-yes m:: t 

^Jh ^'^' with. Cap. Orinnington was tP.^ Perioa employed 

vmiom' i?/ for- this Service -, and John Knight^ Efq; was appoint^ 

fort Al- ^d Governour of Fort Albany t But his Goverrnient 

^^y« was of no long Continaanee ^ for in a littk time the 

French lent fich a Power againft th.t Englifh^ that 

they again drove them from all their Settlements 

in the Bottom of the Bay. 

The French Company made Monfieur de la 
Fores Governour of Fort Albanyy and garriibn'd 
all the Forts they had taken -^ which made it ne- 
ceiTary for the Government to fend a ftronger 
Power than the Company could raife to recovei? 
them. ■ 

The King of Englandy to prote£t their Trade,^ 
affign^d them two Men of .War for their Ser- 
vice, in the Year 16^6. as the Bonaventurey Cap. 
Allen Commander, and the Seaford, 

Cap. Allen J coming into the River Hayes ^ fent 
to fummon ail t'at Forts to furrender *, and the 
French Governour finding }is could not defend 


The Hiftory of HudfonV Bay. 4^^ 

them againft the Englijh, capitulated, and on the 
^d of Augufl:^ 1696. {urrendtY'd Albany Fort, upoa 
certain Articles , the Chief of which were, That 
iill thofe in the Fortj as well French as Indians, and 
cne Englilhman, the Governours Servant^ Jhould 
have their Lives and Liberties^ and that no Harm 
er J^iolence Jhould be done to their PerfonSy or any 
thing that belong d to them j That they Jhould march 
out with their Arms^ Drums beating^ Colours flyi'i^gj 
Match lighted at both ends^ Ball in Mouthy and 
carry with them the two Guns they brought from 
France ^ That they Jhould all embark with their Cloaths 
and Goodsy without b^ing vijited or pillag'd in any 
thing *, and if they met with any French F'ejfels, 
there JJjould be a Truce between the Englifh' and 
them y and the faid French Vejfels fijould be per- 
mitted to take aboard the Verfons that came out of 
the faid Fort, with all that belonged to them. Thefe 
Conditions were a little too honourable to grant, 
but not to be com ply 'd with. 

Cap. Allen took the Governour, and Ibme of 
his Men, aboard his own Ship ^ fome he put a- 
board the Seaford, and the reft aboard a Merchant- 
Man, caird the Bering, 

In his Return, he fought the Mary Rofe Frigat, 
then a French Privateer of 50 Guns, and was kilfd 
in the Engagement, which gave the Frenchman an 
Opportunity to bear away. . 

As to the other two Forts, they follow'd the Fate 
of Albany^ and Mr. Knight was reftor'd to his Go- 
vernment At which time, John Geyer^ Efq*, was John 
Governour of Port Nelfon, Mr. Knight had ferv'd Geyer, 
Mr. Sergeant v^hxlQ he was Governour of Fort ^/^^//y, J5/*^; G<h 
and was well acquainted with the Trade. vermur of 

In the Year 15-^7. the Hampjhire Frigat, and ■Po'-^ Nei- 
Owners Love Fire-fhip, two or the King's Ships, ^^"* 
were loft in this Bay, and all the Men drowned. 
Indeed the Ice renders it fo dangerous, that the 
Commerce feems not to be worth the Risk that 
is ran for it. Whether thofe two Ships ran a- 
gainft thofe frozen Mountains that float in that 
Sea, or foander'd, is not known *, but 'tis cer- 
tain, they were loft, and that all the Men pe- 


41 2 The Hifiorj of Hudfonl< Bay. 

The Trade to this Bay has decreasd, ever fince 
the ufe of Beavers has fallen off in England, Peltrtf 
is not now the Commodity it was, and this Com- 
pany of Confequence does not make the Figure they 
did 13 or 14 Years ago. 

In the prefent War, they loft Port Nelfon to the 
French , and have either given up, or deferted all 
their Settlements, except Fort Albany *, where Mr. 
Knight manag'd their Affairs, till the Year 170^. 
when he was fucceeded by 

John Fullermj Efq*, the prefent Governour at 
Albany River. 

T/?e End of the FirJ^ Volume.